Questions written and edited by Hunter College High School (Mehnaj Ahmed, Lily Chen, York Chen, William Dou, Matthew Gurevitch, Willie Ha, Paul Moschetti, Charles Pan, Shoshana Schoenfeld, David Xu, Marianna Zhang, Zihan Zheng), George Berry, Ben Cohen, Charlie Dees, Ian Eppler, Auroni Gupta, Guy Tabachnick, and Maggie Tse Round 7 – Tossups 1. This text's 24th chapter proscribes the punishment for zina and tells of a niche containing a lamp lit from the oil of a blessed olive tree. Verse 255 of its second chapter discusses a "Kursî," or throne, while another part tells of the Isra and Mi'raj, or the "night journey." Its ninth chapter contains the sword verse and is notable for not starting with the Bismillah. Beginning with Al-Fatiha and ending with An-Nas, the Hadith supplements its interpretation. Containing 114 suras, Jibril revealed it to Muhammad. For 10 points, name this sacred text of Islam.
ANSWER: al-Qur'an [prompt on suras]
2. The PEN model of this construct was developed by Hans Eysenck, while another man's lexical approach included cardinal, central, and secondary levels. The subject of a Gordon Allport work, a common test of it is the MMPI. Described in terms of the "Big Five" factors, this concept is measured on four dichotomies by the Myers-Briggs indicator. Impatient and over-achieving individuals are said to have one of Type A, and introversion and extroversion are among its traits. For 10 points, give this term for an individual's characteristic way of thinking, feeling, and behaving.
ANSWER: personality traits or types 3. During this nation's violent Patria Boba period, the Centralists fought against the Federalists. Further periods of violence occurred during the Thousand Days War, the 19th of April Movement, and La Violencia. The Congress of Angostura resulted in this nation's unification with several of its neighbors, but that broke up in 1830. Gaining its independence after Bolivar's victory at Boyaca, the US intervened in this nation to build the Panama Canal. The center of the Viceroyalty of New Granada was in this nation notorious for its drug trade. For 10 points, name this South American nation with capital Bogota.
ANSWER: Republic of Colombia
4. The October 6 Bridge spans this river, whose basin includes the Rurubu and Kagera Rivers. It takes a sharp turn near Qena after flowing to Armant. The Angereb River is one of its sources. One of its tributaries crosses through the Sudd wetlands. This river has six cataracts and two colorfully-named tributaries, "white" and "blue," and flows northward. Its yearly inundations stopped with the 1970 completion of the Aswan High Dam. Originating in Lake Victoria, it is the longest in the world. For 10 points, name this river that flows through Sudan and Egypt.
ANSWER: Nile River
5. Negri bodies are a clear indication of this disease, which has been treated by inducing coma in the Milwaukee protocol. After an eclipse phase, the virus is transported via retrograde axoplasmic flow to the central nervous system. Caused by a bullet-shaped rhabdovirus, its symptoms include encephalopathy, paralysis, hypersalivation, and hydrophobia. A vaccine against it was first developed by Louis Pasteur. It is transmitted through saliva and bites, and causes foaming at the mouth. For 10 points, name this disease that causes the aggressive behavior of "mad dogs."
ANSWER: rabies 6. This author wrote a short story, found in Roads of Destiny, about an ex-criminal, Jimmy Valentine, who opens a safe to rescue a child. Soapy tries in vain to be arrested to spend the cold winter in jail in this author's "The Cop and the Anthem." Author of the collection The Four Million, he wrote about convicts who pay Ebenezer Dorset $250 to get rid of the title character in "The Ransom of Red Chief." For 10 points, name this author of a short story about a poor couple who exchange Christmas presents in "The Gift of the Magi."
