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Comentarios:

El análisis del manejo sostenible de los recursos hídricos y la equidad de género en el campo del manejo del agua, provee de argumentos para afirmar que: i) Involucrar a hombres y mujeres en roles influyentes en los diferentes niveles de decisión puede acelerar la consecucion de la sosteniblidad en el manejo de los escasos recursos hidricos, ii) La gestion del agua realizada de una manera integrada y sostenible, puede contribuir significativamente a mejorar la equidad de género porque aumenta el acceso a los recursos hidricos y a los servicios relacionados con el agua, tanto de mujeres y hombres para cubrir las necesidades basicas. Asi se aborda el propgreso que los gobiernos y las agencias de cooperación han logrado en la aplicación de estos argumentos.

Disponible en: www.es.genderandwater.org

Soto, Betty, María Esther Udaeta, Gloria Lizárraga, 2004. Políticas Públicas de Género, Auditoria de Género: Sectores de Saneamiento Básico y Riego de Bolivia.

El libro presenta una investigación que muestra los avances y el desarrollo de la incorporación de la perspectiva de género y equidad en las políticas públicas, coadyuvando a la lucha contra la pobreza, la superación de la marginalidad y el impulso al capital social.
Comentario:

Las políticas publicas según el texto son las posiciones que toma un gobierno respecto a un problema determinada y su importancia radica en que define medidas concretas que orientan las acciones y recursos para la solución del problemas, para lo cual es importante la participación ciudadana, que las políticas respondan a las demandas y necesidades de la mayoría.


Los resultados de la investigación muestran a nivel bisectorial que las políticas de género en el país han desarrollado los macro lineamientos que fueron la base para la formulación de políticas sectoriales. Los enfoques de género sectoriales no dejan visualizar la integración de equidad de género en sus políticas.
Permite identificar los efectos en hombres y mujeres de la población de las políticas sectoriales, a nivel de las y los profesionales operativos a través de la ejecución de programas, proyectos que han generado diversas experiencias, que no se encuentran sistematizadas. Las y los usuarios de los sistemas de agua y riego demuestran una gran sensibilización por el tema de genero y una practica de la equidad a nivel comunal y familiar, por lo que se hace necesario tomar en cuenta esos avances en la formulación de políticas a partir de las diferencias existentes a nivel local entre hombres y mujeres ricos y pobres de ámbito rural y urbano
El instrumento metodológico ha permitido analizar y llevar adelante la auditoria con objetividad, lo que se demuestra por los resultados claros y concretos y permite concluir que existe un estancamiento de la Transversalización del género en los sectores auditados.

Disponible en: www.sias.gov.bo


BID, no date, Plan de Acción del BID para la integración de Género

This Gender Mainstreaming Action Plan seeks to reactivate efforts and generate new energy around the advances achieved to date. The Plan builds on accumulated experience indicating that promoting gender equality and investing in women’s capabilities are fundamental for improving the impact of development interventions in Latin America and the Caribbean. Investing in women - in their access to information, resources, opportunities and spheres of political decision making - contributes to poverty reduction, economic growth and good governance at the local and national levels.


The Action Plan brings together the commitments of all operations divisions and relevant departments of the Bank in the development of actions that aim to improve equality between men and women. The likelihood of success implementing this Plan is high because it represents a collaborative agreement and shared commitment between different members of the institution, including the high levels of the Administration, professional staff and assistants involved in the design, supervision, monitoring and evaluation of operations supported by the Bank.

Disponible en: http://www.aprchile.cl/pdfs/Plande%20Accion%20para%20Integracion%20generoSbid.pdf


Villalobos, Guiselle Rodríguez, Montserrat Blanco Lobo y Francisco Azofeifa Cascante. 2004. title ?

This book intends to highlight the importance of biodiversity in the broadest sense of the term, by making visible and illustrating the differentiated relations that women and men establish with nature and the consequences thereof in regard to development promotion. This document is basically focused on the recognition of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the National Biodiversity Strategies (NBS), as participation and awareness-raising mechanisms of our societies to build a new form of relation between human beings and their environment.



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Berrón Sañudo, Linda, ed. 2005. Everything Counts! Valuing Environmental Initiatives with a Gender Equity Perspective in Latin America.

Compilation of a selection of thirty experiences from Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Mexico, Peru and two international experiences about the outcomes in making the linkages between gender and environment, as people working in social sciences include ecological considerations, and the inclusion of the gender equity approach in all technical processes of conservation and management of the resources.



