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Summer UDL Planning for Higher Education

Alie Berg

July 20, 2016

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...I have this image of you all out at the beach, sipping on lemonade, thinking about college freshman or advanced students preparing for the workforce. I know you're thinking, how can Universal Design for learning offer a framework to support you to design rich experience for all these learners. This is our topic for today. We're thrilled you're here. As we begin it finish up a few logistics, before we introduce our guests for today, I want to invite you to think about one challenge you think UDL may address for your course as you start thinking about your preparations for the fall and we invite you to participate in the conversation in the chat window that's present in the iLinc platform. We want you to think about one challenge you think UDL may address for your course. And you can contribute in the chat box or contribute to the conversation through any of CAST's social media. Mindy Johnson is our social media expert. She's in the room with us. At any point, whether during this webinar or beyond, we invite you to connect with us. You can share ideas, you can share questions, you can share the work you're doing through, we have doing plus and LinkedIn, Facebook. Twitter, YouTube. Another option that folks have begun to participate in more and more across the country and around the world is on the first and third Wednesday of the month from 9:00 to 9:30 Eastern Standard Time. If you hashtag UDL chat, you're able to have a conversation with folks across the country about UDL. We hope these conversations continue throughout the day, if you get ideas at 2:00 a.m., we hope you contribute. For those watching this webinar as a recording, this is a great opportunity to participate in this conversation. Thank you so much for joining and participating with us today.

Now, the good part. I get to introduce our guests for today. Lillian Nave Goudas is a Hubbard Fellow, Lillian, thank you so much for being with us to the.
>> Thank you so much for having me.
>> Lindsay Masland is also with us. She enjoys providing professional development to instructors on student motivation, diverse learners and doesn't this sound like UDA. Lindsay, we're hoping you're here with us. Okay, she's coming, she's coming. Both Lindsay and Lillian, thank you for the thinking you've done to help foster this conversation with us today. Our goals are really to discuss UDL strategies for planning over the summer. We really want to emphasize this over the summer piece. You haven't even met students yet. We really want to know what that can look like. We hope to brainstorm strategies for how everyone can get started. What are some things you can do. So, if you all could take a moment, those of you in the audience, those are our goals that we have. If you could share with us, your goals, what do you hope to get from this webinar? What inspired you to join us today? And just take a moment and put your ideas in the chat box. Lindsay, was that you?
>> I'm here now. Can you hear me?
>> Yes.
>> Lindsay, fantastic timing. Thank you. We just did introductions and we set out the goals for today. We're hearing from participants about their goals. Excellent. Thank you for being with us.
>> Sure.
>> Thank you all for your contributions. Feel free to keep adding them to the chat window. Lindsay and Lillian, I'm going to let you get started. This is an image that I think invokes a lot of, a lot of intrigue.
>> For sure, this is Lindsay. I'll start. That's an image I use a lot when talking about Universal Design. UDLS something I got interested in, not because I heard the term and thought "I should do that," but in courses of me trying to solve it, I came upon UDL, basically.

So, I teach a course, I was doing this five years ago when this happened. I teach a course in educational psychology for future teachers. It's a required course that all education majors have to take. And I was giving a really typical type of exam where I had to do about 15 to 20 multiple choice questions and did a short essay and that was what our exam looked like. They had 50 minutes to complete that multiple choice essay.


>> That's really resonating.

>> And...I was noticing an interesting trend about the students turning in the tests at the very last second.


