The following list outlines the different types of graphics published in IEEE journals. They are categorized based on their construction, and use of color / shades of gray:
Figures that are meant to appear in color, or shades of black/gray. Such figures may include photographs,
illustrations, multicolor graphs, and flowcharts.
Figures that are composed of only black lines and shapes. These figures should have no shades or half-tones of gray. Only black and white.
Head and shoulders shots of authors which appear at the end of our papers.
Tables Data charts which are typically black and white, but sometimes include color.
Figures compiled of more than one sub-figure presented side-by-side, or stacked. If a multipart figure is made up of multiple figure types (one part is lineart, and another is grayscale or color) the figure should meet the stricter guidelines.
File Formats For Graphics
Format and save your graphics using a suitable graphics processing program that will allow you to create the images as PostScript (PS), Encapsulated PostScript (.EPS), Tagged Image File Format (.TIFF), Portable Document Format (.PDF), or Portable Network Graphics (.PNG) sizes them, and adjusts the resolution settings. If you created your source files in one of the following programs you will be able to submit the graphics without converting to a PS, EPS, TIFF, PDF, or PNG file: Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint, or Microsoft Excel. Though it is not required, it is recommended that these files be saved in PDF format rather than DOC, XLS, or PPT. Doing so will protect your figures from common font and arrow stroke issues that occur when working on the files across multiple platforms. When submitting your final paper, your graphics should all be submitted individually in one of these formats along with the manuscript.
Sizing of Graphics
Most charts, graphs, and tables are one column wide (3.5 inches / 88 millimeters / 21 picas) or page wide (7.16 inches / 181 millimeters / 43 picas). The maximum depth a graphic can be is 8.5 inches (216 millimeters / 54 picas). When choosing the depth of a graphic, please allow space for a caption. Figures can be sized between column and page widths if the author chooses, however it is recommended that figures are not sized less than column width unless when necessary.
There is currently one publication with column measurements that don’t coincide with those listed above. Proceedings of the IEEE has a column measurement of 3.25 inches (82.5 millimeters / 19.5 picas).
The final printed size of author photographs is exactly
1 inch wide by 1.25 inches tall (25.4 millimeters x 31.75 millimeters / 6 picas x 7.5 picas). Author photos printed in editorials measure 1.59 inches wide by 2 inches tall (40 millimeters x 50 millimeters / 9.5 picas x 12 picas).
The proper resolution of your figures will depend on the type of figure it is as defined in the “Types of Figures” section. Author photographs, color, and grayscale figures should be at least 300dpi. Lineart, including tables should be a minimum of 600dpi.
While IEEE does accept, and even recommends that authors submit artwork in vector format, it is our policy is to rasterize all figures for publication. This is done in order to preserve the figures’ integrity across multiple computer platforms.
The term color space refers to the entire sum of colors that can be represented within the said medium. For our purposes, the three main color spaces are Grayscale, RGB (red/green/blue) and CMYK (cyan/magenta/yellow/black). RGB is generally used with on-screen graphics, whereas CMYK is used for printing purposes.
All color figures should be generated in RGB or CMYK color space. Grayscale images should be submitted in Grayscale color space. Line art may be provided in grayscale OR bitmap colorspace. Note that “bitmap colorspace” and “bitmap file format” are not the same thing. When bitmap color space is selected, .TIF/.TIFF is the recommended file format.
Accepted Fonts Within Figures
When preparing your graphics IEEE suggests that you use of one of the following Open Type fonts: Times New Roman, Helvetica, Arial, Cambria, and Symbol. If you are supplying EPS, PS, or PDF files all fonts must be embedded. Some fonts may only be native to your operating system; without the fonts embedded, parts of the graphic may be distorted or missing.
A safe option when finalizing your figures is to strip out the fonts before you save the files, creating “outline” type. This converts fonts to artwork what will appear uniformly on any screen.
Using Labels Within Figures
Figure Axis labels
Figure axis labels are often a source of confusion. Use words rather than symbols. As an example, write the quantity “Magnetization,” or “Magnetization M,” not just “M.” Put units in parentheses. Do not label axes only with units. As in Fig. 1, for example, write “Magnetization (A/m)” or “Magnetization (Am1),” not just “A/m.” Do not label axes with a ratio of quantities and units. For example, write “Temperature (K),” not “Temperature/K.”
Multipliers can be especially confusing. Write “Magnetization (kA/m)” or “Magnetization (103 A/m).” Do not write “Magnetization (A/m) 1000” because the reader would not know whether the top axis label in Fig. 1 meant 16000 A/m or 0.016 A/m. Figure labels should be legible, approximately 8 to 10 point type.
