been a general assumption which has passed from
one work to another; but I do not hesitate to say that
it is completely false, and that it has vitiated the
5 reasoning of geologists on some points of great
interest in the ancient history of the world. The
prejudice has probably been derived from India, and
the Indian islands, where troops of elephants, noble
forests, and impenetrable jungles, are associated
10 together in every one's mind. If, however, we refer to
any work of travels through the southern parts of
Africa, we shall find allusions in almost every page
either to the desert character of the country, or to the
numbers of large animals inhabiting it. The same
15 thing is rendered evident by the many engravings
which have been published of various parts of the
Dr. Andrew Smith, who has lately succeeded in
passing the Tropic of Capricorn, informs me that,
20 taking into consideration the whole of the southern
part of Africa, there can be no doubt of its being a
sterile country. On the southern coasts there are some
fine forests, but with these exceptions, the traveller
may pass for days together through open plains,
25 covered by a poor and scanty vegetation. Now, if we
look to the animals inhabiting these wide plains, we
shall find their numbers extraordinarily great, and
their bulk immense. We must enumerate the elephant,
three species of rhinoceros, the hippopotamus, the
30 giraffe, the bos caffer, two zebras, two gnus, and
several antelopes even larger than these latter
animals. It may be supposed that although the species
are numerous, the individuals of each kind are few.
By the kindness of Dr. Smith, I am enabled to show
35 that the case is very different. He informs me, that in
lat. 24', in one day's march with the bullock-wagons,
he saw, without wandering to any great distance on
either side, between one hundred and one hundred
and fifty rhinoceroses - the same day he saw several
40 herds of giraffes, amounting together to nearly a
hundred. At the distance of a little more than one
hour's march from their place of encampment on the
previous night, his party actually killed at one spot
eight hippopotamuses, and saw many more. In this
45 same river there were likewise crocodiles. Of course
it was a case quite extraordinary, to see so many great
animals crowded together, but it evidently proves that
they must exist in great numbers. Dr. Smith describes
the country passed through that day, as 'being thinly
50 covered with grass, and bushes about four feet high,
and still more thinly with mimosa-trees.'
Besides these large animals, every one the least
acquainted with the natural history of the Cape, has
read of the herds of antelopes, which can be
55 compared only with the flocks of migratory birds.
The numbers indeed of the lion, panther, and hyena,
and the multitude of birds of prey, plainly speak of
the abundance of the smaller quadrupeds: one
evening seven lions were counted at the same time
60 prowling round Dr. Smith's encampment. As this able
naturalist remarked to me, the carnage each day in
Southern Africa must indeed he terrific! I confess it is
truly surprising how such a number of animals can
find support in a country producing so little food. The
65 larger quadrupeds no doubt roam over wide tracts in
search of it; and their food chiefly consists of
underwood, which probably contains much nutriment
in a small bulk. Dr. Smith also informs me that the
vegetation has a rapid growth; no sooner is a part
70 consumed, than its place is supplied by a fresh stock.
There can be no doubt, however, that our ideas
respecting the apparent amount of food necessary for
the support of large quadrupeds are much
75 The belief that where large quadrupeds exist, the
vegetation must necessarily be luxuriant, is the more
remarkable, because the converse is far from true. Mr.
Burchell observed to me that when entering Brazil,
nothing struck him more forcibly than the splendour of
80 the South American vegetation contrasted with that of
South Africa, together with the absence of all large
quadrupeds. In his Travels, he has suggested that the
comparison of the respective weights (if there were
sufficient data) of an equal number of the largest
85 herbivorous quadrupeds of each country would be
extremely curious. If we take on the one side, the
elephants hippopotamus, giraffe, bos caffer, elan,five
species of rhinoceros; and on the American side, two
tapirs, the guanaco, three deer, the vicuna, peccari,
90 capybara (after which we must choose from the
monkeys to complete the number), and then place
these two groups alongside each other it is not easy to
conceive ranks more disproportionate in size. After the
above facts, we are compelled to conclude, against
95 anterior probability, that among the mammalia there
exists no close relation between the bulk of the
species, and the quantity of the vegetation, in the
countries which they inhabit.
