Research/Pre-Writing In Your Writing Journal or on Your Computer



Download 18.88 Kb.
Date12.05.2017
Size18.88 Kb.
  • Research/Pre-Writing – In Your Writing Journal or on Your Computer
  • Construct Outline – There are two different ways to outline a comparative essay.
    • Block Arrangement
    • Point-By-Point Arrangement
  • Draft 1 - Copy from Outline
  • Draft 2 - ELABORATE your 2 points of analysis (bottom slice)
  • Create a great lead – small moment, question, statistic, quote, unusual fact
  • Elaborate Lead using S.A.I.D.D. strategies
  • Edit for grammar, spelling, punctuation, sentence structure, agreement, etc.
  • Final Draft
  • The Comparative Essay Process
  • A comparative essay is an essay in which you either compare something or contrast something.  When you compare, you emphasize the similarities, and when you contrast, you emphasize the differences.  We use compare and contrast thinking when deciding which movie to go to, which product to buy, or whether to travel by car, bus or airplane to a vacation spot. In this essay, we will be tying in our writing with a topic from your science class.
  • Comparative Essay
  • How to Do Research for a Paper
  • Read Each text:
  • Use the “Read Around the Text” strategy to pre-read.
  • Read the text carefully, looking for main ideas and details.
  • Read through the text again, using sticky notes to mark main ideas that you think you might use.
  • Take Notes:
  • Use the “Two Column” strategy for taking notes.
  • Compile Notes:
  • Review all the notes you have taken.
  • Find common ideas and highlight each set of common ideas in a common color.
  • Make sure you have page numbers for each of the ideas you will be using in your paper.
  • Research – Reading Around the Text
  • In your writing journal or on your computer:
  • Title a new Page: Electricity – Read Around the Text
  • Put the date
  • Number the page from 1- 6 (for each step above), leaving at least 4 – 5 spaces between each number.
  • Read the article entitled “Electricity” and follow steps 1-6 on the wheel above.
  • 1. Pictures
  • There is a diagram of a hydrogen fuel cell and several pictures of vehicles that use hydrogen fuel cells. There will be something about using hydrogen as a power source.
  • 2. Captions
  • Only 3 of the images have captions, but they talk about vehicles that use hydrogen fuel cells.
  • 3. Maps, Charts, Graphs
  • There is one chart and it shows a process. It shows how a hydrogen fuel cell works. There will probably be some explanation of how hydrogen can be used to power things.
  • 4. Titles, Headings, Bolded Words
  • It looks from the sub-titles and headings that the article is going to be discussing hydrogen as an alternative fuel source. It looks like pros and cons will be discussed and that there is a lot of discussion about all the ways hydrogen is used.
  • 5. First and last paragraphs
  • The first paragraph talks about hydrogen in the sun and the last paragraph talks about difficulties that hydrogen-powered cars may have in refueling. The linking idea is fuel – hydrogen fuels the sun and possibly also cars.
  • Is hydrogen used a lot in the United States? Is this going to be the way that all cars are powered in the future? Will other things besides cars be powered with hydrogen? Do hydrogen fuel cells hurt the environment?
  • Hydrogen Basics – Read Around the Text
  • 12/1/2013
  • Research - The Two Column Note-Taking Strategy
  • 1. Divide your paper into two columns – make the right column wider and the left column narrower
  • 2. On the left side list main ideas – be sure to put page numbers!
  • 3. On the right side, list supporting details that go with the main ideas.
  • In your writing journal or on your computer: Create a two-column page for each text you will be reading and use the method above to take notes.
  • What is Hydrogen – p.1
  • - Simplest element
  • - Found mostly in compound form
  • h2o – water
  • ch4 - coal
  • - Has highest energy content of any fuel
  • Hydrogen – Energy Carrier – p.1 - 2
  • Moves energy in useable form from one place to another
    • Electricity – from power plants to homes
  • Must be produced from another substance
    • Can be produced from water, fossil fuels or biomass
  • Not widely used now, but could be in future
  • Two most common methods are steam reforming an electrolysis (water splitting)
    • Steam reforming – from coal, less expensive, produces greenhouse gases
    • Electrolysis – from water, very expensive, no emissions
  • Hydrogen Basics by The U.S. Energy Information Administration
  • Hydrogen in the U.S. – p. 2 &/ 4
  • Per year – enough hydrogen produced to power 20 – 30 million cars or 5-8 million homes.
  • produced in CA, LA, TX
  • Mostly used in refining, treating metals, processing foods
  • Used mostly as a fuel by NASA
  • Hydrogen as a fuel – p. 4
  • Fuel cells are efficient
  • Very expensive so not a lot yet
  • Used as emergency power