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UICN. 2004. Everything Counts! Valuing environmental initiatives with a gender equity perspective in Latin America

El objetivo de este documento es reconocer los esfuerzos que se realizan desde diversos lugares de mundo por mejorar las condiciones de vida de mujeres y hombres, y en especial, de las relaciones que establecen entre ellos, en el uso y beneficio que proporcionan los recursos naturales del medio en que viven. Muestra, este conjunto de 30 experiencias, el avance en la vinculación entre ambiente y género, tanto por la apropiación de la dimensión ecológica por parte de las personas que trabajan en los temas sociales, como también por la redimensión de los procesos técnicos de conservación y uso de los recursos



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R.Meinzen-Dick, M. Zwarteveen. 1997. Gendered participation in water management: issues and illustrations from water users' associations in South Asia.

Este documento se preparó para el Taller Sobre Agua y Mujer, del Instituto Internacional del Manejo de la Irrigación15-19 Septiembre 1997, Sri Lanka



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Kunst, Sabine, Tanja Kruse, 2001. Integrating gender perspectives : realizing new options for improved water management. Cross-cutting thematic background paper.

El llamado a un enfoque holístico y sensible al género para el manejo hídrico debe ser reiterado como punto inicial del desarrollo sostenible. Los esfuerzos deben buscar objetivos paralelos: el mejoramiento de la vida diaria y de las condiciones de vida, y el planeamiento a largo plazo para un futuro ambientalmente sostenible. La transversalidad de género en relación con el agua es definida por la Visión Mundial del Agua (World Water Vision).



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Green, C. and S. Baden. 1994. Water Resources Management: A Macro-level Analysis from a Gender Perspective.

Este reporte argumenta que la nueva política requiere urgentemente asegurar que los aspectos relacionados con el género no se sobreestimen en el manejo del agua.



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Ruijgh-van der Ploeg, Martinez. 2000. Water and conflict : the role of women and men. Presentation of good practices two perspectives on the importance of decision-making and (gender) equity for sustainable water management.

Las mujeres y los hombres pueden trabajar juntos hacia la equidad de género en la toma de decisiones sobre el manejo sostenible del recurso hídrico. Esto requiere cambios en las reglas del juego de los procesos de toma de decisiones, cambios en al forma en que se selecciona, presenta y distribuye la información sobre el manejo del agua. Si tenemos un conocimiento más amplio acerca de las contribuciones que las mujeres hacen y pueden hacer en el manejo del agua, será mucho más sencillo efectuar los cambios que se sugieren y evaluar su efectividad.



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Case studies (check website http://www.genderandwater.org)
Inputs to Thematic Paper on water and sanitation: Case studies from the Interagency Gender and Water Task Force (Marcia Brewster, Task Manager)

A. New Models for Financing Local Water Initiatives

B. Institutional Development and Political Processes

C. Capacity-building and Social Learning

D. Application of Science, Technology and Knowledge
A river for solution, Women, Men and Water in the El Naranjo River Basin, Guatemala

One Hand Does not Tie a Bundle”: Women’s Participation Transform Water Management, Nkouondja, Cameroon

This case illustrates that women’s involvement in local water management increases creativity.

From Purdah to Participation, Pakistan

This case illustrates:

-Women can sometimes offer more practical solutions in water management

-Involvement by women can dynamise community development

-Traditional leaders can be won over through patient effort to include women

-Success based on women’s involvement can lead to changes in attitudes in both women and men

3.3. Gender, Water and Poverty


Introduction

Water is essential to human beings and all forms of life. But pollution and lack of access to clean water is proliferating the cycle of poverty, water-borne diseases, and gender inequities (Khosla and Pearl, 2003). Water is an entry point for sustainable development, poverty eradication, human rights, reproductive and maternal health, combating HIV and AIDS, energy production, improved education for girls and a reduction in morbidity and mortality. And yet there are still 1.1 billion people without access to safe drinking water and 2.6 billion without access to adequate sanitation. This situation has an enormous negative impact on women and children.



There is deepening poverty worldwide, and the most vulnerable groups are women and children. Women experience poverty differently than men, as they are generally treated unequally. It is estimated that, of the 1.3 billion people living in poverty around the world, 70% are women. Women work two-thirds of the world's working hours, produce half of the world's food, and yet earn only 10% of the world's income and own less than 1% of the world's property (UN Millennium Campaign, 2005).
Why gender, water and poverty?

I
Linkages among gender, water and poverty


  • Access to water of sufficient quality and quantity will reduce the incidence of water-washed and water-borne diseases, improve health and productivity for women and attendance in schools for children.

  • When there is competition for water resources, women and the vulnerable often lose their entitlements.

