Reading Test


Answers and Explanations for Questions 33 through 42



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Answers and Explanations for Questions 33 through 42



Explanation for question 33.

Choice B is the best answer. In paragraph 2, Stanton argues that men make all the decisions in “the church, the state, and the home.” This absolute power has led to a disorganized society, a “fragmentary condition of everything.” Stanton confirms this claim when she states that society needs women to “lift man up into the higher realms of thought and action” (sentence 3 of paragraph 4).

Choices A and D are incorrect because Stanton does not focus on women’s lack of equal educational opportunities or inability to hold political positions. Choice C is incorrect because although Stanton implies women are not allowed to vote, she never mentions that “poor candidates” are winning elections.


Explanation for question 34.

Choice A is the best answer. Stanton argues that women are repressed in society because men hold “high carnival,” or have all the power, and make the rules in “the church, the state, and the home” (paragraph 2). Stanton claims that men have total control over women, “overpowering the feminine element everywhere” (sentence 1 of paragraph 2).

Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because Stanton does not use the term “high carnival” to emphasize that the time period is freewheeling, or unrestricted; that there has been a scandalous decline in moral values; or that the power of women is growing.


Explanation for question 35.

Choice D is the best answer. In sentence 1 of paragraph 2, Stanton states that men’s absolute rule in society is “crushing out all the diviner qualities in human nature,” such that society knows very “little of true manhood and womanhood.” Stanton argues that society knows less about womanhood than manhood, because womanhood has “scarce been recognized as a power until within the last century.” This statement indicates that society’s acknowledgement of “womanhood,” or women’s true character, is a fairly recent historical development.

Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because Stanton describes men’s control of society, their domination of the domestic sphere, and the prevalence of war and injustice as long‑established realities.


Explanation for question 36.

Choice B is the best answer. In sentence 1 of paragraph 2, Stanton provides evidence for the claim that society’s acknowledgement of “womanhood,” or women’s true character, is a fairly recent historical development: “[womanhood] has scarce been recognized as a power until within the last century.”

Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because they do not provide the best evidence that society’s acknowledgement of “womanhood,” or women’s true character, is a fairly recent historical development. Rather, choices A, C, and D discuss men’s character, power, and influence.


Explanation for question 37.

Choice B is the best answer. In sentence 2 of paragraph 2, Stanton states, “Society is but the reflection of man himself, untempered by woman’s thought; the hard iron rule we feel alike in the church, the state, and the home.” In this context, man’s “rule” in “the church, the state, and the home” means that men have a controlling force in all areas of society.

Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because in this context “rule” does not mean a general guideline, an established habit, or a procedural method.


Explanation for question 38.

Choice D is the best answer. In sentence 1 of paragraph 3, Stanton argues that people use the term “the strong‑minded” to refer to women who advocate for “the right to suffrage,” or the right to vote in elections. In this context, people use the term “the strong‑minded” to criticize female suffragists, as they believe voting will make women too “masculine.”

Choices A and B are incorrect because Stanton does not suggest that people use the term “the strong‑minded” as a compliment. Choice C is incorrect because Stanton suggests “the strong‑minded” is a term used to criticize women who want to vote, not those who enter male‑dominated professions.


Explanation for question 39.

Choice C is the best answer. In sentence 3 of paragraph 3, Stanton states that society contains hardly any women in the “best sense,” and clarifies that too many women are “reflections, varieties, and dilutions of the masculine gender.” Stanton is suggesting that there are few “best,” or genuine, women who are not completely influenced or controlled by men.

Choices A, B, and D are incorrect because in this context “best” does not mean superior, excellent, or rarest.


Explanation for question 40.

Choice A is the best answer. In sentence 2 of paragraph 4, Stanton argues that man “mourns,” or regrets, how his power has caused “falsehood, selfishness, and violence” to become the “law” of society. Stanton is arguing that men are lamenting, or expressing regret about, how their governance has created problems.

Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because Stanton does not suggest that men are advocating for women’s right to vote or for female equality, nor are they requesting women’s opinions about improving civic life.


Explanation for question 41.

Choice B is the best answer. In sentence 2 of paragraph 4, Stanton provides evidence that men are lamenting the problems they have created, as they recognize that their actions have caused “falsehood, selfishness, and violence [to become] the law of life.”

Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because they do not provide the best evidence that men are lamenting the problems they have created. Choice A explains society’s current fragmentation. Choices C and D present Stanton’s main argument for women’s enfranchisement.


Explanation for question 42.

