Review for Imperialism Test Make sure you have definitions for the following Vocabulary

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Review for Imperialism Test

  • Make sure you have definitions for the following Vocabulary:
  • Imperialism
  • Protectorate
  • Sphere of Influence
  • Jihad
  • Missionary
  • Elite
  • Pasha
  • Genocide
  • Concession
  • Sati
  • Sepoy
  • Viceroy
  • Deforestation
  • Purdah
  • trade surplus
  • trade deficit
  • indemnity
  • extraterritoriality

Essay Question

  • Theme: Imperialism
  • Historical Context: There are many explanations why European nations chose to imperialize other non-industrialized nations of the world over the course of the 19th century. They include the needs of industrialization as well as issues of international prestige.
  • Task:
  • Define the term, “Imperialism.”
  • Discuss at least two reasons that motivated European nations to seek colonies.
  • State your position on European imperialism, citing at least two positive or negative developments that came as result of imperialism.


  • Domination by one country of the political, economic or cultural life of another country or region.
  • Motivated by
    • Economics (need for raw materials/markets)
    • Military (bases for resupply/protection)
    • Nationalism (power/prestige/nationalism)
    • Arrogance/Humanitarian (Europeans thought they were superior  bringing civilization)

Reasons for European success

  • Modern Industrial economies
  • Stable governments
  • Advanced technology
  • Wealth
  • Non-western societies in decline

Imperialism in Africa

  • Africa unexplored in early 1800s
  • Explorers/missionaries seek to “civilize”
  • King Leopold II (Belgium) begins “Scramble for Africa”
  • Berlin Conference  Africa divided among European powers / no African voice
  • Britain controlled Northeastern and Southern Africa; France controlled Northwestern and Central Africa
  • African Resistance: Zulu (Shaka) in South; Ethiopia (Menlik II in East)

Imperialism in the Muslim World

  • Muslim powers were weak; corruption widespread
  • Reform movements emerged (fundamentalist)
  • Ottoman Empire being torn apart by nationalist movements (Romania, Greece, etc.)
  • Christian Armenians victims of genocide by Turks (accused of assisting Russians)
  • Iran’s attractive to Russia (North) and British (East ); discovery of oil  even more important

Imperialism in India

  • British used India’s diversity to weaken and control it
  • Sepoy Rebellion: Indians angry over disregard for their religion  rise up  put down
  • British bring western reforms to Indian education and law
  • Changes give rise to Indian nationalist movements:
    • Indian National Congress
    • Muslim League

Imperialism in China

  • Opium War: Chinese try to prevent sale of British Opium  defeated /forced to accept treaty
  • Treaty of Nanjing: Indemnity to be paid; Hong Kong to Britain; Ports opened; Extraterritoriality
  • Taiping Rebellion: Chinese Rise up against British; defeated & forced to accept more reforms
  • Sino-Japanese War: Japan defeats China sending other powers signal of China’s weakness; other powers establish spheres of influence
  • Chinese Nationalism: Sun Yixian and the Three Principles of the People

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