Subfigure Labels in Multipart Figures and Tables
Multipart figures should be combined and labeled before final submission. Labels should appear centered below each subfigure in 8 point Times New Roman font in the format of (a) (b) (c).
Figures (line artwork or photographs) should be named starting with the first 5 letters of the author’s last name. The next characters in the filename should be the number that represents the sequential location of this image in your article. For example, in author “Anderson’s” paper, the first three figures would be named ander1.tif, ander2.tif, and ander3.ps.
Tables should contain only the body of the table (not the caption) and should be named similarly to figures, except that ‘.t’ is inserted in-between the author’s name and the table number. For example, author Anderson’s first three tables would be named ander.t1.tif, ander.t2.ps, ander.t3.eps.
Author photographs should be named using the first five characters of the pictured author’s last name. For example, four author photographs for a paper may be named: oppen.ps, moshc.tif, chen.eps, and duran.pdf.
If two authors or more have the same last name, their first initial(s) can be substituted for the fifth, fourth, third... letters of their surname until the degree where there is differentiation. For example, two authors Michael and Monica Oppenheimer’s photos would be named oppmi.tif, and oppmo.eps.
Referencing a Figure or Table Within Your Paper
When referencing your figures and tables within your paper, use the abbreviation “Fig.” even at the beginning of a sentence. Do not abbreviate “Table.” Tables should be numbered with Roman Numerals.
Checking Your Figures: The IEEE Graphics Checker
The IEEE Graphics Checker Tool enables authors to pre-screen their graphics for compliance with IEEE Transactions and Journals standards before submission. The online tool, located at http://graphicsqc.ieee.org/, allows authors to upload their graphics in order to check that each file is the correct file format, resolution, size and colorspace; that no fonts are missing or corrupt; that figures are not compiled in layers or have transparency, and that they are named according to the IEEE Transactions and Journals naming convention. At the end of this automated process, authors are provided with a detailed report on each graphic within the web applet, as well as by email.
For more information on using the Graphics Checker Tool
or any other graphics related topic, contact the IEEE Graphics Help Desk by e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Submitting Your Graphics
Because IEEE will do the final formatting of your paper,
you do not need to position figures and tables at the top and bottom of each column. In fact, all figures, figure captions, and tables can be placed at the end of your paper. In addition to, or even in lieu of submitting figures within your final manuscript, figures should be submitted individually, separate from the manuscript in one of the file formats listed above in section VI-J. Place figure captions below the figures; place table titles above the tables. Please do not include captions as part of the figures, or put them in “text boxes” linked to the figures. Also, do not place borders around the outside of your figures.
All IEEE Transactions, Journals, and Letters allow an author to publish color figures on IEEE Xplore® at no charge, and automatically convert them to grayscale for print versions. In most journals, figures and tables may alternatively be printed in color if an author chooses to do so. Please note that this service comes at an extra expense to the author. If you intend to have print color graphics, include a note with your final paper indicating which figures or tables you would like to be handled that way, and stating that you are willing to pay the additional fee.
A conclusion section is not required. Although a conclusion may review the main points of the paper, do not replicate the abstract as the conclusion. A conclusion might elaborate on the importance of the work or suggest applications and extensions.
Appendixes, if needed, appear before the acknowledgment.
The preferred spelling of the word “acknowledgment” in American English is without an “e” after the “g.” Use the singular heading even if you have many acknowledgments. Avoid expressions such as “One of us (S.B.A.) would like to thank ... .” Instead, write “F. A. Author thanks ... .” In most cases, sponsor and financial support acknowledgments are placed in the unnumbered footnote on the first page, not here.
References and Footnotes
References need not be cited in text. When they are, number citations on the line, in square brackets inside the punctuation. Multiple references are each numbered with separate brackets. When citing a section in a book, please give the relevant page numbers. In text, refer simply to the reference number. Do not use “Ref.” or “reference” except at the beginning of a sentence: “Reference  shows ... .” Please do not use automatic endnotes in Word, rather, type the reference list at the end of the paper using the “References” style.
Reference numbers are set flush left and form a column of their own, hanging out beyond the body of the reference. The reference numbers are on the line, enclosed in square brackets. In all references, the given name of the author or editor is abbreviated to the initial only and precedes the last name. Use them all; use et al. only if names are not given. Use commas around Jr., Sr., and III in names. Abbreviate conference titles. When citing IEEE transactions, provide the issue number, page range, volume number, year, and/or month if available. When referencing a patent, provide the day and the month of issue, or application. References may not include all information; please obtain and include relevant information. Do not combine references. There must be only one reference with each number. If there is a URL included with the print reference, it can be included at the end of the reference.