Choice D is the best answer. In the sixth paragraph Stanton differentiates between men and masculine traits. Stanton argues that masculine traits or “characteristics,” such as a “love of acquisition and conquest,” serve to “subjugate one man to another” (paragraph 6). Stanton is suggesting that some masculine traits position men within certain power structures.

Choices A and B are incorrect because the sixth paragraph does not primarily establish a contrast between men and women or between the spiritual and material worlds. Choice C is incorrect because although Stanton argues that not “all men are hard, selfish, and brutal,” she does not discuss what constitutes a “good” man.



This is the end of the answers and explanations for questions 33 through 42. Go on to the next page to begin a new passage.

Questions 43 through 52 are based on the following passage and supplementary material.


This passage is adapted from Geoffrey Giller, “Long a Mystery, How 500‑Meter‑High Undersea Waves Form Is Revealed.” Copyright 2014 by Scientific American.

Some of the largest ocean waves in the world are nearly impossible to see. Unlike other large waves, these rollers, called internal waves, do not ride the ocean surface. Instead, they move underwater, undetectable without the use of satellite imagery or sophisticated monitoring equipment. Despite their hidden nature, internal waves are fundamental parts of ocean water dynamics, transferring heat to the ocean depths and bringing up cold water from below. And they can reach staggering heights—some as tall as skyscrapers.

Because these waves are involved in ocean mixing and thus the transfer of heat, understanding them is crucial to global climate modeling, says Tom Peacock, a researcher at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Most models fail to take internal waves into account. “If we want to have more and more accurate climate models, we have to be able to capture processes such as this,” Peacock says.

Peacock and his colleagues tried to do just that. Their study, published in November in Geophysical Research Letters, focused on internal waves generated in the Luzon Strait, which separates Taiwan and the Philippines. Internal waves in this region, thought to be some of the largest in the world, can reach about 500 meters high. “That’s the same height as the Freedom Tower that’s just been built in New York,” Peacock says.

Although scientists knew of this phenomenon in the South China Sea and beyond, they didn’t know exactly how internal waves formed. To find out, Peacock and a team of researchers from M.I.T. and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution worked with France’s National Center for Scientific Research using a giant facility there called the Coriolis Platform. The rotating platform, about 15 meters (49.2 feet) in diameter, turns at variable speeds and can simulate Earth’s rotation. It also has walls, which means scientists can fill it with water and create accurate, large‑scale simulations of various oceanographic scenarios.

Peacock and his team built a carbon‑fiber resin scale model of the Luzon Strait, including the islands and surrounding ocean floor topography. Then they filled the platform with water of varying salinity to replicate the different densities found at the strait, with denser, saltier water below and lighter, less briny water above. Small particles were added to the solution and illuminated with lights from below in order to track how the liquid moved. Finally, they re‑created tides using two large plungers to see how the internal waves themselves formed.

The Luzon Strait’s underwater topography, with a distinct double‑ridge shape, turns out to be responsible for generating the underwater waves. As the tide rises and falls and water moves through the strait, colder, denser water is pushed up over the ridges into warmer, less dense layers above it. This action results in bumps of colder water trailed by warmer water that generate an internal wave. As these waves move toward land, they become steeper—much the same way waves at the beach become taller before they hit the shore—until they break on a continental shelf.

The researchers were also able to devise a mathematical model that describes the movement and formation of these waves. Whereas the model is specific to the Luzon Strait, it can still help researchers understand how internal waves are generated in other places around the world. Eventually, this information will be incorporated into global climate models, making them more accurate. “It’s very clear, within the context of these [global climate] models, that internal waves play a role in driving ocean circulations,” Peacock says.



Adapted from Justin Small et alia, “Internal Solitons in the Ocean: Prediction from S A R.” Copyright 1998 by Oceanography, Defence Evaluation and Research Agency.


Begin skippable figure description.

The figure presents a line graph with four lines titled “Changes in Depth of Isotherms in an Internal Wave over a 24‑Hour Period.” There is an asterisk next to the word “Isotherms” indicating that isotherms are “bands of water of constant temperatures.”

The line graph is drawn in a time depth plane. The vertical axis is labeled “Depth below surface, in meters,” and numbers 0 to 160, in increments of 40, appear along the vertical axis from top to bottom. There are horizontal grid lines at these numbers. The horizontal grid line at number 0 is the horizontal axis, labeled “Time, in hours,” and hours 0 to 24, in increments of 1 hour and 12 minutes, appear along the horizontal axis from left to right.