  • Used in about 300 vehicles – most are buses
  • Building re-fueling stations a challenge – no one buys cars if no stations; no one builds stations if no cars
  • The Important Parts of an Essay
  • An essay can be thought of in 3 parts:
    • Say what you’re going to say
    • Say it
    • Say what you said
  • Lead
  • Thesis Statement
    • Claim
    • Avenues
    • In a comparative essay the body paragraphs can be arranged in two different ways – Block arrangement or Point-by-Point.
  • Body Paragraphs
  • Sandwiching of examples with 2 points of analysis each
  • Support of the thesis claim
  • Elaboration of analysis – the most important part!
  • Conclusion
    • Restates Thesis and avenues in different words
  • Transitions
  • The Block Arrangement
  • Suppose you are interested in showing the differences between natural gas energy and solar energy.  One way to arrange your material is to use the block arrangement which is to write about natural gas energy in one paragraph and solar energy in the next – natural gas is one avenue and solar energy is the second. If you mention a particular point in the natural gas paragraph, you must mention the same point in the solar energy paragraph, and in the same order.  Study the following outline, which shows this kind of organization.  The introductory paragraph is followed by the natural gas paragraph, the solar energy paragraph, then the conclusion; the fully developed essay is just four paragraphs.
  • Your Outline would look like this:
  • Lead, transition, thesis plus two avenues (natural gas, hydrogen)
  • Natural Gas A.  Benefits – Sandwiched example B.  Problems – Sandwiched example
  • Hydrogen A.  Benefits – Sandwiched example B.  Problems – Sandwiched example
  • Conclusion – restate thesis and avenues – end with a final thought, decision, or observation
  • Natural Gas vs. Hydrogen
  • In your writing journal: Compile your notes and highlight the examples you plan to use in your essay.
  • The Point-by-Point Arrangement
  • Continuing with the example of vacationing in the mountains vs. vacationing at the beach, we will look at a second way to outline and write your comparative essay.  To do this you start with the same type of introductory paragraph as the block arrangement, but instead of dividing the two topics by paragraph, you discuss a particular point about vacationing in the mountains and then immediately to discuss the same point about vacationing at the beach.  This is called point-by-point or alternating arrangement.  An outline of this organization follows.
  • Your Outline would look like this:
  • Lead, transition, thesis plus two avenues (Benefits, Problems)
  • First difference between natural gas and hydrogen is benefits A.  Natural gas – benefits – sandwiched example B.  Hydrogen – problems – sandwiched example
  • Second difference between natural gas and hydrogen is problems A.  Natural gas – benefits – sandwiched example B.  Hydrogen– problems – sandwiched example
  • Conclusion – restate thesis and avenues – end with a final thought, decision, or observation
  • In your writing journal: Continue compiling your notes and highlighting the examples you plan to use in your essay.
  • Natural Gas vs. Hydrogen
  • Supporting Your Point of View Through Comparison
  • You can use your comparison essay to support your point of view and be persuasive.
  • While fossil fuels play a huge part in the problems and dangers that humanity is facing, hydrogen is a part of the solution; part of a brighter future. The U.S. Dept. of Energy states that “plants powered by coal and nuclear energy…are about 35% efficient.” (1) This means that for every 100 units of fuel used, 65 units end up as waste. The waste products and pollution from power plants are causing greenhouse gases, land pollution and water pollution. We can no longer afford this kind of inefficiency. Hydrogen, however, promises great hope for the future. The U.S. Dept. of Energy says that “hydrogen has the highest energy content of any common fuel by weight.” (1) This means that more energy can be extracted with less waste. Even so, the waste that is produced by hydrogen fuel cells is water that is so pure that it is drinkable. Water vapor emissions from cars using hydrogen fuel cells go right back into the water cycle, which means that the waste is not really waste at all. It is contributing something positive back to the earth.
  • Example:
  • Negative
  • Positive
  • In your writing journal: Try on two sandwiched examples in paragraph form in which you persuade the reader to prefer one form of energy over another.
  • 2 Points of Analysis
  • The bottom “bread” of your sandwich should be the thickest of all. It ties your example to your topic statement and to your thesis. In order to analyze your example in depth you need to use at least 2 points of analysis – one for each of the topics you are comparing.
  • Prompts to consider using in the analysis section:
