Review the nervous system



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REVIEW THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

____1.  The brain and the spinal cord are the


     a.  peripheral nervous system                   c.  central nervous system
     b.  sympathetic nervous system               d.  parasympathetic nervous system

____2.  What is the basic functional unit of the nervous system?


     a.  cell body          b.  reflex arc             c.  neuron                      d.  neutron

____3.  Which of the following is true?


    a. Dendrites carry information toward the cell body.                   c. Axons carry information toward the cell body.
    b. Dendrites carry information away from the cell body.             d. None of the above

____4.  Neurons carry information through the body in the form of


     a.  nerve impulses.           b.  dendrites.          c.  axons.                 d.  nerve fibers.

____5.  Which neurons conduct information toward the central nervous system?


     a.  sensory neurons            b.  motor neurons       c.  interneurons                d.  none of the above

____6.  Neurons with myelin sheath conduct nerve impulses


    a. faster than neurons without myelin sheaths.                              c. slower than neurons without myelin sheaths.
    b. at the same speed as neurons without myelin sheaths.              d. in greater numbers than neurons without myelin sheaths.

____7.  Messages take the form of electrical signals, and are known as


     a.  sensory neurons         b.  nerve impulses      c.  motor neurons             d.  reflex arc

____8.  The depolarization and repolarization of a neuron membrane is called


     a.  action potential           b.  resting potential         c.  excitability             d.  propagation

____9.  What are the spaces between adjacent neurons called?


     a.  reflex arc                 b.  effector        c. synaptic cleft                       d.  resting potential

____10.  What is the function of neurotransmitters?


    a. hurl neurons through synapses to create new nerve impulses
    b. chemically link neurons across the synapse to conduct impulses
    c. receive and transmit ultrasound waves across synapses
    d. none of the above

____11.  For a neuron to return to its resting potential, it must


     a. lose negative charge      b. lose positive charge      c. gain negative charge      d.  gain more sodium ions

____12.  A change in the environment that may be of sufficient strength to initiate


               an impulse is called a(an)
     a.  excitability            b.  stimulus           c.  polarized                    d.  potential

____13.  When a neuron is depolarized, the inside of the membrane temporarily


     becomes
    a. more negative than the outside                         c. more positive than the outside
    b. neutral compared to the outside.                      d. None of the above

____14.  The minimum level of a stimulus that is required to activate a neuron is


                called the
     a. action potential              b. threshold          c. resting potential                d.  enzymes

____15.  The long fiber that carries impulses away from the nerve cell body is a (n)


     a. dendrite                   b.  interneuron          c. axon                      d. axon terminal

____16.  The action that restores a neuron to its resting potential is


     a. polarization             b. action potential           c. depolarization                 d.  refractory period

____17.  When a nerve cell is polarized, the inside of the cell membrane is


    a. positively charged and the outside is positively charged.
    b. positively charged and  the outside is negative charged.
    c. negatively charged and the outside is negatively charged.
    d. negatively charged and the outside is positively charged.

____18.  Which description does not apply to all nerve impulses?


    a. They follow an all-or-none principle.                      c. They jump from node to node.
    b. They flow at various speeds.                                 d. They flow in only one direction.

____19.  If you accidentally touch a hot stove, you pull your finger away before


               the impulse is relayed to the
     a. spinal cord            b. effecter              c. brain                        d.  receptor

____20.  The somatic nervous system regulates activities that are


    a. unconscious control          b. involuntary           c. conscious control                 d.  automatic

21. For a neuron to achieve Resting Potential, it must move _____________________________ ions out of the cell, and actively pump _____________________________ ions into the cell.

22. At the beginning of an impulse, the ______________________________ gates open.

23. Action Potential is another name for a (an)

24. A(n) _________________________________ is an automatic response to a stimulus.

25. Subdivision of the PNS that regulates the activity of the heart and smooth muscle and of glands; also called the involuntary nervous system.  ___________________________________ nervous system.