Other than books, capitalize only the first word in a paper title, except for proper nouns and element symbols. For papers published in translation journals, please give the English citation first, followed by the original foreign-language citation See the end of this document for formats and examples of common references. For a complete discussion of references and their formats, see “The IEEE Style Manual,” available as a PDF link off the Author Digital Toolbox main page.
Number footnotes separately in superscripts (Insert | Footnote).1 Place the actual footnote at the bottom of the column in which it is cited; do not put footnotes in the reference list (endnotes). Use letters for table footnotes (see Table I).
Submitting Your Paper for Review
Review Stage Using Word 6.0 or Higher
If you want to submit your file with one column electronically, please do the following:
--First, click on the View menu and choose Print Layout.
--Second, place your cursor in the first paragraph. Go to the Format menu, choose Columns, choose one column Layout, and choose “apply to whole document” from the dropdown menu.
--Third, click and drag the right margin bar to just over 4 inches in width.
The graphics will stay in the “second” column, but you can drag them to the first column. Make the graphic wider to push out any text that may try to fill in next to the graphic.
Final Stage Using Word 6.0
When you submit your final version (after your paper has been accepted), print it in two-column format, including figures and tables. You must also send your final manuscript on a disk, via e-mail, or through a Web manuscript submission system as directed by the society contact. You may use Zipfor large files, or compress files using Compress, Pkzip, Stuffit, or Gzip.
Also, send a sheet of paper or PDF with complete contact information for all authors. Include full mailing addresses, telephone numbers, fax numbers, and e-mail addresses. This information will be used to send each author a complimentary copy of the journal in which the paper appears. In addition, designate one author as the “corresponding author.” This is the author to whom proofs of the paper will be sent. Proofs are sent to the corresponding author only.
Review Stage Using ScholarOne® Manuscripts
Contributions to the Transactions, Journals, and Letters may be submitted electronically on IEEE’s on-line manuscript submission and peer-review system, ScholarOne® Manuscripts. You can get a listing of the publications that participate in ScholarOneat http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/authors/authors_submission.html First check if you have an existing account. If there is none, please create a new account. After logging in, go to your Author Center and click “Submit First Draft of a New Manuscript.”
Along with other information, you will be asked to select the subject from a pull-down list. Depending on the journal, there are various steps to the submission process; you must complete all steps for a complete submission. At the end of each step you must click “Save and Continue”; just uploading the paper is not sufficient. After the last step, you should see a confirmation that the submission is complete. You should also receive an e-mail confirmation. For inquiries regarding the submission of your paper on ScholarOne Manuscripts, please contact email@example.com or call +1 732 465 5861.
ScholarOne Manuscripts will accept files for review in various formats. Please check the guidelines of the specific journal for which you plan to submit.
You will be asked to file an electronic copyright form immediately upon completing the submission process (authors are responsible for obtaining any security clearances). Failure to submit the electronic copyright could result in publishing delays later. You will also have the opportunity to designate your article as “open access” if you agree to pay the IEEE open access fee.
Final Stage Using ScholarOne Manuscripts
Upon acceptance, you will receive an email with specific instructions regarding the submission of your final files. To avoid any delays in publication, please be sure to follow these instructions. Most journals require that final submissions be uploaded through ScholarOne Manuscripts, although some may still accept final submissions via email. Final submissions should include source files of your accepted manuscript, high quality graphic files, and a formatted pdf file. If you have any questions regarding the final submission process, please contact the administrative contact for the journal.
In addition to this, upload a file with complete contact information for all authors. Include full mailing addresses, telephone numbers, fax numbers, and e-mail addresses. Designate the author who submitted the manuscript on ScholarOne Manuscripts as the “corresponding author.” This is the only author to whom proofs of the paper will be sent.
An IEEE copyright form should accompany your final submission. You can get a .pdf, .html, or .doc version at http://www.ieee.org/copyright. Authors are responsible for obtaining any security clearances.
Submission of a manuscript is not required for participation in a conference. Do not submit a reworked version of a paper you have submitted or published elsewhere. Do not publish “preliminary” data or results. The submitting author is responsible for obtaining agreement of all coauthors and any consent required from sponsors before submitting a paper. The IEEE Transactions and Journals Department strongly discourages courtesy authorship. It is the obligation of the authors to cite relevant prior work.
The IEEE Transactions and Journals Department does not publish conference records or proceedings. The department does publish papers related to conferences that have been recommended for publication on the basis of peer review. As a matter of convenience and service to the technical community, these topical papers are typically collected and published in one special issue of mosttransactions publications.