ANSWER: O. Henry [accept William Sydney Porter]
7. This opera's final act begins with sailors singing "Oh eh! Oh eh!," followed by the song "Gia il sole!" when the male lead arrives. In Act I, the male lead sings "Amore o grillo," telling of his first encounter with the title character, who later fantasizes about her husband's return "when the robin makes his nest" in the aria "Un bel dì." Kate is introduced to the title character by Sharpless, after which the title character blindfolds her son Dolore and kills herself. For 10 points, name this opera about Pinkerton's doomed marriage with Cio-Cio San, written by Giacomo Puccini.
ANSWER: Madama Butterfly or Madame Butterfly 8. This man took over as Secretary of State after Abel Upshur was killed in an explosion, and as Secretary of War, he called for Andrew Jackson to be censured for invading Spanish Florida. This politician’s wife, Floride, was chief among those to shun Peggy Eaton in the Petticoat Affair, which, along with a break over his president’s support of the Tariff of Abominations, led to this man’s replacement as vice president. In his essay “South Carolina Exposition and Protest”, he advanced the doctrine of nullification. For 10 points, name this South Carolina senator, and vice president to both John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson.
ANSWER: John Calhoun
9. This author wrote about the Detective force feeding Choubert stale bread to jog his memory, in Victims of Duty. The title family brings in several incarnations of Roberta, each with a different number of noses, in this author's Jack, or the Submission. He wrote several plays featuring Berenger. In one of his plays, the title event ends with the Professor stabbing the Pupil with an imaginary knife, and in another an old couple arranges the title objects for a speech. In addition to The Lesson and The Chairs, for 10 points name this Absurdist Romanian playwright of The Bald Soprano.
ANSWER: Eugene Ionesco 10. These compounds are formed from beta-halo-ethers in the Boord synthesis. Grubbs catalysts facilitate a reaction used for ring closure, their metathesis. Ones with hydroxyl groups are called enols. Hydroboration reactions violate a rule regarding their protonation, Markovnikoff's rule, and they are produced from an aldehyde and a phosphonium ylide [“ILL-ide”] in the Wittig reaction. With cis and trans isomers, the simplest one is C2H4, or ethylene. They are unsaturated, unlike alkanes. For 10 points, name these organic compounds with carbon-carbon double bonds.
ANSWER: alkenes or olefins [do not accept "alkane" or "alkyne"]
11. In the 1960s, this nation saw a film craze known as "Sword and Sandal." Paisà is part of a film trilogy from this country, which begins with [its capital], Open City. In one film from this country, a poor man is forced to steal a bike after his own is stolen by the title Bicycle Thief. Another is titled after the number of films its director had made by then, 8½. Films from this country include Umberto D., as well as A Fistful of Dollars and other Spaghetti Westerns. For 10 points, name this home country of film directors Michelangelo Antonioni and Federico Fellini.
ANSWER: Italy 12. This figure came from Thessaly and married Camese, but later married the mother of Fontus, Juturna. He chased after the nymph Carna, and fathered a god who drowned in the Tiber, giving it its name. Ruling Latium during the Golden Age, he sheltered Saturn from Jupiter. This god prevented an invasion of the Sabines by flooding the gates, so in times of war, his temple doors were kept open. He was the god of doorways, beginnings, and ends. For 10 points, name this Roman god with two faces, the namesake of the first month of the year.
ANSWER: Janus 13. This man became minister-president after the king threatened to abdicate, and gained Schleswig following Denmark's defeat. He chose not to demand territory after a stunning victory at Sadowa, and forged a message to Napoleon III that started a war with France, the Ems Dispatch. He tried to eliminate the Catholic Church from its position of political power through his Kulturkampf. This man was forced out of power after the the coronation of King Wilhelm II. For 10 points, name this Iron Chancellor of Prussia who created a unified Germany.
ANSWER: Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck
14. One pitcher with this surname picked off 3 baserunners in one inning. Another player with this surname was nicknamed "El Presidente" and pitched a perfect game against the Dodgers in 1991. One player with this surname is the namesake of the award given to the top designated hitter in baseball, and along with pitchers Tippy and Dennis, this is the surname of a pitcher who won three Cy Youngs for the Expos and Red Sox, and recently pitched for the Mets and Phillies. For 10 points, give this surname shared by Edgar, Tino, and Pedro.