1. The author is primarily concerned with
A. discussing the relationship between the size of mammals and the nature of vegetation in their habitats
B. contrasting ecological conditions in India and Africa
C. proving the large animals do not require much food
D. describing the size of animals in various parts of the world
E. explaining that the reasoning of some geologists is completely false
2. The word ‘vitiated’ (line 4) most nearly means
3. According to the author, the ‘prejudice’ (line 7) has lead to
A. errors in the reasoning of biologists
B. false ideas about animals in Africa
C. incorrect assumptions on the part of geologists
D. doubt in the mind of the author
E. confusion in natural history
4. The author uses information provided by Dr. Smith to
I supply information on quality and quantity of plant life in South Africa
II indicate the presence of large numbers of animals
III give evidence of numbers of carnivorous animals
A. I only
B. II only
C. III only
D. I and II only
E. I, II and III
5. The flocks of migratory birds (line 55)are mentioned to
A. describe an aspect of the fauna of South Africa
B. illustrate a possible source of food for large carnivores
C. contrast with the habits of the antelope
D. suggest the size of antelope herds
E. indicate the abundance of wildlife
6. The ‘carnage’ (line 61) refers to the
A. number of animals killed by hunters
B. number of prey animals killed by predators
C. number of people killed by lions
D. amount of food eaten by all species
E. damage caused by large animals
7. To account for the ‘surprising’ (line 63) number of animals in a ‘country producing so little food’ (line 64), Darwin suggests all of the following as partial explanations except
A. food which is a concentrated source of nutrients
B. rapid regrowth of plant material
C. large area for animals to forage in
D. mainly carnivorous animals
E. food requirements have been overestimated
8. The author makes his point by reference to all of the following except
A. travel books
B. published illustrations
C. private communications
D. recorded observations
E. historical documents
9. Darwin quotes Burchell’s observations in order to
A. counter a popular misconception
B. describe a region of great splendor
C. prove a hypothesis
D. illustrate a well-known phenomenon
E. account for a curious situation
10. Darwin apparently regards Dr. Smith as
A. reliable and imaginative
B. intrepid and competent
C. observant and excitable
D. foolhardy and tiresome
E. incontrovertible and peerless
11. Darwin’s parenthetical remark (line 83-84) indicates that
A. Burchell’s data are not reliable
B. Burchell’s ideas are not to be given much weight
C. comparison of the weights of herbivores is largely speculative
D. Darwin’s views differ from Burchell’s
E. more figures are needed before any comparison can be attempted
12. Anterior probability (line 95) refers to
A. what might have been expected
B. ideas of earlier explorers
C. likelihood based on data from India
D. hypotheses of other scientists
E. former information
A stout old lady was walking with her basket down the middle of a
street in Petrograd to the great confusion of the traffic and with no
small peril to herself. It was pointed out to her that the
pavement was the place for pedestrians, but she replied: 'I'm going
5 to walk where I like. We've got liberty now.' It did not occur
to the dear old lady that if liberty entitled the pedestrian to
walk down the middle of the road, then the end of such liberty
would be universal chaos. Everybody would be getting in
everybody else's way and nobody would get anywhere.
10 Individual liberty would have become social anarchy.
There is a danger of the world getting liberty-drunk in
these days like the old lady with the basket, and it is just as well
to remind ourselves of what the rule of the road means. It means
that in order that the liberties of all may be preserved, the
15 liberties of everybody must be curtailed. When the policeman,
say, at Piccadilly Circus steps into the middle of the road and
puts out his hand, he is the symbol not of tyranny, but of liberty.
You may not think so. You may, being in a hurry, and seeing
your car pulled up by this insolence of office, feel that your
20 liberty has been outraged. How dare this fellow interfere with
your free use of the public highway? Then, if you are a
reasonable person, you will reflect that if he did not interfere with
you, he would interfere with no one, and the result would be that
Piccadilly Circus would be a maelstrom that you would never
25 cross at all. You have submitted to a curtailment of private liberty
in order that you may enjoy a social order which makes your
liberty a reality.