  • Women’s development priorities for water resources may be for sources nearer homes so that they are able to balance their productive and reproductive roles. If they are not consulted, then these priorities will not be considered.

  • Improved livelihoods and food security for women and the disadvantaged are also dependent on access to sufficient water resources.

  • Participation in water management can also improve the dignity of women through giving them a voice and choice. It also improves targeting and efficiency of programme investments.
n 1997, the Human Development Report revealed that countries with the lowest gender-related development indices (Sierra Leone, Niger, Burkina Faso and Mali) also had high poverty rates and little access to water, health and education. Other, countries with high poverty rates (Bolivia, Colombia, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Paraguay) also had high rates of social, gender and ethnic inequality (Schreiner, 2001).

Women are more vulnerable than men to chronic poverty due to gender inequalities in various social, economic and political institutions. Such inequalities can be found in the andocentric distribution of income, control over property or income and access to productive inputs (such as credit), decision-making resources and water resources, rights and entitlements. Women are also subject to bias in the labour markets and social exclusion.
According to the United Nations Development Programme, five years after world leaders signed a commitment towards reducing poverty, “the gap between MDG targets for halving poverty and projected outcomes is equivalent to an additional 380 million people in developing countries living on less than a dollar a day (2005).” Women and children carry an unequal burden of deepening poverty.
Definitional Misconceptions

Poverty is multi-dimensional, location specific and varies by age, culture, gender and other socio-economic aspects. Perceptions of poverty also differ from women to men: for example, in Ghana men defined poverty as the inability to generate income, while women viewed it as food insecurity (Narayan, 2000).
Poverty is not only about material deprivation; it also includes a lack of voice or power, vulnerability to crises and other adverse situations and limited capacity to cope with such vulnerabilities. If water resources are located far away from homes, women and girls have to walk further to collect water, thus reducing the time available for productive work. Effective water management offers social networks for women through management committees, but very often women end up doing unskilled and unpaid work related to water management. Continuing to link poverty to material well-being masks other dimensions of poverty, such as powerlessness and exclusion for decision making.
Measuring poverty: the gender dilemma

The traditional methods of measuring poverty have been through Gross Domestic Product or household income statistics, masking gender differentials within the household. Participatory poverty assessments (PPAs) are an instrument for including poor people’s views in the analysis of poverty and the formulation of strategies to reduce it through public policy interventions (Norton, 2001).
Gender, Poverty and Environment: A three-way interaction

While separate Millennium Development Goals have been set for poverty, gender and the environment (encompassing water and sanitation), they are interrelated and there is a three-way interaction among them. Water is essential for the well being of human beings, vital for economic development and a basic requirement for the health of ecosystems. Clean water for domestic purposes is essential for human health and survival and, combined with improved sanitation and hygiene, it will reduce morbidity and mortality especially among children. Water is also vital for other facets of sustainable development such as environmental protection, food security, empowerment of women, education of girls and reduction in productivity loss due to illnesses. Water is a catalytic entry point for developing countries in the fight against poverty and hunger, and for safeguarding human health, reducing child mortality and promoting gender equality and protection of natural resources (UN Millennium Task Force on Water and Sanitation, 2005).


The HIV and AIDS pandemic, which is both a cause and a consequence of the vulnerability that is characteristic of poverty, has driven some countries to adopt home-based care approaches as health institutions fail to cope with the demand for services. The home-based care approach implies that there should be water of sufficient quality and quantity to avoid secondary infections as well as to reduce the burdens of care-givers, who, in most cases, are women and girls.
Some Policy Implications

In IWRM, water is viewed as both an economic and a social good, and thus in some cases it can be considered a commodity responding to the principles of supply and demand. It thus has a market value determined for certain uses (Thomas, Schalkwyk and Woroniuk, 1996). The water sector is often divided into productive and non-productive water uses. The non-productive uses of water (health, domestic chores and sanitation) tend to be the responsibility of women and are not considered in economic assessments. These should be incorporated into the assessment of relative economic values of water resources to allow for the understanding and consideration of the interdependence between productive and domestic water.


Water as a commodity implies that the development of water resources should be based on demand. However, poor women are generally unable to express their demands for services, nor do they have the capacity to defend their rights, especially if there are recognizable and transferable property rights over water. In addition, children-headed households have even lower capacity to express demand and defend their rights.
In order to meet the water demands of poor women, governments must collect sex-disaggregated data and develop gender-sensitive indicators in all sectors, including water, sanitation, agriculture and irrigation. The use of participatory tools is also important for engaging the voiceless and less educated who may have difficulties understanding written text. Only this way can priorities of the poor be heard and understood.