>> You have the ones that were checking and rechecking again because they wanted it perfect.
>> And they didn't want to ever give it to you probably, right?
>> Yeah...
[laughter]
>> That's more or less what I saw. I saw the students who actually were getting the highest scores on the test.
>> They would hand it to me exactly when they intended to. That was one group. And the second group was students who hadn't finished half the exam. So...they had gone into the last second and looked up and went oh shoot, I still have another question to answer.
>> I was like, that's a problem because basically my test scores are being biassed by how good of a test‑taker these students are. That's not what I cared about. A masterful user of the 50 minutes or planned to step out really well in that short of time.
>> Or they can write really fast.
>> Right, all these other things. It wasn't on a computer. It was being written by hand. And so...all of a sudden I started feeling really bad. My scores were not clear measures of how much educational psychology they knew. It was part of that but also really how fast they could think and write and plan and all those things.
>> I was unintentionally throwing up a brick wall for my students and them being able to show me what they know. I was requiring them to have all these skills that I honestly didn't care about.
>> You had a clear goal in mind and really, in the moment, you were making an observation of what you were seeing and able to think about what the barriers were, what the brick wall was in front of a lot of your students to accomplish that goal.
>> Exactly.
>> I just started brainstorming, how can I get rid of the barriers that are relevant. I didn't want to get rid of all barriers, learning should be hard because you have to do the cognitive wrestling and it feels better when you get to the goal. But not hard because you're not good at writing. That's not something I was teaching.

At the same time all this happened, there was a community on Universal Design for learning on my campus. I had a colleague urge me to join it. There would be psychology people on the team. That was really the only reason. I did it as a favor, not recognizing that was going to have the answer to my problems. So...by being in that at the same time, I realized, oh, wow, like, the issue is that I had all this construct, irrelevant stuff in my assessment, if you're, those of you staff people, who won't like that terminology. There's stuff I don't care about. There can be barriers that motivate somebody. There could be barriers in what I asked them to do for homework. If I'm always only saying read the textbook, that won't work for some people. That's what UDL for me is about. Taking the stuff I'm already doing and then asking myself, what do you have to be good at to get it in this class? And making sure that everything on that list is stuff I care about. If it isn't, you have to be good at clicking them out. I'm not teaching mouse clicking, you know? You have to be thinking fast. I'm thinking how to be a good teacher. All my assessments and activities need to have to do with that and only that. That's what UDL does for me. I think it'd be good to hear from Lillian too, so I don't talk the whole time.


>> The other end, not assessment, but how did I teach and I found that I was old school. I was an art historian and loved lectures and aided up with a spoon. When I taught that way, I thought that was the way to do it. And...what I realized was not everybody learns the same way I did and not everybody thought, as I did, that every word from my mouth was like nectar from the gods.
[laughter]
>> it just didn't work. What I realized, there were other ways to get the information across. I could explain the history of a work and the repatriation of a World War II stolen artwork. Perhaps I didn't have the, the best way of explaining it and if my students broke off into small groups, or if I had really what showed it to me, I had a student, kind of rephrase it and explain it to somebody else and they got it that way. And I realized, do I have to be the one who presents the information in the way that I want to present it? In order for them to get the understanding I want them to get? And the answer was no. There needed to be a lot more ways and whether they got the information from reading the textbook or from listening to a lecture or a prerecorded lecture, like in a classroom, or in a discussion group with their peers or through watching a documentary film, it didn't matter to me how they got that information. Because some students would much rather listen and they are god note takers and they loved that. Others really need to make a connection and they're going to learn it better from their peer or in discussing it, that's going to make that connection and have it stick in their brain. So, I realized, that mono directional type of teaching worked great for me, worked great for a percentage of my students, but didn't suit all of those students in my course. That's when I started to think broadly about, I want them to get the information, learner‑centered, rather than how I wanted to present it.
>> I'm hearing a common theme, almost, between both of you. What I appreciate is that you're describing two very different moments, but you both had very clear intentions on what you wanted students to gain from that experience and you recognize, again, that brick wall is such a great image. You recognize what the brick wall was or what some of the brick wall bricks ‑‑ bricks in the wall were, and you could start to remove with some flexible options, but it didn't really necessarily mean that you had to give up the lectures that you were doing, it just meant you were going to provide little bit of flexibility, little bit of choice in there.
>> Absolutely, it's relinquishing some control and you need to be okay with that.
>> If I could just push you a little further to jump into, you've alluded to how this relates to Universal Design for learning and what you were learning in your PLCs and what some of the conversation was around some of these strategies, so I'm not sure which of you would maybe want to share how you use broadly, the UDL framework here.
>> Mm‑hmm. I'll start this time and say, everyone's looking at the slide on the screen, my story is purple. Is the first one. Representation. How does it get in their heads, providing options, right? Lots of ways that they can get the information, that's not you know, that's not just one way. Lindsay's a master at that. We'll talk about that later. How are the ways they can get to it, because there are so many options and honestly, our students in Higher Ed are vastly different than they were 20 years ago, when it was somewhat of a privileged class that was going to school for Higher Ed. We have a lot of people who learned in a lot of different ways and...we do need to serve all of our students, not just the ones who think like we do.
>> Yeah.
>> Go ahead.
>> Sure.
>> I think that's such an important point in remembering that our students are not like we are. Some of them are, those are the ones that engage for us. The most rewarding ones are the ones that are harder to get to.

