Renaissance in Italy



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Renaissance in Italy





  1. What did Giorgio Vasari’s book Lives of the Most Eminent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects acknowledge? all the important Italian artists who have contributed to this remarkably creative time period __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. Why do you think the text refers to Vasari as a “Renaissance man”? he was an able painter, architect and writer—a man with many skills __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. How did Europeans refer to this new age spanning between the 1300s to the 1500s? Renaissance __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. What transition did the Renaissance mark? Transition from the medieval times to the early modern world __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________


Skimming the text: Examine the text for clues that indicate how the Renaissance influenced either political, social, economic or cultural life.







  1. Why do you think trade facilitated the shift from an agricultural to an urban society? Introduced more commodities into the market—no longer relying on goods that are grown

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  1. How did creative thinking and new technology affect how people viewed the world? It allowed them to comprehend and describe their world more accurately

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  1. What did creative minds set out to accomplish during the Renaissance? They were determined to transform their own age. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. Why did creative minds feel that the Renaissance was a time of rebirth? Because they felt that the medieval world had caused disorder and disunity __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. What did Renaissance thinkers have a renewed interest in? the classical learning of Greece and Rome __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. What language did Renaissance thinkers use as the official language of the Church and scholarship? Latin __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. What kind of attitude did Renaissance thinkers produce towards culture and learning and what did they explore? They produced a new attitude, and they explored the richness and variety of human experience in the here and now __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. What had medieval scholars focused on? More religious beliefs and spirituality __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________


  1. During the Renaissance, what did society place a new emphasis on? Individual achievement __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. Describe the ideal person during the Renaissance: a person with talents in many fields __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. How did the Renaissance support the Spirit of Adventure and a wide range of curiosity and influence people’s behavior? It led people to explore new worlds or to reexamine old ones. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. How did navigators, scientists, writers, and artists respond to the spirit of the age? Navigators sailed across the ocean; scientists looked at the universe in new ways; writers and artists experimented with new forms and techniques. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. What was the spirit of adventure a product of? It was a product of a new view of man himself.

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  1. Expound on the meaning of Pico della Mirandola’s assertion in 1486: “To [man] it is granted to have whatever he chooses, to be whatever he wills.” In this new age, the possibilities for man were endless and man was no longer bound by hereditary limitations __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. What was at the heart of the Renaissance? Humanism __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. Define humanism: an intellectual movement __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. What did humanists study? Classical culture of Greece and Rome and used that study to increase their understanding of their own times __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

  2. Were humanists devout Christians? If so, explain. The text describes them as being pious Christians—meaning devoted __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. What kind of subjects did humanists focus on? Worldly subjects rather than religious issues __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. What sort of issues occupied medieval thinkers? Religious ones __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. How did humanists view education? They believed that it should stimulate the individual’s creative powers __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. Define the humanities: subjects such as grammar, rhetoric (the study of using language effectively), poetry, and history. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. Identify Francesco Petrarch: a Florentine who lived in the 1300s and an early Renaissance humanist, poet, and scholar __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. How did Petrarch’s actions encourage the preservation of great literary works? He assembled a library of Greek and Roman manuscripts and others were encouraged by his example and continued to preserve the Greek classics known to Western Europeans. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

*Checkpoint

  1. What were the main characteristics of the Renaissance? A new world view based on human experience, an emphasis on education and humanism, and a spirit of adventure and curiosity __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. How long did it take the Renaissance to spread to the rest of Europe? Over next hundred years __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. What kind of impact did the Renaissance have on the entire Western world? It transformed the entire Western world. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. Which history did Renaissance thinkers have a new interest in? ancient Rome __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. Why was Italy the logical place for the Renaissance to emerge? It had been the center of the Roman empire __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. What artifacts did Italy still have available for study? Architectural remains, statutes, and coins __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. Where was the seat of the Roman Catholic Church? Rome __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. Which country is Rome located in? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. Why did Rome serve as an inspiration for religious themes used by artists and writers? Because it was the center of Catholicism __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. Why do you think countries were encouraged to trade in Italy? Because of its location __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. What sort of networks developed to support trade in Italy? Extensive banking, manufacturing, and merchant networks __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. How did the decline in trade during the Middle Ages affect trade in Italy? It didn’t; trade remained strong in Italy. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. What fueled Italy’s Renaissance? Wealth that was as a result of the successful trade __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. How did trade routes shape the Renaissance? They carried new ideas __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

Pg 50

  1. How did Italy’s states differ from that of the rest of Europe? They were divided into many small city-states; each Italian city-state was controlled by a powerful family __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. Who exerted control over the city-states in Italy? Merchant families that exerted both political and economic leadership __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. How did the merchant families help shape the Italian Renaissance? Because they had an interest in art and emphasis on personal achievement—and they had power over politics and the economy __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. Identify the Medici family: they were the family of Florence and they ranked among the richest merchants and bankers in Europe __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________



