Royal institute of management, semtokha


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Since the main objective of the study is to find influence of co-curricular activities on social adjustment of students, the descriptive correlation research design will be employed. The purpose of using this design is to identify the relationship which exists between the variables (Co-curricular activities and social adjustment). The research will begin with qualitative focus group for explanatory purposes, followed by quantitative survey method. The research will be carried out using self structured questionnaire consisting of twenty nine items.


For the purpose of this research, self-constructed questionnaire will be used. Using the operational definition of social adjustment and interpersonal skills I generated a total of twenty nine questions which respondents are expected to answer on the five point likert scale. Question were formed based on each component of interpersonal skill, that is, each component consist of three question with inclusion of question related the social adjustability incurred due to development of interpersonal skills. For, instance, a sample item under assertiveness will be “openly expressing your view in a group discussion”, “Initiate a discussion without other prompting you” and “use of imagination and creative thinking to get new ideas”. Similarly, items under oral communication will include “clarity of words when you speak”, “impact of your words on audience”, “choice of word and delivery mode after you become receptive of audiences behavior”. Such questions are placed on five point likertscale ranging from 1 – (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). These questions will be reviewed along with five questions based on participation in various co-curricular activities.


The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to find out the relationship between co-curricular activities (measured by different school activities) and social adjustment (measured by interpersonal skills). The Pearson correlation coefficient will range from - 0.1 to + 0.1 which will indicate different linear relationship. For, the purpose of this research, the coefficient value near to -0.1 will indicate negative relationship and coefficient value near +0.1 will indicate positive relationship. Survey based descriptive correlation study will be used where respondents will answer to rating scale question. They will be asked to respond by selecting a numerical value on predetermined scale.


As the objective of the study was to determine the relationship between co-curricular activities and social adjustment of students of Thimphu Thromde Schools, the study employed proportional stratified sampling method where a number of elements allocated to the various strata were proportional to the representation of the strata in the target population.

The study was restricted only to high schools within Thimphu Thromde and the sample was derived focusing only on students in class eleven and twelve. Undertaking every school with these classes in Thimphu was not possible within the limited time frame.

There are six high schools in Thimphu, four private and two public schools. The schools were further stratified by taking only three schools, two private and one public. The rationale for choosing this school was; the presence of same type of co-curricular activities for the students.

Table 1: High schools for sampling

Sl. No

School name





Rinchen HSS





Motithang HSS





Pelkhil HSS






A sample size of three hundred thirty eight was used which has been determined using McCallum Layton stats online calculator (McCalum Layton, 2015). The rationale behind using this calculator was, it determines the minimum number of people that need to be interviewed in order to obtain results that represent the target population to an acceptable level of accuracy.

Total population: 2755
Confidence level: 95%
Confidence Interval: 5
Sample size: 338
The sample was then divided among the stratum of three schools using stratified sampling in which the items were taken from each stratum in proportion of the units to the total population of that stratum (Stratified sampling calculator, n.d). By doing so, the number of people to be surveyed was proportion to the total number of people in each school is generated as follows:

Pelkhil HSS: 85

Motithang HSS: 155

Rinchen HSS: 98
Sample size: 338


  • The entire questionnaire will be divided into two sections. The first section was based on their participation in activities and the second section of the questionnaire was based on interpersonal social adjustment. Each respondent was asked to mark their level of interpersonal skill on a five point likert scale.

Table 2: Norms for interpretation of their skills


Score range



Strongly agree








Strongly disagree


There are number of limitation in this study which can be dealt with in future studies. The generalization of result is not feasible because the present study is delimited only to three schools of Thimphu Thromde, within a limited range grade of class eleven and twelve due to limited time frame. The study is also limited only on one attribute of student (interpersonal skills) to determine their social adjustment, although there is relationship between other attributes like (confidence, decision making, etc) and social adjustment.

The study represented only social adjustment of student as a result of participating in co-curricular activities and hence, this study excluded the influence of co-curricular activities on emotional adjustment, physiological adjustment and academic adjustment which is found equally important. One of the major limitations of the study is that the study was limited only to two variables: co-curricular activities and social adjustment.

The present study reviewed fewer Bhutanese literatures, and the contexts drawn are from reviews of external countries, hence its application in Bhutan will be questionable. Further availability of Co-curricular activities may differ in different schools in different part of the country. Therefore, conclusion drawn from this study cannot be generalized. There could also be bias in filling up the questionnaire; some might not have been honest while rating themselves.


  • Approval from the institute and the school concerned to carry out the research was obtained.

  • The researcher assured the respondents that study will be strictly for academic purpose and their confidentiality will be guaranteed. The data collected was hence anonymously coded.

  • The researcher reported only on the research findings and no personal conclusion was made.

  • The data sources were acknowledged with in-text citation and the end text referencing.

  • Help provided by various group and individual for the completion of this research has been properly acknowledged.

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