At least two reviews are required for every paper submitted. For conference-related papers, the decision to accept or reject a paper is made by the conference editors and publications committee; the recommendations of the referees are advisory only. Indecipherable English is a valid reason for rejection. There is a service available that will help you improve your English for a fee, and the link to that service can be found at http://www.ieee.org/web/publications/authors/transjnl/index.html. Authors of rejected papers may revise and resubmit them as regular papers, whereupon they will be reviewed by two new referees.
The two types of contents of that are published are; 1) peer-reviewed and 2) archival. The Transactions and Journals Department publishes scholarly articles of archival value as well as tutorial expositions and critical reviews of classical subjects and topics of current interest.
Authors should consider the following points:
Technical papers submitted for publication must advance the state of knowledge and must cite relevant prior work.
The length of a submitted paper should be commensurate with the importance, or appropriate to the complexity, of the work. For example, an obvious extension of previously published work might not be appropriate for publication or might be adequately treated in just a few pages.
Authors must convince both peer reviewers and the editors of the scientific and technical merit of a paper; the standards of proof are higher when extraordinary or unexpected results are reported.
Because replication is required for scientific progress, papers submitted for publication must provide sufficient information to allow readers to perform similar experiments or calculations and use the reported results. Although not everything need be disclosed, a paper must contain new, useable, and fully described information. For example, a specimen’s chemical composition need not be reported if the main purpose of a paper is to introduce a new measurement technique. Authors should expect to be challenged by reviewers if the results are not supported by adequate data and critical details.
Papers that describe ongoing work or announce the latest technical achievement, which are suitable for presentation at a professional conference, may not be appropriate for publication.
Basic format for books: J. K. Author, “Title of chapter in the book,” in Title of His Published Book, xth ed. City of Publisher, Country if not
USA: Abbrev. of Publisher, year, ch. x, sec. x, pp. xxx–xxx.
Examples: G.O.Young,“Syntheticstructureofindustrial plastics,”in Plastics, 2nd ed., vol. 3, J. Peters, Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill,1964,pp.15–64.
W.-K.Chen,LinearNetworksandSystems.Belmont, CA:Wadsworth, 1993, pp. 123–135.
Basic format for periodicals: J. K. Author, “Name of paper,” Abbrev. Title of Periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx, Abbrev. Month, year.
Examples: J. U. Duncombe, “Infrared navigation—Part I: An assessment
of feasibility,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. ED-11, no. 1, pp. 34–39, Jan. 1959.
E. P. Wigner, “Theory of traveling-wave optical laser,” Phys. Rev.,
vol. 134, pp. A635–A646, Dec. 1965.
E. H. Miller, “A note on reflector arrays,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., to be published.
Basic format for reports: J. K. Author, “Title of report,” Abbrev. Name of Co., City of Co., Abbrev. State, Rep. xxx, year.
Examples: E. E. Reber, R. L. Michell, and C. J. Carter, “Oxygen absorption in the earth’s atmosphere,” Aerospace Corp., Los Angeles, CA, Tech. Rep. TR-0200 (4230-46)-3, Nov. 1988.
J. H. Davis and J. R. Cogdell, “Calibration program for the 16-foot antenna,” Elect. Eng. Res. Lab., Univ. Texas, Austin, Tech. Memo. NGL-006-69-3, Nov. 15, 1987.
Basic format for handbooks: Name of Manual/Handbook, x ed., Abbrev. Name of Co., City of Co., Abbrev. State, year, pp. xxx-xxx.
Examples: Transmission Systems for Communications, 3rd ed., Western Electric Co., Winston-Salem, NC, 1985, pp. 44–60.
Motorola Semiconductor Data Manual, Motorola Semiconductor Products Inc., Phoenix, AZ, 1989.
Basic format for books (when available online): Author.(year,monthday).Title.(edition)[Typeof medium].volume (issue). Available: site/path/file
Example: J. Jones.(1991, May 10). Networks.(2nded.)[Online]. Available:http://www.atm.com
Basic format for journals (when available online): Author. (year, month). Title.Journal.[Typeof medium].volume (issue), pages. Available: site/path/file
Example: R. J. Vidmar. (1992, Aug.). On the use of atmospheric plasmasaselectromagneticreflectors. IEEETrans. PlasmaSci.[Online].21(3),pp. 876–880. Available: http://www.halcyon.com/pub/journals/21ps03-vidmar
Basic format for paperspresented at conferences (when available online): Author. (year,month). Title. Presented at Conference title. [Type of Medium]. Available: site/path/file
Example: PROCESS Corp., MA. Intranets: Internet technologies deployedbehindthefirewall forcorporateproductivity. Presentedat INET96AnnualMeeting.[Online]. Available: http://home.process.com/Intranets/wp2.htp
Basic format for reports and handbooks (when available online): Author. (year, month). Title. Company.City,StateorCountry.[TypeofMedium].Available: site/path/file
Example: S. L. Talleen. (1996, Apr.). The Intranet Archi -tecture: Managing information in the new paradigm.AmdahlCorp., CA. [Online]. Available: http://www.amdahl.com/doc/products/bsg/intra/infra/html
Basic format for computer programs andelectronicdocuments (when available online):ISOrecommendsthatcapitalizationfollowtheacceptedpracticefor thelanguage orscript in whichtheinformation isgiven.