Liberty is not a personal affair only, but a social
contract. It is an accommodation of interests. In matters which do
30 not touch anybody else's liberty, of course, I may be as free as I
like. If I choose to go down the road in a dressing-gown who
shall say me nay? You have liberty to laugh at me, but I have
liberty to be indifferent to you. And if I have a fancy for dyeing
my hair, or waxing my moustache (which heaven forbid), or
35 wearing an overcoat and sandals, or going to bed late or getting
up early, I shall follow my fancy and ask no man's permission. I
shall not inquire of you whether I may eat mustard with my
mutton. And you will not ask me whether you may follow this
religion or that, whether you may prefer Ella Wheeler Wilcox to
40 Wordsworth, or champagne to shandy.
1. The author might have stated his ‘rule of the road’ as
A. do not walk in the middle of the road
B. follow the orders of policemen
C. do not behave inconsiderately in public
D. do what you like in private
E. liberty is more important than anarchy
2. The author’s attitude to the old lady in paragraph one is
3. The sentence ‘It means....curtailed’ (lines 13-15) is an example of
4. Which sentence best sums up the author’s main point?
A. There is a danger....lines 11-13
B. A reasonable.... lines 56-57
C. It is in the small matters....lines 58-60
D. The great moments....lines 60-61
E. It is the little....lines 61-63
5. A situation analogous to the ‘insolence of office’ described in paragraph 2 would be
A. a teacher correcting grammar errors
B. an editor shortening the text of an article
C. a tax inspector demanding to see someone’s accounts
D. an army office giving orders to a soldier
E. a gaoler locking up a prisoner
6. ‘Qualified’ (line 46) most nearly means
7. The author assumes that he may be as free as he likes in
A. all matters of dress and food
B. any situation which does not interfere with the liberty of others
C. anything that is not against the law
D. his own home
E. public places as long as no one sees him
8. In the sentence ‘ We are all liable....’ (lines 54-56) the author is
A. pointing out a general weakness
B. emphasizing his main point
C. countering a general misconception
D. suggesting a remedy
E. modifying his point of view
1. The crew of the air balloon ____ the sand bags to help the balloon rise over the hill.
2. We were not fooled by his ____ arguments; his plan was obviously ____ .
A. cogent - brilliant
B. hackneyed - banal
C. convoluted - labyrinthine
D. specious - untenable
E. lucid - intelligible
3. Hawkins is ____ in his field; no other contemporary scientist commands the same respect.
4. The model paraded in front of the celebrities with ____ ; it was impossible to tell that this was her first assignment.
5. The term lead pencil is a ____ ; pencils are filled with graphite not lead.
6. The ____ weather forced us to stay indoors.
7. It will be hard to ____ Leonid now that you have so ____ him.
A. pacify - soothed
B. mollify - incensed
C. antagonize - irritated
D. anger - ruffled
E. subdue - subjugated
8. The lectures on quantum physics were invariably ____ ; the lecturer ____ his ill-prepared material in a manner guaranteed to send even the most ardent student to sleep.
A. stimulating - delivered
B. pedestrian - enthused about
C. soporific - droned
D. scintillating - intoned
E. arcane - marshaled
9. Edward was understandably upset that he had lost the position, but he was ____ by the conviction that he had done nothing to ____ the dismissal.
A. consoled - merit
B. warmed - avoid
C. comforted - mar
D. miffed - delay
E. saddened - earn
10. Elinor ____ to counteract her negative feelings, but only succeeded in ____ them.
A. tried - allaying
B. hoped - mitigating
C. desired - ameliorating
D. hesitated - deprecating
E. endeavoured - intensifying
11. She was roundly condemned for her ____ ; she betrayed the woman to whom she owed her success.
12. The progress of the disease is ____ ; it spreads stealthily without any symptoms in the early stages.
1. His one vice was gluttony and so it is not surprising that as he aged he became increasingly ____ .
2. Our once thriving High School Nature Club is now ____ ; the progams have had to be cancelled due to lack of support.
3. Having been chief accountant for so many years, Ms. George felt herself to be ____ and was unwilling to ____ control of the department after the merger.
A. slighted - truncate
B. irreplaceable - assume
C. insubordinate - retain
D. decisive - continue
E. indispensable - relinquish
4. Because Elaine's father was a field entomologist who trekked over the continent studying insect infestations, and insisted on taking his young family with him, Elaine and her brother had a(n) ____ childhood.
5. Frederica was ____ when her supervisor took only a ___ look at her essay over which she had taken so much care.
A. exultant - superficial
B. vexed - studious
C. disappointed - cursory
D. pleased - patronizing
E. relieved - perfunctory
6. When he was young he ____ ideas of becoming a doctor; however, he was ____ by his father who wanted him to join the family business.