In terms of connecting it to the UDL framework, like Lillian said, her example was in the purple. How does it get in their heads, the language I like to use. I think engagement is the context in which representation and expression are happening. You might do a really great job coming up with lots of ways to represent what you care about or come up with really wonderful assessments and activities, but if the students don't care about it, then they're not going to participate in your activity or assessment. So you really have to think about the engagement first. I know more recent versions lists engagement first, which is great. That's something we realize through practice, that it's all about motivating them. Some students are motivated by our grading system. That's enough to get them to achieve at high levels. A lot of them aren't and nor should they be, you know? A lot of them are much more motivated by the question of why? Why do I have to do this? Why is this relevant to me being an awesome adult? Or me getting the career I want or whatever the thing is that's motivating them. We have to realize that the thing that motivated us when we were students, might not be the thing that motivates them. So...really great way to get at that is through giving choice, choice and really engaging examples of that. Choice or all three of the columns really well.



You have to grade all the choices that people make. But I think there are ways that we can handle that, we can talk about those a little later, maybe.
>> Yeah...if I could just highlight what, what I really appreciate that you're saying is that it's not like you just do one of these columns on your own, you might be thinking about, you might be thinking about background comprehension as you're giving that lecture that you're really wanting them to understand that background. So you might be thinking specifically about the ways you're activating the background information and highlighting some of the key features. If you're not also thinking about perhaps, how to recruit interest or how they're self‑regulating, if you do those things as well, you're really going to be supporting that goal of the background comprehension or the goal of being able to achieve, achieve taking a multiple choice and short answer test to show what's in their head. You're integrating these three principles. What you're hoping students will know, do and care about in your course.
>> Can I add a whoa nelly?
>> Yes.
>> Even if you do one thing, that's fantastic. If we have folks listening for the first time and learning, they've got some idea what UDL is, trying to do all of these three is a big job. That takes a lot of effort and reordering how you do things. You don't have to do everything all at once. Maybe, next semester, you do one thing. Offering three or four different ways to prove it's in their head. Maybe the next semester, you offer a couple more ways that they're getting the information. Or visa versa. Or maybe, with the engagement, you just start to think, how is it that this stuff, that I'm teaching should matter to them in their lives. Not just so I can get into junior level chemistry because I got a B or above. Oh, but rather, that life value. Like five years from now, should they remember what they learned for a whole semester? What would it be if five years from now, they look back and they say, I'm sure glad I took that course because...it taught me X or it made a difference in my life. It did something. So, any one of those three is a great start. And yes, eventually, all three should integrate really well, but...let's start with baby steps, right?
>> Love the, calling it a whoa nelly. I love that. I want to start sharing how you fit UDL into your courses. I think you're modeling exactly what you're sharing with us. There really are some very small, concrete pieces you can start to add and do and think about over the summer here. For your fall courses. That makes it feel very tangible and doable.
>> Sure.
>> I also wanted to add onto the whoa nelly idea. UDL can be overwhelming for instructors. Once you realize you have barriers in your class, it's hard to ignore them. It's hard to stop seeing them everywhere in everything. Oh my gosh, it feels really overwhelming. I like the idea of just changing one thing at a time. This is a marathon, not a sprint. And I don't think there's ‑‑ I don't think there's a level where today, I'm a UDL instructor ‑‑ or no, today I'm not UDL, but tomorrow I am because I made this change. Here's another analogy. It's like an asymptote function where you're trying to reach the you know, UDL classroom that works for all learners and every little change you make gets you closer and closer. We're just trying to make tiny changes, we get closer and closer to that magical UDL class.
>> That's a fabulous analogy.
>> I need that one on the PowerPoint.
>> Yes.
>> Just trying to draw it, I realize, I don't know if that representation is going to make much sense.
>> Great, great. So, I guess we could talk about some concrete examples, so, the slide that you're looking at here, that's just a picture of me, Lindsay, just so you know, that's my class that is coming from. Just so you can think about things I could change in my class in the fall. One thing that Lillian and I have talked about, what are the big ideas that they must learn? Skills or habits of thinking, whatever it is you care about in your course.
>> Yeah.
>> We love to call those threshold concepts. You just can't go back. We want threshold concepts.
>> We want them to know these things.
>> Right. Absolutely.
>> Virtual concept?
>> Threshold. Yes. Now that makes so much sense, yes, you're really going for that ‑‑ perfect. My head is overwhelmed with images. Fantastic. These threshold images, these threshold content pieces you're going for with your asymptote design.
>> Good. It's a marathon.
>> We're in it for the long haul, fabulous.
>> We see pictures and metaphors here, for sure. Special concept, if you haven't heard that term before, it's a little wordy, but just the idea, that once you crossed over the threshold of knowing it, you can't unknow it. That somehow changes the way you view the world or that subject you're learning or whatever.