26. Nerves that carry messages from the body to the central nervous system make up the ________________________________________ nervous system.

27. What are the two major division of the peripheral nervous system?


_____________________________________&_________________________________

28. Nervous system subdivision that is composed of the brain and spinal cord. __________________________________________ nervous system.

29. Messages take the form of electrical signals, and are known as________________________

30. The ________________________ is the basic functional unit of the nervous system.

31. _________________________ neurons carry impulses from the spinal cord to the effectors.

32. Within the spinal cord, motor and sensory neurons are connected by

33. A major subdivision of the nervous system that serves as the communication lines, linking all parts of the body to the CNS.__________________________________  nervous system.

34. The ________________________________________ nervous system does not come in contact with the environment.

35. The autonomic nervous system is divided into TWO divisions, they are
______________________________________&________________________________

36. The above two divisions have a(n) ______________________________________ effects on the organs they control.

37. A(n) _____________________________________________ is a chemical substance that is used by one neuron to signal another.

38. The point of contact at which impulses are passed from one cell to another are known as a(n)

39.What two ions are moved across a neuron’s membrane giving it electric potential?
_____________________________________&_________________________________

40. The Human Nervous System is divided into TWO Major Divisions, list them:


____________________________________&__________________________________41. _________________________ neurons carry impulses from receptors to the spinal cord.

42. The depolarization and repolarization of a neuron’s membrane is called a (n)

43. What are the spaces between adjacent neurons called?

44.  A change in the environment that may be of sufficient strength to initiate an impulse is called a(an)

45.  The minimum level of a stimulus that is required to activate a neuron is called the

46. The long fiber that carries impulses away from the nerve cell body is a (n)

47.  The action that restores a neuron to its resting potential is called

48. Which type of neurons conduct information toward the central nervous system?

49. The somatic nervous system regulates activities that are under

50. The brain and the spinal cord make up the

51. What is the basic functional unit of the nervous system?

52. Subdivision of the PNS that controls voluntary activities such as the activation of skeletal muscles. ______________________________________________________.

For questions 53-58, match the following answers to one of the statements below.

A. Resting Potential                    D.  Sodium-potassium pump


B. Action Potential                     E.  Depolarization
C.  Repolarization                      F.  Refractory Period

____ 53.  K+ moves out of the axon


____ 54.  Charges inside the axon change positive.
____ 55.  Active transport system.
____ 56.  Axon is not conducting an impulse.
____ 57.  Time when the axon cannot conduct an impulse.
____ 58.  Axon is depolarized, then repolarized.

DIRECTIONS: Answer the questions below as completely and as thoroughly as possible. Answer the question in essay
form (not outline form), using complete sentences. You may use diagrams to supplement your answers, but a diagram alone
without appropriate discussion is inadequate. See me if you need Help, Have Problems or Questions or To Check Your
Answers.

1. What is the relationship between afferent neurons, interneurons, and efferent neurons?

2. What role does the sodium-potassium pump play in the restoration of the membrane potential?

3. Explain the difference between an afferent neuron and an efferent neuron.

4. Describe how the patellar (knee-jerk) reflex operates.

5. What are the functions of the Nervous System that enables the body to respond quickly?

6.  Explain how the relative concentrations of sodium ions and potassium ions inside and outside a neuron change during an action potential.

7. Describe the process of the nerve impulse from the point at which the nerve has been stimulated.

8. Most organs in the body are stimulated by both the sympathetic division and the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.  Explain how this helps maintain homeostasis and what each division does.

9. A neuron consists of three main parts, List Them and their Main Function:

10. How does the autonomic nervous system work to maintain homeostasis?

11. Describe the role of neurotransmitters in transmitting a signal across a synaptic cleft.

12. Explain how a signal in the nervous system is transmitted between adjacent neurons?

13. Contrast resting potential with action potential.

14. Explain the importance of the refractory period and what occurs during the refractory period.

15. Describe the anatomy of a neuron.





 
 

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