  • This shows that ___________________________
  • This demonstrates that _____________________
  • This reveals that __________________________
  • This is because ___________________________
  • This proves that ___________________________
  • Both Isabel and Percy’s initiation periods give the reader hints about the heroes that they will later become. Percy is initiated through his battles with Mrs. Dodds and the Minotaur, both of which 3reveal that although he has no training, he has a warrior’s spirit and will not give up. Like Percy, Isabel shows her potential on the dock after landing in New York when she takes the blame for Ruth and endures a harsh slap from Madam. 2This demonstrates that although it is not fully developed, isabel’s inner lion is present and waiting to emerge. Both of these hero’s have an inner courage that draws the reader in.
  • In your outline: Use 2 points of analysis – one for Isabel and one for Percy for each of your avenue examples.
  • Essay Lead
  • Hooks the reader
  • Relates to the topic, but often more indirectly
  • Should not be too short that it feels abrupt
  • Should not be too long that it seems to take forever to get to the point
  • A Good Lead in a Comparative Essay Should:
  • State the topics that you will be comparing
  • Give some background on each topic.
  • Give the reader any additional background information they may need in order to understand your analysis.
  • Give the reader enough information to understand the analysis that will follow, but don’t give too much away.
  • Revision Strategies
  • Build Transitions
  • Use Elaboration Strategies
  • Use the Sandwich Strategy
  • Use Strong Verbs
  • Check Sentence Structures
  • Fully Develop Analysis Sections
  • Transitions
  • 3 Parts to a transition
    • Refer back to what you just talked about
    • Refer forward to what you’re going to talk about
    • Linking idea
  • Transitions can be used between sentences as the first step in revision
    • Go through each paragraph two sentences at a time and build a transition sentence between each pair.
    • Re-read your paragraphs aloud.
    • Add anything that feels unsaid
    • Delete where you feel like you’ve overdone it
  • Elaboration Strategies
  • Explain Why
  • Explain Why Not
  • Explain How
  • Explain the Details
  • Define
  • Give an example
  • Using Powerful Verbs and Adjectives
  • (And Dropping Unnecessary Adverbs!)
  • Vanilla:
  • Isabel and Percy are both orphans. Having no adults to rely on forces them to rely on themselves.
  • Less Vanilla:
  • Both Percy and Isabel have been orphaned, which isolates them and forces them to rely on their own abilities in order to overcome the obstacles they find.
  • Some verbs are better than others. When you revise:
  • Go through your draft and underline all the verbs.
  • Give them the “vanilla” test.
  • If they are too vanilla, or if you are using adverbs to spice them up, use a thesaurus to find a more “spicy” verb.
  • Avoid using the same “spicy” verb twice.
  • Examples:
  • Very Spicy:
  • Both Percy and Isabel have been orphaned, which isolates and challenges them. They are compelled to be more resourceful and dig more deeply into their own inner resources in order to overcome the obstacles they encounter.
  • Fine-Tuning Sentences for Better Flow
  • Not So Good: Percy and Isabel are both good heroes. Percy and Isabel both have courage. They both are warriors.
  • Sentence structure affects the way the language of your piece flows.
  • Read through the piece ALOUD to yourself
  • Read it through ALOUD to someone else
  • Have someone else read it ALOUD to you
  • Listen for:
    • Short, choppy sentences
    • Repetitious words or ideas
  • Combine short sentences
  • Delete or reword repetitious ideas or words
  • Examples:
  • Better: Percy and Isabel are both heroes that readers can relate to. They are courageous warriors who fight for what they believe in.
  • Editing Basics
  • Verbs:
  • Agreement – Subjects and verbs.
  • Tense – Check each verb – are they all in the same tense?
  • Variety – Are you using the same verbs over and over again?
  • Person – Does it switch anywhere from you to I, from I to they, from you to they or he/she? Have you taken “I” out of it, as in “I think”…
  • Word Variety – Are you using the same word over and over again?
  • Sentence Structure – Are your sentences varied and not all the same?
  • Spelling – Check for words the spell checker won’t pick up and incorrect duplicates ie. Aloud/Allowed
  • Capitalization – Beginning of sentences, and proper nouns
  • Sentences – Check for run-ons and fragments.
  • Strategy:
  • Read your piece backwards. This will help you find spelling and technical errors.
  • Read it aloud to a partner – have the partner read it aloud to you.


Download 18.88 Kb.

Share with your friends:




The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2020
send message

    Main page