  1. Why were the Medici family considered the uncrowned rulers of the city? They had gained control of the Florentine government in 1434 and they continued to exert power over political and economic decisions __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. Why was Cosimo de’ Medici’s grandson referred to as “the Magnificent”? because he represented the Renaissance ideal—a clever politician that held Florence together during difficult times in the late 1400s. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. Define patron: a financial supporter of the arts __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. How did Lorenzo contribute to the arts flourishing? He helped finance the arts by inviting poets and philosophers to the Medici palace so that they could sketch ancient Roman statutes displayed in the Medici gardens __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. How did artists learn their craft? By sketching ancient Roman statutes displayed in the Medici gardens __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. How did the Medici family affect Florence? Their great wealth transformed Florence into a city that symbolized the energy and brilliance of the Italian Renaissance. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. What similarities did both Athens and Florence share? Florence produced a dazzling number of gifted poets, artists, architects, scholars, and scientists in a relatively short span of time __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

*checkpoint

  1. Why was Italy a favorable setting for the Renaissance? It was a crossroad of trade and had been the center of the classical world __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

Italian Bankers

  1. How is the wealth of the banker shown in this image? Elegant clothing and furniture, servants and bags of money __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. How did the Renaissance attain its most glorious expression? In paintings, sculptures, and architecture __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. Who were some of the key players in the development of the arts? Wealthy patrons, popes, and princes __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. Why did some ordinary people take in interest in the flourishing arts? They were beginning to appreciate the human experience __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. Which ideals did Renaissance art reflect? The ideas of humanism __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. What similarities did Middle Age artists and Renaissance artists have? They both depicted religious themes __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________



  1. How did the Renaissance depictions of religious themes differ from the Middle age portrayals? Renaissance artists often set religious figures such as Jesus and Mary against classical Greek or Roman backgrounds __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. How did Renaissance artists reflect the interest in individual achievement? They often produced portraits of well-known figures of the day __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. How did classical Greek and Roman works influence Renaissance artists? They often revived many classical forms, recreating some of the old works. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. Who created the first replica of ancient art, reviving it in a new form? Donatello created a life-size statue of a soldier on horseback __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________



  1. What transformation did Roman art undergo during the medieval times? Art became much more stylized __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________



  1. How did Renaissance artists pay tribute to the classical form? They returned to realism of classical times by developing new techniques for representing both humans and landscapes __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________



  1. How did Renaissance artists create realistic art? By applying the rules of perspective and making distant objects smaller than those close to the viewer, creating the three-dimensional effect __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

Pg 51

  1. What other techniques did artists employ to portray realism in their work? They used shading to make objects look round and real, and new oil paints to reflect light __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. How did painters portray humans with more accuracy in their sculptures and work? They studied human anatomy and drew from observing live models __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. How did the view of architecture change during the Renaissance? It became viewed as social art __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. Define “social art”: to blend beauty with utility and improvement of society __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. How did Renaissance architects respond to the styles of their predecessors? They rejected the Gothic style of the late Middle Ages __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. How did Renaissance architects view previous styles in architect? Viewed it as disorderly __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. Although the Renaissance artists rejected some of the styles from the Middle Ages, what did they adopt? Columns, arches, and domes that had been favored by the Greek and Romans __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________



  1. How did Filippo Brunelleschi’s work reflect the Renaissance transformation in art? He created a majestic dome, which he modeled on the dome of the Pantheon in Rome __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. How did Brunelleschi construct his dome? He studied art and sculpture and invented many of the machines needed to construct his work __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________


Map Skills:


  1. Identify Which republic controlled Crete? Which kingdom controlled Sicily? Venice; Spain __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

  2. Apply Information Why were so many banking centers located in Italy? Its central location made it ideal for supplying loans to traders __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

Pg 52

  1. According to the text, what can a reader attribute to Leonardo da Vinci’s genius for invention? His endless curiosity __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. Why kind of art did Leonardo create? Sketches of nature and of models __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. How did corpse dissection inspire Leonardo’s work? It helped him learn how bones and muscles work __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. What is one of the most distinct features of Leonardo’s work? Its realism __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. What has baffled many people about Leonardo’s Mona Lisa? Her mysterious smile __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________


  1. What does The Last Supper exemplify? Masterpiece of perspective __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. Why did The Last Supper have to be restored? Because Leonardo experimented with a new type of paint and it decayed __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________



  1. How did Leonardo regard himself? He regarded himself as an artists __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. Provide an explanation/definition of the many talents that Leonardo is credited for having: botany_________________________________________________ optics__________________________________________ architecture ___________________________________ engineering__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



  1. How did Leonardo demonstrate his engineering talent? By making sketches for flying machines and undersea boats centuries before the first airplane or submarine was actually built __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. Were historians able to preserve most of Leonardo’s paintings? No __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________