ANSWER:ClassicalLatin 16. With Élie Cartan, this scientist extended a more famous theory of his to allow modeling of spin-orbit coupling. Mobility and diffusivity appear in an equation he developed with Smoluchowski. The Gross-Pitaevski equation describes a state of matter named for this man and Satyendra Bose, and he posited the existence of hidden variables along with Podolsky and Rosen. His field equations describe gravity as a result of matter distorting spacetime. For 10 points, name this formulator of special and general relativity, as well as the equation E = mc squared.
ANSWER: Albert Einstein 17. Théodore Géricault painted one of these creatures Frightened by Lightning, and Franz Marc painted some blue ones. A snake appears in the bottom of Albert Pinkham Ryder's painting of Death on a Pale [one of these]. Four of them are shown in another Géricault painting, The Epsom Derby, and one is depicted in visible agony in Picasso's Guernica. A white one is shown with a man wearing a blue cape in a Wassily Kandinsky painting, and Henry Fuseli included a black one in The Nightmare. For 10 points, name these animals that appear in equestrian statues.
ANSWER: horses [prompt on "people riding horses" or equivalents] 18. This man was unable to participate in the invasion of Normandy because earlier he had slapped a weeping soldier and called him a coward. He led a fictitious “First Army” Group that was intended to mislead the Germans as to where D-Day would happen. He led the Third Army during Operation Torch, and led the U.S. Seventh Army into Palermo during a campaign to liberate Sicily. He commanded his army to defend the town of Bastogne during the Battle of the Bulge. For 10 points, name this WWII general nicknamed "Old Blood and Guts."
ANSWER: George Smith Patton III
19. The Gram-Schmidt process applies a series of projections to these objects. A certain operation on three of these gives the volume of a parallelepiped. One operation on these objects is anti-commutative, and two of these are orthogonal if another operation yields zero; those operations are the cross and dot products. Sometimes written as a one-column matrix, the sum of two of these can be represented as the diagonal of a parallelogram. Contrasted with scalars, for 10 points, name these mathematical objects that have both magnitude and direction.
ANSWER: vectors [accept vector quantities, do not accept "vector fields"]
20. One title character in this man's "Trilogy" is unsure whether he's in a hospital or asylum, and writes about Sapo, later renamed Macmann. In addition to
Malone Dies, this man wrote of a character who likes bananas and listens to self-narrated recordings of his life. This author also wrote a play where Nagg and Nell are kept in ashbins and Clov hits Hamm on the head with a dog. Along with Krapp's Last Tape and Endgame, another play includes Pozzo and Lucky, who encounter Didi and Gogo. For 10 points name this author of Waiting for Godot.
ANSWER: Samuel Beckett
TB. One reaction of this type uses mCPBA, which converts ketones to esters; that reaction is named after Baeyer and Villiger. This type of process removes silicon and carbon impurities from iron in the Bessemer process. Manganate(VII) and hydrogen peroxide are examples of this process's namesake "agents," because they accept electrons, causing this process to occur to another substance. Half-reactions describing this process include electrons on the right-hand side. It is defined as the loss of electrons or an increase in its namesake number. For 10 points, name this process paired with reduction in redox reactions.
ANSWER: oxidation [accept word forms; prompt on redox or reduction-oxidation reactions]
Round 7 – Bonuses 1. He was parodied as Dr. Pangloss in Voltaire's Candide. For 10 points each:
 Name this German philosopher who wrote Monadology and claimed that we live in the best of all possible words in his Theodicée.
ANSWER: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz  In New Essays on Human Understanding, Leibniz gave a chapter-by-chapter rebuttal of An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, a work by this author of Two Treatises of Government.