What are those things for your class? A lot of times when I'm doing professional development with my colleagues, that list is way too long. It's 20 things. Although we'd love for that to happen, the reality is that in five years, they're not going to remember 20 things from our class. So, we have to get real crystal clear on what are those couple things and make sure that shows up every day in everything, as much as possible. So...concrete example of how I do that, it might be on the next slide. I don't know, why don't we advance one? Let me see? Yeah, it's kind of small, but I do use PowerPoints in my class, but I don't use PowerPoints for content dissemination or for representation of so much. Giving students a framework for where we are now and where we're going. In that bottom level, the PowerPoint slides, says agenda on it, it's hard to read. I start every single ‑‑ huh?


>> Sorry, it's little. You have an agenda, right?
>> Yeah, right there. I start every single class out with an agenda. When my schedule allows, I try to get in the room before they do. When they walk in, that's what I see. I have to go back to my office and do other stuff. That's, so that is up. And it lists exactly what we're going to be doing. So that students can come in and see, okay, today, we're going to you know, do a mini lecture and then we're going to work in groups. I need to make sure I'm ready to talk about last night's stuff. Maybe I should be reviewing that. Whatever it is. It's listed. It's a simple thing, but for students, it's high anxiety. For students who have problems planning and issues with their memory, they say that is such a helpful tool. It's not hard. It's also great for me. It reminds me of the order of stuff I need to do. So, that's just a simple thing. You could start doing, you know, August 15th or whatever. That's one idea. I don't know, Lillian, do you have ‑‑
>> Yeah. Yeah, I have ‑‑ the one that I sort of fell into, but...is a really important one for me is, I teach freshmen and I teach them in a first‑year seminar to get them ready for college level work and college‑level thinking and the first concept we really get into is the construction of knowledge and how there are multiple perspectives that will go into solving or attempting to solve difficult messy problems in the world. And so...my, I come from the art history background, so, I love to borrow Louie Sullivan's threshold concept of multiple streams of information and perspectives that one has to weigh out. Not just an easy answer that I look up on Google and there, I've done it. That critical thinking has to go through a long journey of multiple streams of information. Analysis and conversation and humility in your thinking to be wrong or to be ambiguous for awhile. My classroom has very few lectures which is totally not art historical. We often will break out into small groups, in fact, this is a majority of the time that they have to chew on a particular question and they do that in a group of three. You probably have done think, pair and share. Triads or a jigsaw. You talk about something and move into a larger group. That, to me, is reinforcing every day, this concept that I'm learning from multiple streams of information. You know...somebody else's idea about a work of art is different than mine and I need to, maybe, rectify that or also understand their perspective. And so...a big thing about another threshold concept, art is multivalent. It could be lots of things. It has many meanings and be symbolic in its origin. These are kind of larger concepts, I want them to know. So, instead of me speaking from the front of the class and telling them, art is multivalent, it has many different meanings, I have to figure it out, because they've talked to three other students who looked at the same work of art and came up with completely different understandings and then we all talk about it together.