  1. What serves as a testament to Leonardo’s genius and creativity? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. Identify Michelangelo Buonarroti: a talented sculptor, engineer, painter, architect, and poet __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. Define melancholy: __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. Why has Michelangelo been referred to as a “melancholy genius”? because his work reflects his many life-long spiritual and artistic struggles __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. At what age did Michelangelo create David and the Pieta? In his twenties __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

Pg 53

  1. Describe what the Pieta depicts. It captures the sorrow of the Biblical Mary as she cradles her dead son Jesus on her knees __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. What does Michelangelo’s David depict? The Biblical shepherd who killed the giant Goliath __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. What was one of Michelangelo’s greatest painting projects? Painting the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. How long did it take Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel, and how did it physically affect him? 4 years; he was left partially crippled __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. What did the depiction that Michelangelo painted on the Sistine Chapel represent? Biblical history of the world from creation to the flood __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. What is Michelangelo’s most famous architectural design? It is for the dome of St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. What structure did Michelangelo’s architecture influence in the U.S.? the United States Capitol building in Washington, D.C __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. Provide a description of Raphael’s style. He developed his own style of painting that blended Christian and classical styles __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. What is Raphael best known for? His depiction of Madonna, the mother of Jesus __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. In The School of Athens, what does Raphael create? An imaginary gathering of great thinkers and scientists, including Plato, Aristotle, Socrates, and the Arab philosopher Averroes, Michelangelo, Leonardo and himself __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. What statement do you think Raphael was making when he included great Renaissance artists in his School of Athens? Answers will vary. He was suggesting that they too will be remembered in history as some of the influential great thinkers that have contributed to the discourse on the arts. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

*Checkpoint

  1. How were Renaissance ideals reflected in the arts? Artists emphasized classical subjects and the human form, and they employed new techniques for showing subjects more realistically __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

The Discovery of Perspective

  1. Apply Information Why was the invention of perspective necessary for artists to achieve realism in painting? Without it, artists could not show objects as the eye sees them __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. Analyze Visuals What other techniques bring the eye to the central figure of Jesus in The Last Supper? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. What did the depiction that Michelangelo painted on the Sistine Chapel represent? Biblical history of the world from creation to the flood __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

Pg 54



  1. What did Renaissance writers reflect? Trademark curiosity that marked the Renaissance and interest in the humanities __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. What kind of works did humanists and historians create? Works of philosophy and scholarship __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. What was the purpose of the guide book developed by some of the Renaissance writers? To help ambitious men and women achieve success in the Renaissance world __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. What did Baldassare Castiglione’s handbook describe? Manners, skills, learning, and virtues that a member of the court should have __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. Explain Castiglione’s ideal courtier. Well-educated, well-mannered aristocrat who mastered many fields, from poetry to music to sports __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. Explain Castiglione’s ideal man. Athletic, but no overactive—good at games but not a gambler—plays musical instruments and knows literature and history but is not arrogant. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. Explain Castiglione’s ideal woman. The ideal woman offers balance to men. She is graceful and kind, lively but reserved. She is beautiful __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. According to Castiglione, what is outer beauty indicative of? Inner goodness __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. What kind of guide book did Niccolo Machiavelli write? How to gain and maintain power __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. How did Machiavelli differ from Plato? He did not discuss leadership in terms of high ideals __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. What did The Prince examine? It looked at real rulers in an age of ruthless power politics __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. What point did Machiavelli emphasize? The ends justify the means __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. What did Machiavelli urge leaders to do to achieve their goals? Urged them to use whatever methods were necessary to achieve their goals __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. How did Machiavelli see himself? He saw himself as an enemy of oppression and corruption. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. What does the term Machiavelli denote? Deceit in politics __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. What did students later come to argue about Machiavelli? They argued that he provided a realistic look at politics __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. What kind of debate does Machiavelli’s work raise? Debates about important ethical questions about the nature of government and the use of power __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

*checkpoint

  1. How did Renaissance writings express realism? Writers focused on the human experience in the world around them __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. Identify Main Ideas: What were the ideals of the Renaissance, and how did Italian artists and writers reflect these ideals? Artists, architects, and writers used realistic techniques. There work reflected the Renaissance ideals of humanism, an appreciation of the classics, and curiosity __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. How was the Renaissance worldview different from that of the Middle Ages? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. In what ways did Italian city-states encourage the Renaissance? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________




  1. How did humanism influence Renaissance painting and sculpture? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

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  1. Why were nature and human nature important to Renaissance artists and writers? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________


Quick Write: Generate Arguments

Consider the following thesis statement for a persuasive essay: Renaissance Italy produced some of the greatest writers and thinkers that the world has ever known. Next, generate a number of arguments that support that thesis. Rank your arguments in order of importance.

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