ANSWER: John Locke  Leibniz wrote a Discourse on [this concept], a branch of philosophy that attempts to understand the fundamental nature of reality.
ANSWER: metaphysics 2. Name these things about conflict in Vietnam, for 10 points each:
 This battle saw the overrunning of the French military positions around a central airstrip, and was the decisive battle of the First Indochina War, forcing the French to sign the Geneva Accords.
ANSWER: Battle of Dien Bien Phu
 The U.S., obsessed over the domino effect, found a good excuse for declaring war after this ship was supposedly attacked by missiles along with the USS Turner Joy.
ANSWER: USS Maddox
 The U.S. would also retreat following this Viet Cong offensive on the Vietnamese lunar new year. Despite being a military failure for North Vietnam, it was an immense propaganda victory.
ANSWER: Tet Offensive or General Offensive and Uprising 3. Answer the following about an author and his works, for 10 points each:
 In this novel, Harry Haller stabs Hermine after seeing her with Pablo at the Magic Theater.
 This author of Steppenwolf and Siddhartha wrote about Joseph Knecht watching mathematics and art develop in Castalia in his The Glass Bead Game.
ANSWER: Hermann Hesse  This Hesse novel tells of the protagonist Emil Sinclair, who finds guidance in the title character and his mother Frau Eva, who seems distinctly both masculine and feminine.
ANSWER: Demian 4. Answer some questions New Zealand's musicians, for 10 points each:
 Born in England to parents from New Zealand, she was nominated for a Grammy for the song "Unwritten". Her other songs include "Soulmate", from the album "Pocketful of Sunshine".
ANSWER: Natasha Bedingfield
 Having moved to Australia at a young age, this country musician is known for songs like "Somebody Like You" and albums like "Be Here" and "Defying Gravity."
ANSWER: Keith Urban
 This is New Zealand's fourth most popular folk duo, made up of Jemaine Clement and Bret McKenzie. Their HBO series features Rhys Darby playing Murray Hewitt.
ANSWER: Flight of the Conchords[accept FoTC] 5. Answer the following about chemical industrial processes, for 10 points each:
 Aluminum and sodium are produced in the Hall-Héroult and Castner processes by this method, the use of electrical current to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous reaction.
ANSWER: electrolysis  The Haber-Bosch process produces this compound from nitrogen and hydrogen, using an iron oxide catalyst. It is commonly used in fertilizers and cleaners.
ANSWER: ammonia or NH3  Ammonia is oxidized to form nitrogen dioxide, which is dissolved in water to form nitric acid, in this process named for a German chemist.
ANSWER: Ostwald process
6. Its outer grisaille shows the creation of the world, while its central panel shows camels, bears, and other creatures around a central pool. For 10 points each:
 Name this altarpiece showing Eden, Earth, and Hell, respectively, on its three panels.
ANSWER: The Garden of Earthly Delights [or The Millenium]
 This creator of The Garden of Earthly Delights also painted The Cure of Folly and The Marriage Feast at Cana. ANSWER: Hieronymous Bosch  This Bosch painting shows the title vessel flying a pink flag with a Muslim crescent, in which sit a monk and a nun playing a lute.
ANSWER: The Ship of Fools 7. Answer the following about Swedish history, for 10 points each:
 This king of Sweden fought at the battles of Brientenfeld and Lutzen, at the start of the Thirty Years' War.
ANSWER: Gustavus Adolphus II or Gustavus the Great  This entity united Denmark, Norway, and Sweden under the personal rule of a single monarch. It was created when Margaret of Norway was succeeded by Eric of Pomerania.
ANSWER: Kalmar Union
 This Swedish king took power after his father Erik Johansson was killed in the Stockholm Bloodbath. He oversaw Swedish secession from the Kalmar Union.