So that the form of the class is going to follow that big concept. And wants them to experience that, not just learn about it. I should probably get more than one resource, but to experience, every day, I have come upon this knowledge because I moved through various different perspectives. So that's how it works in mine, at least one way.


>> Thank you for both of those. What's exciting to hear is one, these are all resources, like you talked about PowerPoints and agendas and discussion groups. You don't have to go out and buy anything fancy and it also sounds like you're not watering down the content. You have the high level goals that you're really hoping that students wrestle with and achieve and you're giving them some different ways of experiencing it and having it be more active learning. Do you find that you're able to ‑‑ do you get behind in the amount of content that you're covering if you are, if you're providing those kinds of discussion opportunities frequently?
>> I was going to say, that's so important about not watering things down. People who don't have a lot of familiarity with UDL just look at it kind of superficially and say, oh, so you're making it easier for them. And so...they say, I bet your GPA or the average GPA in your class went way up. It should go up some, you've gotten rid of irrelevant barriers, but students shouldn't be saying it's easy. So...my favorite comment to get on student evaluations are when they say this class was so hard, but I loved it. That kind of ‑‑ you know, it was so difficult, but I never felt overwhelmed. I got something like that and thought, this is the best sweet spot we're all looking for. I don't think we want to overwhelm anyone, but we don't want to be too easy. I think UDL could be a great tool for that.

Another thing I'd like for us to talk about for a minute, I'm just watching the chat, you guys are having a really cool chat. I can't talk and type at the same time.


>> After the webinar, we'll post it. You'll have the opportunity to rewatch or relisten, but you can also participate in the chat.
>> Yeah...the discussion that was going on about five minutes ago, it's something that I frequently hear, when people are starting to dabble in UDL principles. Which is, okay, I need to offer a whole bunch of choice, but some students are really overwhelmed by choice.
>> Mm‑hmm.
>> So, maybe that's actually going to be bad for them. I couldn't agree more. I think that's so true. That, students can be completely overwhelmed, especially today's students who honestly, most of them, if they went through K‑12 public education are used to being told when to jump and how high. As long as you do exactly that, then you get a gold star.

When we get into college and we want diversion thinking and creativity and all these things they've never done before. I believe the choice can be paralyzing. A couple things that I do in order to kind of restrict the choice, I try to give choice within boundaries. So...you have to do something within this and this. Maybe an example of that would be, I think it's slide 24. You have to go ‑‑