References
Schreiner, Barbara, 2001. Key Note Address at the International Conference on Freshwater, Bonn Available at: www.water2001.de/36days/speech8
Khosla, P. and R. Pearl, 2003. Unexploited connections: gender, water and poverty Available at: http://www.wedo.org/sus_dev/untapped1.htm
Chen, S. and M. Ravallion, 2004. How the World’s Poorest have Fared since 1980s? Washington D.C.: World Bank. Available at: http://www.worldbank.org/research/povmonitor/MartinPapers/How_have_the_poorest_fared_since_the_early_1980s.pdf
Narayan, Deepa, 2000. Voices of the Poor: Can Anyone Hear Us? Available at: www.worldbank.org
Robb, C, 1998. Can the Poor Influence Policy?Participatory Assessments in the Developing World. Washington D.C.: World Bank. Available at: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1999/07/22/000094946_99040105542482/Rendered/PDF/multi_page.pdf
Norton, 2005. A Rough Guide to PPA’s, DFID, United Nations Development Programme, 2005. International Co-operation at a Crossroads: Aid, Trade and Security in an Uneven World, Human Development Report. Available at: http://hdr.undp.org www.ids.ac.uk/ids/particip
United Nations Development Programme, 2001. Human Development to Eradicate Poverty, Human Development Report. Available at: http://hdr.undp.org
SIDA, undated. A Gender Perspective in Water Resources Management Sector, Publications on Water Resources #6. Available at: Swedish International Development Co-operation, Department of Natural resources and the Environment S-105 25 Stockholm.
Key Resources

Abrama L, 1999. Poverty, water Supply and Sanitation Services. Paper presented in a Regional workshop on Financing Community water supply and sanitation services. Available at: http// thewaterpage.com/poverty


Asia Development Bank, 2004. Water Poverty: fighting through water Managment,

The publication outlines a framework for action linking poverty to water security and introducing related issues of governance, water quality issues, livelihood opportunities, capacity building and empowerment

Available at: hhtp://www.adb.org/doc/books/water
Beall J, N. Kanji, no date. Urban Governance, partnership and poverty: households livelihoods and urban poverty. Available at:

www.areu.org.af/publications/ Urban%20Livelihoods


Butterworth, J.A, P.B. Moriarty and B. van Koppen, 2003. “Water, poverty, and productive uses of water at the household level: practical experiences, new research, and policy implications from innovative approaches to the provision and use of household water supplies.” In: Proceedings of an international symposium held in Pretoria, South Africa, January 21-23, 2003.

Available at: http://www.irc.nl/content/view/full/2715 (summary); http://www.irc.nl/themes/management/prodwat/ (full text)

Dayal, R, C. van Wijk and N. Mukherjee, 2001. Methodology for participatory assessments, with communities, institutions, and policy makers.

This publication is suitable for those wishing to carry out particuipatory assessments that look at gender poverty and sustainability indicators within the context of water and sanitation.


Available at :www.schoolsanitation.org/ Resources/ReadingsMonitoring
Federal Ministry of economic Co-operation, 2001. Poverty reduction- a global responsibility. Available at: www.gtz.de/en
Kanji, N, 1995. ‘Gender, poverty and economic adjustment in Harare.
Available at: www.bridge.ids.ac.uk/reports/r54urbw2.doc
Rodenberg, Birte, 2003. Integrating gender into national poverty reduction strategies (PRSPs). The example of Ghana. Available at: www.gtz.de/en
Stamm-Berg, Helga, Henni Heise and Christophe Kohlmeyer, 2004. Combating world hunger through sustainable agriculture. Available at: www.gtz.de/en
Kwale, G.O.K, 1999. Participatory Learning and action: participation, gender, demand responsiveness and Poverty Focus in: creating linkages and sustainability report. Available at: Kwale, Kenya
Short C, undated. Tackling Water Poverty. Available at:

http://wwwourplanet.com/imgversn
IRC, 2004. Linking water supply and poverty alleviation: the impact of women’s productive use of water and time on household economic and gender relations in Banaskantha District, Gujarat, India

Available at: www.irc.nl/page


Khosla, P. and R. Pearl, 2003. Untapped Connections: Gender, Water and Poverty: Key Issues, Governments, Commitments and Action for Sustainable Development, Available at: www.wedo.org
IWRM TOOLBOX

the toolbox provides a framework for IWRM planning which in it gives a reference for water governance. The water governance instruments such as policy framework, institutional arrangements and legal instruments are described here.