ANSWER: Gustav I or Gustav Vasa
8. Hey, Richard Dawkins, listen to this—for 10 points each:
 This argument for the existence of God uses probability theory to determine that one has everything to gain and nothing to lose by believing in God.
ANSWER: Pascal's Wager [accept clear knowledge equivalents]
 This argument proposed by St. Anselm reasons that since God is the greatest thing that can ever be conceived, God must exist in understanding as well as reality.
ANSWER: ontological argument  This type of argument states that nature is too complex and orderly to be a result of accidental processes, so it necessitates a designer, God.
ANSWER: teleological argument or argument from design
9. In this collection, Ichabod Crane is chased by the Headless Horseman. For 10 points each:
 Name this short story collection including "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" and another where the title character sleeps 20 years in the Catskills.
ANSWER: The Sketch Bookof Geoffrey Crayon
 Name this author of The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon and "Rip Van Winkle." One character in Catch-22 signs war letters with this name.
ANSWER: Washington Irving
 In this Irving short story, not to be confused with a similarly-titled Benet work about Daniel Webster, the title nefarious being offers Captain Kidd's gold for the other title character's soul.
ANSWER: The Devil and Tom Walker 10. Answer the following about magnetism, for 10 points each:
 This form of magnetism exhibited by iron can be described by the Ising model. It displays hysterisis and breaks down above the Curie temperature.
 Like iron and nickel, this transition metal is ferromagnetic. Used to color glass and ceramics blue, its isotope number 60 is used in radiation-based cancer therapies.
ANSWER: cobalt [prompt on Co or 27]
 In this effect, a spectral line is split by a magnetic field. Analogous to the Stark effect, its strong-field version is the Paschen-Back effect.
ANSWER: Zeeman effect
11. Name these assassins, for 10 points each:
 This Serbian member of Black Hand shot the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife in Sarajevo, setting off a chain of events leading to World War I.
ANSWER: Gavrilo Princip  This mentally insane person believed himself to be responsible for the election of James Garfield, and when refused a position, he assassinated him.
ANSWER: Charles Julius Guiteau
 This man assassinated Abraham Lincoln, shooting him in Ford's Theater and promptly fleeing before being shot in a burning barn.
ANSWER: John Wilkes Booth 12. Answer some questions about geography and a certain state, for 10 points each:
 A tree floats in the middle of this lake. The lake is formed in a caldera after the collapse of Mount Mazama, and is the deepest lake in the US.
 This state home to Crater Lake National Park and John Day Fossil Beds National Park has capital Salem.
 This tallest mountain in Oregon is the fourth highest mountain of the Cascade Range. In December 2006, three climbers were killed ascending this mountain.
ANSWER: Mount Hood 13. His poetry includes "Vrindaban" and "The Pears of the Elm." For 10 points each:
 Name this author who wrote about Hanuman's trip to Galta, India in The Monkey Grammarian and wrote the essay collection "The Labyrinth of Solitude".
ANSWER: Octavio Paz
 This 584 line poem by Octavio Paz has one line for every day of the Aztec Calendar.
ANSWER: "Sunstone" or "Piedra del Sol"
 Name the home country of Paz. Other authors from this country include the author of Pedro Paramo, Juan Rulfo, and Marioan Azuela, who wrote about Demetrio Macias fighting the forces of Victoriano Huerta in The Underdogs.
ANSWER: Mexico 14. Answer these questions about the Earth's structure, for 10 points each:
 This thin outermost layer of the Earth is the upper part of the lithosphere, and lies above the mantle.
ANSWER: crust  Lying between the crust and the mantle, this boundary named after its Croatian discoverer lies mostly within the lithosphere.
ANSWER: Mohorovičić discontinuity
 The lithosphere floats on top of this low-density, ductile layer of the mantle. Seismic waves travel slowly through this structure, part of the "low-velocity zone."
ANSWER: asthenosphere 15. The Carter Doctrine was used to justify Operation Desert Shield, which preempted this war. For 10 points each:
 Name this early 1990s war triggered by Iraq's invasion of oil-rich Kuwait, which saw the execution of Operation Desert Storm.