>> We will get there. That's all right.
>> Okay...hop right ahead.
>> Yes, there we go. This is just a screen shot of part of my syllabus. Of the calendar portion of the syllabus. And so...this one, I think is big enough for you to see. So...you can see that I have in the darker blue, what's happening on days we have class. In the lighter blue, what's happening on days when they're at home working. Between classes, I have a couple things that are required and a couple things that are a choice for them. So...here, I've got some things that are nonnegotiable. They are critical experiences you must have. Everybody has to do those. And then, on Sundays I give them a list of choices. Sometimes they're just one or two choices. Sometimes there's four. And basically what I'm telling them is you can do as many or as few of the choice things you want understanding that the more of them that you do, the more you'll probably learn and understand. I give them that choice. So for example, the choice that's underlined. I've got a chapter for those of them that like to learn through chapter reading. And our book has online versions. They can list them through that chapter. I have a research web guide, a way for them to get the same exact information in chapter one, but through a series of web links. So, I just tell them by the end of your class preparation there, you need to know the answer to these five things. That's on a separate sheet. Learn these five things, I don't care how you learn it. Learn it by reading, learn it by doing this web guide. I just give them a couple. They seemed to like that. Even if they don't use the resources. The fact I told them they get to pick, ramps up their motivation big time.
>> Great, yeah, choice is very motivating that way. Was there another example you want to skip to here or highlight. If we go back, we were thinking, a number of those you talked about were options for representation. You're really thinking about how the information is getting into their heads. I'm not sure if you want to speak to this read&write gold here.
>> Read&write gold is something your campus would have to buy. Our campus did buy it. I'll tell you what it is, really quickly. Something that students can basically download to their computers and ends up being browser‑based support, but also desktop‑based support. Anything they try to do on their computer. If a student has been assigned to read something and they have a reading disability and it doesn't matter to you whether or not they actually read it, they just need to get the content. The reading skill doesn't matter to you, read&write gold will read it to you. If you don't know a word, click on it, it'll tell you what it means. It's good for people who struggle to write, writing is not the thing you're necessarily focusing on. It will really improve writing. It might be something you want to Google.
>> You're modeling in your, the way ‑‑ I don't know if you're aware of it or not, but the way you're phrasing thinking about this resource is so UDL in that you're saying, if your intent is this, then you can let go of this. I'm visualizing breaking down part of that brick wall that you showed at the very beginning. To buy those strategies or buy some of those options, some of the choices within boundaries you're talking about. Some are nonnegotiable and sometimes you will need to read a high level journal article, for example, other times, you don't need it. To read it, you can get the information in different ways. Really, just the way you're phrasing, I think folks could take that language and they could plug in the different tools or different technology options and think about it in that similar way.
>> I was just saying thank you. She said a nice thing.
>> Yes, yes. Yeah, and there's a lot of creativity that I think we can tap into as well, that helps with motivation, as I see on the screen, but also that expression. One thing I wanted to mention back about five minutes ago, about, yeah, we don't want to water things down in our courses, but we do want to take a hard look into are we giving them busy work and is it way too much that is not needed? Like, that is just getting into those threshold concepts. Do I really need them to know, in this day and age, the date of every one of the paintings I had to memorize? Nope. We didn't have Google back then. We didn't have SmartPhones. I can easily look up the date. What I need them to know is how to evaluate and synthesize information.

So, I should spend a lot less time on one thing and yeah, that was a hard part I had to do, but that's really kind of irrelevant now. And so, really thinking about those things you can cut and things you want to reinforce is important. And...thinking about the motivation and expression when, as Lindsay said, you might have to have this high level article that you need to have the students understand.

There are lots of ways to get that and I'll give one example, one of the sociology professors is interest did in interpersonal violence and self‑defense for women in her sociology work and has written several books and a very scholarly article, but she also paired with one of our faculty who does documentary films and actually gave the entire article, acted out by a Barbie about the interpersonal violence. And that was something that was brilliant and her students loved it and they got the information. It was certainly acted out by Barbie and kind of a catchy way. But reinforced the point of this very high level sociology, peer‑reviewed journal article she'd written.

We don't have to lose the ‑‑ we're not dumbing it down, but we're offering, when we have the chance, more ways for our students to access that information.


>> This is great, we're on a role with ideas. Let's jump to another example of how you're fitting UDL into your courses.
>> Okay, so the thing on the screen, you can't see, so it'll just be a place holder to tell you what I do. What you're looking at is a series of screen shots of a student information survey that I give to students in the first week of class. Our learning management system is a Moodle platform. So these are just screen shots of a Moodle survey, but you could replicate this in Blackboard or other platforms. So, in the class that I'm mostly talking about here. Educational psychology class for future teachers, I asked them some basic demographic stuff and people have been doing this for decades. I filled out a lot of them on note cards when I was in college.
>> Yes.
>> I'm familiar too.
>> Yeah! It's not unique. Maybe what you ask and then what you do with the data might be a little different and maybe a little more UDL. So, I asked them the normal stuff about you know, what year they are and what their major is, that kind of stuff. Then I also asked them about their future job and I say, tell me about your future dream job? And that let's me know what age they want to work with in the future and what topic they want to teach. Also, maybe more importantly, if they don't actually want to teach at all, and they're just in this major because they have to be, that changes how I need to work with those students.