Basic format for patents (when available online): Name of the invention, by inventor’s name. (year, month day). Patent Number [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file
Example: Musical toothbrush with adjustable neck and mirror, by L.M.R. Brooks. (1992, May 19). Patent D 326 189
[Online]. Available: NEXIS Library: LEXPAT File: DESIGN
Basic format for conference proceedings (published): J. K. Author, “Title of paper,” in Abbreviated Name of Conf., City of Conf., Abbrev. State (if given), year, pp. xxxxxx.
Example: D. B. Payne and J. R. Stern, “Wavelength-switched pas- sivelycoupledsingle-mode opticalnetwork,”in Proc. IOOC-ECOC,1985, pp.585–590.
Example for paperspresentedat conferences(unpublished): D.EbehardandE.Voges,“Digitalsinglesidebanddetectionforinterferometricsensors,”presentedat the2ndInt. Conf.OpticalFiberSensors,Stuttgart,Germany,Jan.2-5, 1984.
Basic format for patents: J. K. Author, “Title of patent,” U.S. Patent x xxx xxx, Abbrev. Month, day, year.
Example: G. Brandli and M. Dick, “Alternatingcurrent fed power supply,” U.S.Patent 4 084 217,Nov.4,1978.
Basic formatfor theses (M.S.) and dissertations (Ph.D.): J. K. Author, “Title of thesis,” M.S. thesis, Abbrev. Dept., Abbrev. Univ., City of Univ., Abbrev. State, year.
J. K. Author, “Title of dissertation,” Ph.D. dissertation, Abbrev. Dept., Abbrev. Univ., City of Univ., Abbrev. State, year.
Examples: J. O. Williams, “Narrow-band analyzer,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Elect. Eng., Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA, 1993.
N. Kawasaki, “Parametric study of thermal and chemical nonequilibrium nozzle flow,” M.S. thesis, Dept. Electron. Eng., Osaka Univ., Osaka, Japan, 1993.
Basic format for the most common types of unpublished references: J. K. Author, private communication, Abbrev. Month, year.
J. K. Author, “Title of paper,” unpublished.
J. K. Author, “Title of paper,” to be published.
Examples: A. Harrison, private communication, May 1995.
B. Smith, “An approach to graphs of linear forms,” unpublished.
Basic format for standards: Title of Standard, Standard number, date.
Examples: IEEE Criteria for Class IE Electric Systems, IEEE Standard 308, 1969.
Letter Symbols for Quantities, ANSI Standard Y10.5-1968.
First A. Author (M’76–SM’81–F’87) and the other authors may include biographies at the end of regular papers. Biographies are often not included in conference-related papers. This author became a Member (M) of IEEE in 1976, a Senior Member (SM) in 1981, and a Fellow (F) in 1987. The first paragraph may contain a place and/or date of birth (list place, then date). Next, the author’s educational background is listed. The degrees should be listed with type of degree in what field, which institution, city, state, and country, and year the degree was earned. The author’s major field of study should be lower-cased.
The second paragraph uses the pronoun of the person (he or she) and not the author’s last name. It lists military and work experience, including summer and fellowship jobs. Job titles are capitalized. The current job must have a location; previous positions may be listed without one. Information concerning previous publications may be included. Try not to list more than three books or published articles. The format for listing publishers of a book within the biography is: title of book (city, state: publisher name, year) similar to a reference. Current and previous research interests end the paragraph.
The third paragraph begins with the author’s title and last name (e.g., Dr. Smith, Prof. Jones, Mr. Kajor, Ms. Hunter). List any memberships in professional societies other than the IEEE. Finally, list any awards and work for IEEE committees and publications. If a photograph is provided, the biography will be indented around it. The photograph is placed at the top left of the biography, and should be of good quality, professional-looking, and black and white (see above example). Personal hobbies will be deleted from the biography. Following are two examples of an author’s biography.