ANSWER: First or Second or Persian Gulf War
 This man was leading commander of Gulf War coalition forces, which included the U.S., UK, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia.
ANSWER: H. Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr.
 This man was the Secretary of Defense during the Gulf War, and he visited King Fahd in the early days of the war to secure permission to stage an attack from Saudi Arabia.
ANSWER: Richard "Dick" Cheney
16. Its marginal variety diminishes with increased consumption, according to Gossen's First Law. For 10 points each:
 Give this term for the amount of satisfaction derived from consuming a good or service.
ANSWER: utility [accept things like law of diminishing marginal utility]
 This curve shows possible combinations of two goods which would give a consumer the same utility.
ANSWER: indifference curve
 For two tangential indifference curves in an Edgeworth box, the point of tangency has this property named after an Italian economist, wherein no one can be made better off without making anyone else worse off.
ANSWER: Pareto optimality or efficiency [accept word forms] 17. One character claims to have lived on "nothing a year." For 10 points each:
 Name this "novel without a hero," which sees Amelia Sedley marry William Dobbin after George Osborne's adultery is revealed.
ANSWER: Vanity Fair
 This author of Pendennis and The History of Henry Esmondwrote Vanity Fair.
ANSWER: William Makepeace Thackeray
 In Vanity Fair, this character possibly poisons Joseph Sedley who mysteriously dies after signing his money to this character as life insurance. She reveals the note George gave her in which he asks her to elope.
ANSWER: BeckySharp [accept either name] 18. Answer the following about death in Egyptian mythology, for 10 points each:
 This collection of spells and writings guided the dead to the afterlife. It was often buried with the deceased.
ANSWER: The Book of the Deador Spells of Coming Forth by Day[accept variations]
 The soul had to undergo a "weighing of the heart" against this object, a symbol of Ma'at, before being allowed into the afterlife.
ANSWER: (ostrich) featherof Truth or feather of Ma'at
 This beast, part-lion and part-hippopotamus, with a crocodile's head, would devour the heart if it was heavier than Ma'at's feather.
19. For 10 points each, answer these questions about genetics:
 This term refers to the allele makeup of an individual. It is distinct from an individual's appearance and behavior, called the phenotype.
ANSWER: genotype  This Augustinian monk studied pea plants and formulated the laws of segregation and independent assortment.
ANSWER: Gregor Mendel  This process occurs through DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling. Defined as the regulation of gene expression by non-genetic factors, it enables the differentiation of stem cells.
ANSWER: epigenetic expression [accept word forms] 20. Answer these questions about a German composer, for 10 points each:
 This man composed the piano suite Papillons, the "Spring" symphony, and an 8-movement piano work called the Kreisleriana. His wife was a pianist, Clara.
ANSWER: Robert Schumann
 Originally titled the "Easy Pieces," this set of 13 piano pieces includes "Träumerei" or "Dreaming".
ANSWER: Scenes from Childhood or Kinderszenen
 This Schumann symphony in E flat major has five movements instead of the typical four, and takes its title from a German river.
ANSWER: "Rhenish" Symphony or Symphony No. 3 TB. Answer the following about ancient Greek sculpture, for 10 points each:
 This armless Hellenistic marble depicts the Greek goddess of love, with her drapery slipping down to reveal a nude torso.
ANSWER: Venus de Milo or Aphrodite of Melos  This Greek statue found in Samothrace originally showed the title goddess with her arms outstretched with her garments rippling as if in a strong breeze, but now stands atop a staircase at the Louvre.
ANSWER: Winged Victory of Samothrace or Winged Nike of Samothrace  This Myron sculpture shows the title athlete stretching his right arm back, with his knees flexed in preparation for performing a certain action.
ANSWER: Diskobolos or The Discus Thrower