Republic of the Philippines Department of Education

Download 6.7 Mb.
Size6.7 Mb.
1   ...   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18
No. of test

Volume of Water Before Filtration

Volume of Water After Filtration

Percent Recovery


1 L

.94 L



1 L

.92 L



1 L

.95 L


Average Percent Recovery


Table 2.3.4. Percent Recovery of Water

The data shows that the percent recovery rate of the Project Hydra is high. This means that the filtering system utilized by the project is efficient in recycling and cleaning floodwater for future uses.

The rate of the filtration system was also measured by the researcher. The data was tabulated in the table shown below

Time in seconds

Volume of Floodwater Filtered (in Liters)

Rate of Water Pumped



0.070 L per second



0.077 L per second



0.077 L per second

Average Rate

0.075 L per second

Table 2.3.5. Rate of the Filtration System

The rate of the water pump was also measured by the researcher. The data was tabulated in the table shown below

Time in seconds

Volume of Water Pumped (in Liters)

Rate of Water Pumped



0.113 L per second



0.116 L per second



0.116 L per second

Average Rate

0.115 L per second

Table 2.3.6. Rate of the Water Pump

The water pump as shown in the data presented above has an average pumping rate of 0.115 L per second. This shows that the water pump can catch up with the filtering rate of the filtration system which is 0.075 L per second.




The functionality of Project Hydra, based on research, used the ultrasonic sensors, servo motors and LED lights to indicate water level and execute draining, filtering and storing tasks by recycling flood water.

The operation of the set-up is based on the real-time readings of the ultrasonic sensors that helped in determining which program condition must be followed, as such the function of this prototype is to drain, filter and store floodwater based on the outcome or readings obtained by the ultrasonic sensors.


  1. It is recommended that the future researchers try other sensors that still provides and implements the functions of the study and to integrate the possibility of multiple clogs or blocks and to also create a limiting range for the sensors’ trigger in identifying a possible clog in the drain.

  2. It is also recommended to use a bigger set up and to use a GSM shield for better data gathering and monitoring of the system.

  3. We recommend having more than 10 students who have knowledge to participate in rating the functionality of the prototype in order to have a more validated data.

  4. Water Level sensors could be used for detecting water levels in order to avoid false triggers caused by ultrasonic sensors.


Aronica, G., & Lanza, L. G. (2015, March). Drainage Efficiency in Urban Areas: A Case Study.

Retrieved July 24, 2017, from

Bucklin (2012). Cisterns To Collect Non-Potable Water For Domestic Use. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Cocks, M., Sultana, S., Ewings, A., & Parkhill, A. (2015). Rainwater Harvesting and Filtration System. Engineering Without Borders Challenge 2015, 19-20.

Concepcion, R. N., Contreras, S. M., Sanidad, W. B., Gesite, A. B., Nilo, G. P., Salandanan, K. A., ... & de Vera, S. V. (2014). Enhancing multi- functionality of agriculture through rainwater harvesting system. Paddy and Water Environment, 4(4), 235-243.

Essays, UK. (November 2013). Literature Review of Flooding and Flood Risks Environmental Sciences Essay. Retrieved from

Economic drivers shaping the future of water. (2012). Charting the Water Regulatory Future.

FWMA. (2014) Irrigation water management: irrigation scheduling. Training. Retrievedfrom

Ghisi, E., Bressan, D. L., & Martini, M. (2014). Rainwater tank capacity and potential for potable water savings by using rainwater in the residential sector of southeastern Brazil. Retrieved July 23, 2017, from

Greenpeace Southeast Asia. (2007). The state of water resources in the Philippines. Quezon City:Greenpeace Southeast Asia Publishing. (2013). Harvesting Rainwater for Landscape Use. University of Arizona Cooperative Extension Low 4 Program.

Jones. (2013). Fuzzy comprehensive assessment of water shortage risk. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering8, 906-912.

Li, X. Y., Gong, J. D., Gao, Q. Z., & Li, F. R. (2012). Incorporation of ridge and furrow method of rainfall harvesting with mulching for crop production under semiarid conditions. Agricultural Water Management, 50(3), 173-183.

Ling, E., & Benham, B. L. (2014). Rainwater harvesting systems.

Manila Standard. (2016, September 03). Lapu-Lapu puts on world map. Retrieved July 16, 2017, from

Merz (2012). A model for regional optimal allocation of irrigation water resources under deficit irrigation and its applications. Agricultural Water Management52(2), 139-154.

Molak (2014). China’s water shortage could shake world food security. World watch11(4), 10-21.

Morakinyo, E. et al. (2015, December). Multi-purpose rainwater harvesting for water resource recovery and the cooling effect. Water Research, vol. 86. Retrieved from

Parker. (2013). Charging for irrigation water: The issues and options, with a case study from Iran. Vol. 52. IWMI, 2001.

Press Reader. (2017, April 4). Retrieved July 16, 2017, from

Pubellier, M., Deffontaines, B., Quebral, R., & Rangin, C. (2013). Drainage network analysis and tectonics of Mindanao, southern Philippines. Geomorphology, 9(4), 325-342.

Rain Harvest LLC. (2017). Filtration. Retrieved July 23, 2017, from

Razi et. al (2012). Is physical water scarcity a new phenomenon? Global assessment of water shortage over the last two millennia. Environmental Research Letters5(3), 034006.

Rossman,T.(2015). Global resource problems. Retrieved from,php?cref=1.

Rovira, M. (2014). Cost-effective rainwater harvesting system in the metropolitan area of Barcelona. Journal of Water Supply, 63(7), 586-595.

Shareef, A. W. (2012). Roof rainwater harvesting systems for household water supply in Jordan. Desalination243(1-3), 195-207.

Texas Water Development Board. (2014). The Texas Manual on Rainwater Harvesting, 3rd Ed. Austin, TX. _harvestmanual_3rdedition.pdf.

The Gulf Islands Rainwater Connection. (n.d.). Components of a Rainwater Harvesting System. Retrieved July 23, 2017, from

Wang, Y., Xie, Z., Malhi, S. S., Vera, C. L., Zhang, Y., & Wang, J. (2013). Effects of rainfall harvesting and mulching technologies on water use efficiency and crop yield in the semi-arid Loess Plateau, China. Agricultural water management, 96(3), 374-382.

Ward, S., Memon, F. A., & Butler, D. (2012). Performance of a large building rainwater harvesting system. Water research, 46(16), 5127-5134.

Wheater. (2013). Influences on the efficiency of irrigation water use.

World Wild Life.(2014, October), All Life Needs Water. Retrieved from

Zaragoza. (2015). OECD Environmental Outlook to 2030. OECD Environmental Outlook, 2-6.

Zhang, X. & Hu, M. (2014). Effectiveness of rainwater harvesting in runoff volume reduction in a planned industrial park, China. Water Resources Management, 28(3), 671-682.




Download 6.7 Mb.

Share with your friends:
1   ...   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18

The database is protected by copyright © 2020
send message

    Main page