Available at: www.gwp.org
Valfrey Bruno, Christophe Le Jallé and Pierre-Marie Grondin, undated. Gender, Water and Poverty in West Africa: Move on to Action.

Available at: www.afd.fr/jahia/webdav/site/myjahiasite/users/administrator/public/


Documents/water-gender-development.pdf
Goyder H, R. Davies and W. Williamson, 1998. Participatory Impact Assessment. London: Action Aid.

This gives research methods and indicators for measuring the impact of poverty reduction. Four country studies from India, Bangladesh, Ghana, and Uganda are presented. The report describes the research process and summarises key findings. Incorporates gender perspectives and gives some interesting examples and analysis of gender differences. Raises some questions about the importance of quantitative indicators to communities and describes the use of meta-indicators.

Available at: www.epilepsy.org.uk/info/drugslist.html

www.ukbap.org.uk/UKPlans
Gross B, C. van Wijk, and N. Murkherjee, 2001. Linking sustainability with demand, gender and Poverty: A study in community managed water supply projects in 15 countries. Available at: www.wsp.org/03_ParticipationGender.asp
Kabeer, Naila, 2003. Gender Mainstreaming in Poverty Eradication and the Millennium Development Goals: A Handbook.

The handbook is useful for policy makers and other stakeholders designing gender sensitive projects.

Available at: www.idrc.ca/en/ev-28774-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html.
Saleth R.M, M. Samad, D. Molden, 2003. “Water poverty and gender: an overview of issues and policies”, In water policy 5, pp538-398, International Water Institute

The paper examines the methodological and policy issues and suggests strategies for using water as a key instrument to address poverty and gender concerns. PDF.

Available at: www.iwaponline.com
Abu-Ata, Natahlie, 2005. Water, Gender and Growth in the MENA region or the Cost of Gender Exclusion, World Bank MENA Development Report on Water.

The purpose of this background paper is to provide an analytical framework and illustrative cases on the linkages between water, gender and poverty alleviation in the MENA region in preparation for the forthcoming flagship MENA development report on water. This paper will attempt to argue that it makes economic sense to make sure that women and female farmers and small-scale entrepreneurs have the same access to water as men and male farmers both for domestic and irrigation purposes, while at the same time highlighting the challenges and limits of doing so.

Available at: http:// www.worldbank.org
Nunan F, and D. Satterthwaite, 1999. Urban governance, partnership and poverty: the urban environment.

This is a working paper and there are a series of them looking at the urban environment. They focus on the effects of diseases, vectors and chemical hazards and are meant for policy makers and practitioners.

Available at: www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu/pui/research/previous/
Roy, J. and B. Crow, 2004. “Gender Relations and Access to Water: What we want to know about social relations and women’s time allocation,” Centre for Global, International and Regional Studies, WP 2004-5, University of California, Santa Cruz
SIDA, 1997. Economic Reform and Poverty: A Gender Analysis.

The report contains discussion of the gender mainstreaming debates on economic reform and poverty. It highlights the importance of gender to economic reforms and poverty linkages. It concludes with a look at the implications for policy and practice.

Available at: www.bridge.isd.ac.uk or www.iiav.nl/nl/water_doc.pdf
UNEP, 2002. Water for the Poor

This report presents a road map for delivering water services to the poor. It shows how business has begun providing an enabling environment needed to accelerate progress.

Available at: www.earthprint.com
UNEP, 2002. Where are the poor? Experience with the development and use of Poverty Maps

This publication shows how international, national and local decision making bodies to direct investments can use road maps.

Available at:www.earthprint.com
United Nations, 2002. A World Summit on Sustainable Development TYPE 2 PARTNERSHIPS, UN, Johannesburg. Available at: www.johannesburgsummit.org/html/documents/crps/a_conf199_crp5.pdf

IWMI, 2000. Gender Poverty, Managing Rivers Basins to Alleviate water Deprivation. Available at: www.earthprint.com


IWMI, 2000. Pedaling out of Poverty: social Impact of manual Irrigation Technology in Asia

This research report offers an assessment of the social impact of the treadle pump technology for manual irrigation. The treadle pump can be a useful tool for poverty reduction.

Available at: www.earthprint.com
CTA, 1999. Reducing poverty through agricultural sector strategies in Eastern and Southern Africa

This is a workshop report that gives a summary of the strategies in Eastern and Southern Africa of the poverty reduction strategies.

Available at: www.earthprint.com

Upadhyay, B, 2003. Water poverty and gender review of evidence from Nepal, India and South Africa. Available at: www.iwaponline.com




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