Royal institute of management, semtokha

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Education in Bhutan has played a dynamic role in over all development of the nation. The Bhutan’s Vision 2020 also asserts importance for a holistic education that would eventually prepare student to face the global challenges. Therefore the quality of education was examined and consequently, the need for education reforms were identified through Ministry of Education, Royal Education council, Bhutan Council for school Examination and Assessment and other independent bodies [edu14]. In this line, there are several initiatives undertaken by Royal Government of Bhutan to create an education system which can offer variety of activities to owe to the changing demands of changing world. Initiative include: Incorporating co-curricular activities in school curriculum, introduction of New Approach to Primary Education (NAPE), infusion of GNH based education, research on National Education Frame Work and inscription of Bhutan Education Blue prints, to mention, but a few. Hence, not only Research of curriculum development for primary and secondary school was undertaken but several studies were conducted on GNH infused curriculum as an ultimate answer for skill development in students to face the changing environment. There is, however, a very limited or not easily available research which addresses co-curricular activities separately as an indicator for development for skills needed to be socially adjusted to the modern world.

National Education Framework 2012 and Bhutan Education Blue Prints highlighted on need of communication or interpersonal skills as one of the profile for ideal Bhutanese citizen to cater to the needs of the modern world [The12]. They; however, did not provide a concrete setting on how interpersonal skills can cater to changing need of an individual and world at large. Nonetheless, there are several related western literatures like how participating in co-curricular activities effects academic performance, college life adjustment, development in personal attributes of student to mention but, few. To contrary, some people are of the opinion that it is sheer wastage of time and hampers the overall academic performance. (Suleman et al., 2014) for example conducted a research on effects of over scheduled involvement in co-curricular activities on academic performance and his finding suggested that over involvement brought lower academic performance. Aside few mentioned above, there are very few on use of co-curricular activities as indicator for interpersonal skills which measures social adjustment.

In global context, involvement in co-curricular activities influences various attributes of students and among which is interpersonal skills that encompasses various other skills. According to book ‘skilled interpersonal communication’ interpersonal skill is measured by twelve sub skills, namely non verbal, questioning, rewarding, facilitating, reflecting, assertiveness, explaining, negotiating, influence and persuasion, self disclosure, group interaction, set induction. In much similar tone, (Suleman et al., 2014) measured interpersonal skills with self-awareness and oral communication, others remaining same. For the purpose of this research, I employed listening, self awareness, questioning, oral communication, facial expression, assertiveness, reflecting and facilitating skill to measure interpersonal skills.

Omission of other variables does not mean they are less important. The underlying rationale is, the selected variables are attributes that has blend of both communication and relationship building traits and they are most essential in Bhutanese context in light of the challenges that we are facing. One of the pertinent issues in Bhutan is youth unemployment which is the root cause of many social crimes and maladjustment. According to report by Chua (2008), the cause of employment was not lack of education but quality of education which failed to equip students with required skills. She concluded that the current scenario of employment demands communication skills. There are also research by (Boone et al., 1988) done in other countries which emphasis the need for communication skills to increase employability. This gives us a crafted image of relationship between communication skills and employability; however, apart from studying need to develop communication skills in student, no research has dealt with how it have lead to social adjustment. Thus, this paper aims to study the participation in co-curricular activities and its influence on social adjustment by exploring specifics communication skills.


  • Is there a significant relationship between participation in co-curricular activities and social adjustment of students?


  1. To determine the relationship between co-curricular activities and the social adjustment of secondary school students of Thimphu.


  • This study will help teachers, student and parents to realize the overall impact of participation in co-curricular activities and can enable them to make better and wiser decision in future for creating holistic learning environment for their children and students.

  • This study will identify the strength and relationship to explore influence of co-curricular activities on social adjustment of students with interpersonal skills as a mediating indicator which can open a new avenue for future studies with different variables if the one I mentioned are not significantly related.

  • If the study identifies a significant relationship among the variables, Education policy of Bhutan can not only include such extra-curricular activities for better learning outcomes but can also do away with extra–curricular activities which does not indicate overarching results.

  • Our schools are not fully equipped with facilities, resources and infrastructure need to provide a whole some education. This study can help our government realize the need of quality of education and hence can help them make wiser decision in budget allocation to the ministries.

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