I also asked them, very open‑ended question. Is there anything I need to know about you to help you learn? And I leave it totally open‑ended. Some people will say "no, I'm good." Some people will say "I have a reading disability or I have post‑traumatic stress disorder so this might happen. People will say, I'm not officially final with university for my disability because I'm embarrassed, but I have X, Y, Z. That let's me see, oh, this person is going to need support in a certain area. So, I can use it for that. And the other thing I use it for, I put them into groups on the basis of the age they want to teach and the one set of groups based on the age they want to teach and one set of groups based on the subject they want to teach. A lot of times I put them in intentional groups. So they feel like what they're learning matters and they might do this in the future. It's the thing they care about. It's better than just randomly assigning people based on numbers or something. Using intentional groupings and that really ramps up the motivation level. They're working with their potential future colleagues when they do that. That's one idea.

And again, very small, very subtle, but very intentional and proactive and also very supportive of the overarching feeling and goals that you have for your course that you're trying to build with them. You're trying to really build that collaboration which, I know, if you're working with online courses and trying to foster discussion groups, can be a challenge. Students think, I have to respond to three people, here I go. It drives the discussion to be more pointed and you're hitting on the engagement piece.

In the interest of time, I want to get through a couple more examples you have.


>> If you remember when we started talking today, I was giving you that example of the essay and multiple choice test that was problematic but didn't tell you how I solved it. That might be interesting here.
>> It was in my head and I was going to return to it, but thank you.
>> So...what it is these days, it's a multiple choice and essay test. And a lot of the questions are similar, but I tweaked them a little bit. What's different? They do it online, instead of coming into class. They have way more time than they need to do the multiple choice. I think the rule of thumb is that you shouldn't give more than 30 seconds per multiple choice question. And I give them several minutes and honestly, I'd like to get rid of all the multiple choice, but students find them very motivating. They find if they complete the multiple choice first, it helps them to outline their essay better. Even though I'm not a proponent of multiple choice, it solves a nice UDL‑type barrier for those not good at planning that essay stuff.
>> So, the fact that you asked your students sounds like an interesting strategy.
>> Yeah, every semester I asked them "can I get rid of the multiple choice yet?" And they say no. I do that with all my changes and tweaks. The last period of class, every single semester is what I call a course debrief. We don't learn anything new, we do a fun finale, but we talk about what do I need to change to make this work for next semester. They like that a lot.
>> Online, more time.
>> Yeah, yeah, that's how I got to online and more time. The students kind of candid discussions and then for their essay, they have three whole days to write a three paragraph essay. The essay is something like what you're looking at right here. This is more the prompt and I guess there are several prompts to choose from.

You could see how with this prompt, where I'm basically asking them it tell me with Ms. Sylvester's teaching. As long as they do a good job diagnosing a problem and solving it as a teacher, then they get the point. There's another place where I throw choice in. I'm giving them multiple prompts to pick from that are all equally respectful in terms of their difficulties, but people feel more motivated when you give them some control.