A. harbored - backed
B. entertained - dissuaded
C. produced - critical
D. repudiated - deterred
E. eschewed - encouraged
7. Literary criticism has in recent years become increasingly ____ ; it is almost impossible for the non-literary person to understand its analyses.
8. The alchemists, though they are often supposed to have been ____ or confidence tricksters, were actually skilful technologists.
9. Bullock carts and hand pumps seem ____ in a village whose skyline is dominated by telephone cables and satellite dishes.
10. A ____ child, she was soon bored in class; she already knew more mathematics than her junior school teachers.
11. Stuart reveled in ____; he would never seek ____ until all possibilities for debate had been exhausted.
22.Cogitate is most similar in meaning to
23.Pugnacious is most similar in meaning to
24.Circumvent is most similar in meaning to
25.Placid is most similar in meaning to
26.Intrepid is most similar in meaning to
27.Ambivalent is most similar in meaning to
28.Aberration is most similar in meaning to
29.Complacent is most similar in meaning to
30.Homogeneous is most similar in meaning to
Questions 31-40 are sentence completion questions. Choose the answer which contains the words that best fit the blanks and complete the meaning of the given sentence.
31. Bancroft, who had inadvertently ____ his friend, wrote an ____ letter with the intention of pouring oil over troubled waters.
A. alienated - amicable
B. humored - argumentative
C. harmed - asinine
D. offended - affected
E. mollified - extensive
32. It was with considerable ____ that my mother revealed the results of her ____ studies to my grandfather as she had learned that my great- grandfather had been notorious criminal, a fact that grandfather had been at pains to hide.
33. The old shepherd had a reputation for being ____ , and it came as no surprise to us that he had a ____ attitude to us strangers, shouting and waving his fists to warn us off his land.
A. incognito - pugnacious
B. xenophobic - equivocal
C. philosophic - bellicose
D. philanthropic - benign
E. misanthropic - belligerent
34. As a child my grandfather used to refer to me as his little ____ because I suffered from ____ , and if my parents shut my bedroom door at night I would have nightmares and wander round the house.
A. anachronism - terrors
B. progenitor - trepidation
C. wanderer - arachnophobia
D. somnambulist - claustrophobia
E. angel - acrophobia
35. The new teacher refused to take charge of the almost defunct Poetry Club, saying that it would be too much trouble to ____ this ____ society.
A. circumscribe - vast
B. control - wayward
C. direct - defeated
D. resurrect - moribund
E. resuscitate - immortal
36. The speaker at the Marketing Convention resorted to frequent ____, yet these touches of local color added a charm to his speech, and the audience went away with the impression that they had heard one of the most ____ businessmen of the age.
A. evocations - fanciful
B. colloquialisms - eloquent
C. aberrations - vociferous
D. epigrams - omniscient
E. soliloquies - monotonous
37. The philosopher argues that far from being dead, ____ is a feature of human behavior in modern times: his ____ lists articles containing many instances of people sacrificing themselves for the good of others.
A. cognition - cosmology
B. altruism - bibliography
C. pugilism - appendix
D. parricide - epigram
E. philanthropy - epigraph
38. The device of the ____ narrator allows the author to write as though he is god: he sees all and understands all.
B. first person
39. Even though he is now ____, my uncle continues to give the doctors cause for concern: they say the ____ is not good and, in all probability, uncle will be confined to bed once again before the week is out.
A. improving - chronology
B. optimistic - therapy
C. morbid - outlook
D. ambidextrous - result
E. ambulant - prognosis
40. For all their talk of ____ the land despoiled by mining, the local government has failed to offer a ____ plan.
A. amortizing - feasible
B. clearing - credulous
C. regenerating - credible
D. reclaiming - quotidian
E. optimizing - monolithic
"That which we obtain too easily, we esteem too lightly. It is dearness only which gives everything its value."
Do we value only what we struggle for? Plan your response, and then write an essay to explain your views on this issue. Be sure to support your position with specific points and examples. (You may use personal examples or examples from your reading, observations, or, knowledge of subjects such as history, literature, science.)
A. Write a thesis statement for this essay. Remember, it should be one good sentence that clearly states your position and why you are taking that position.
B. Now, write 3 topic sentences for 3 body paragraphs to support your thesis.
C. Last, write 6 sentences containing evidence you could use to support your topic sentences ( 2 pieces of evidence for each topic sentence). Remember evidence includes facts, statistics, examples, etc. This is not opinion.