And let's see, what's another thing we can click on. Move to...the one that looks like a rubric. It's number 20. The way I grade those...on slide 20 ‑‑ little more. That's fine, we can look at that one or that.
[laughter]
>> Let's keep it here on the pyramid. So, you might be thinking, oh man, if I'm giving people a lot of choice on their assignments or assessments, that's going to be really hard to grade. It's going to be a logistical nightmare on your end. So...a great way to handle that is to do rubric grading. Where, you're not necessarily looking for certain right answers, but you're looking for certain qualities of answers. And so...in my class, I have 100 students at a time writing these essays. It's not like a little seminar, I'm doing this with a lot of people. Everybody in my course receives level one grading, which is rubrics I've created in Moodle so I can just click through, quickly. It only takes me about five minutes or less to grade each essay. Each three‑paragraph essay. I really honed my rubric and I have a grading document with common errors. I can kind of cut and paste things I find myself repeating. Everybody, all 100 of them get level one. After they get that feedback, I tell them, look at that feedback. If, upon reading that feedback you go...I still don't know how to get better for the next time. There is lots of next times in the class. Then I say, I need level two feedback. So whether or not they get level two feedback is under their control. That's when I go in and annotate, using a comment function in docs or word ‑‑ this is line‑by‑line. In an ideal world, I'd love to do all 100 of them. You all know nobody got time for that, right? I only give that really detailed feedback to students that are requesting it. If it still isn't good enough, then they come into my office. The intensity of feedback to the students who really want it and they just ‑‑ this comes up every semester, how much they love this. Because they feel the feedback they get is under their control and they can always ask for more and will always get more. Honestly, to be completely honest, the reason I devised this was for my own purposes, I wasn't trying to be UDL at all. I have to grade 100 essays every two weeks. Then I realized, once students said how much they loved it, oh, this is UDL. That's another idea of how you can handle grading lots of different responses. Even if you have 100 or so. If you have 300, we need something totally separate on that.
>> You have certain constraints you need to think about. They have choice within boundaries and you're giving yourself choice within boundaries. You can take a strategy you already use in your current course and you can reflect on it using UDL. Does that seem to align with UDL? It's a fantastic option for engagement, but it's also an option for expression where you really build into the process, which is high level executive function that you're thinking about. You're having the strategy that can be reflected upon using multiple UDL examples and unfortunately, in the interest of time, I think we, we really should do this, a two‑part, I want to, in a way, tie up and Lillian, give you a chance to offer an example of, this seems to really summarize here, start with your course ‑‑ so, Lillian, do you want to speak to this slide or one other one? I want to give you a chance to give another example as well?
>> Yeah, there's, when I think about assessments, now I'm doing small seminar courses and I like that form following function idea where we will have formative assessments versus summative assessments. So formative assessments are the ways in which we are able to determine how much the students are getting whatever concept you're trying to present. And asked to tweak it like you are a coach. Like you're dealing with an athlete that is trying to get ready for a game. Those summative assessments are the ones where they play the game and you're watching and at the end, you can look at the film and grade them. There is quite a variety of those things. It's been a lot of fun. You can do a lot of fun things, it's not just a lot of work. How am I going to make my article into a Barbie movie. It's things like ‑‑ we used improve, improvization skills in the classroom. We'll just go around and have the students say a sentence following an improv game like fortunately and unfortunately. They have to say something positive and then they have to counter what the person before them says, kind of like a campfire story that everybody has to add to. Now you may think that is really dumbing it down. If one of my higher level order thinking is, is creativity and having them be able to use this knowledge, analyze it and put it in a new direction, then having the actual process of participating in improv is part of that creation, you know, of that goal. So...things like improv or I do even collaborative quizzes which, yeah, I would have thought was cheating. That's cheating, you know, you're looking at somebody else's paper. But...there are ways that if you give a team, it's like team‑based learning or problem‑based learning, you give a team of folks questions they have to struggle with and come up with and answer, then they're actually teasing out some nuances that if they had to write down the answer themselves in a singular essay, they're not going to hear and they're not going to consider again. It's adding in those multiple perspectives. So...just within the classroom period, doing formative assessments, things like everybody stand up and go to one of the four corners of the room, depending on what you believe of this statement. Is a way for me, visually and for them visually to see all of the knowledge in the room. And can say...you really understand this? Or you don't? And kind of moving and voting with their bodies is just getting out of the sit down and listen and be quiet kind of thing that Higher Ed used to be.

So...lots of different ways that you can add something, even so very small and each year, we, Lindsay, I know, and I and everybody else ‑‑


>> We just have a couple minutes here.
>> Everybody is adding one more thing. It's always different. Play with it and it'll never be perfect. It'll just add something new.
>> You're bringing fun, creativity and keeping it high level. Absolutely critical. So...in the interest of time, again, I apologize, I could listen to you give these ideas all day. We have a couple must have resources we want to highlight.

[Captioner has a hard stop at 2:00 p.m. ET].



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