The four lines in the graph are wavelike lines. They appear one above another and are all below the horizontal axis. As the key indicated, the line on top represents the isotherms of 13 degrees Celsius, the line below it represents the isotherms of 11 degrees Celsius, the third line from the top represents the isotherms of 10 degrees Celsius, and the fourth line at the bottom represents the isotherms of 9 degrees Celsius. In the figure, the top three lines appear from 0 hour to 24 hours, while the one at the bottom appears only from 18 hours to 22 hours 48 minutes. Based on the graph, the information on the four lines can be described over the following two periods: 0 hours to 18 hours and 18 hours to 24 hours.

For the period 0 hours to 18 hours, there is no information on the line at the bottom; the information on the top three lines can be summarized as follows.

The three lines rise and fall rather gently in a similar pattern over the period 0 hours to 12 hours. The line on top fluctuates between depth 0 and depth 40, the line below fluctuates between depth 40 and depth 60, and the third line fluctuates between depth 60 and depth 80. From 12 hours, they all fall sharply and then rise back quickly at 14 hours and 24 minutes. From 14 hours 24 minutes to 18 hours, they continue to rise and fall gently while maintaining their relative positions.

For the period 18 hours to 24 hours, the information on the four lines is as follows.

The line on top, representing the isotherms of 13 degrees Celsius, rises over the period 18 hours to 19 hours and 12 minutes, and then falls over the period 19 hours and 12 minutes to 20 hours and 24 minutes. It rises again over the period 20 hours and 24 minutes to 21 hours and 36 minutes, and then falls again until 24 hours.

The second line from the top, representing the isotherms of 11 degrees Celsius, falls over the period 18 hours to 19 hours and 12 minutes, and then rises over the period 19 hours and 12 minutes to 20 hours and 24 minutes. It falls again until 24 hours.

The third line from the top, representing the isotherms of 10 degrees Celsius, falls over the period 18 hours to 19 hours and 12 minutes, and then rises over the period 19 hours and 12 minutes to 20 hours and 24 minutes. It falls again until 24 hours.

The line at the bottom, representing the isotherms of 9 degrees Celsius, rises over the period 18 hours to 19 hours and 12 minutes, and continues to rise over the period 19 hours and 12 minutes to 21 hours and 36 minutes. It then falls until 22 hours and 48 minutes. There is no information after that time period.


End skippable figure description.


Question 43.

The first paragraph serves mainly to

A. explain how a scientific device is used.

B. note a common misconception about an event.

C. describe a natural phenomenon and address its importance

D. present a recent study and summarize its findings.

Explanation for question 43.


Question 44.

As used in sentence 3 of paragraph 2, “capture” is closest in meaning to

A. control.

B. record.

C. secure.

D. absorb.

Explanation for question 44.


Question 45.

According to Peacock, the ability to monitor internal waves is significant primarily because

A. it will allow scientists to verify the maximum height of such waves.

B. it will allow researchers to shift their focus to improving the quality of satellite images.

C. the study of wave patterns will enable regions to predict and prevent coastal damage.

D. the study of such waves will inform the development of key scientific models.

Explanation for question 45.


Question 46.

Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to question 45?

A. “Some of the largest ocean waves in the world are nearly impossible to see”

B. “they move underwater, undetectable without the use of satellite imagery or sophisticated monitoring equipment”

C. “‘If we want to have more and more accurate climate models, we have to be able to capture processes such as this’”

D. “Internal waves in this region, thought to be some of the largest in the world, can reach about 500 meters high”

Explanation for question 46.


Question 47.

As used in sentence 1 of paragraph 7, “devise” most nearly means

A. create.

B. solve.

C. imagine.

D. begin.

Explanation for question 47.


Question 48.

Based on information in the passage, it can reasonably be inferred that all internal waves

A. reach approximately the same height even though the locations and depths of continental shelves vary.

B. may be caused by similar factors but are influenced by the distinct topographies of different regions.

C. can be traced to inconsistencies in the tidal patterns of deep ocean water located near islands.

D. are generated by the movement of dense water over a relatively flat section of the ocean floor.

Explanation for question 48.


Question 49.

Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to question 48?

A. “Although scientists knew of this phenomenon in the South China Sea and beyond, they didn’t know exactly how internal waves formed”

B. “As the tide rises and falls and water moves through the strait, colder, denser water is pushed up over the ridges into warmer, less dense layers above it”

C. “As these waves move toward land, they become steeper—much the same way waves at the beach become taller before they hit the shore—until they break on a continental shelf”

D. “Whereas the model is specific to the Luzon Strait, it can still help researchers understand how internal waves are generated in other places around the world”

Explanation for question 49.


Question 50.

In the graph, which isotherm displays an increase in depth below the surface during the period 19:12 to 20:24?

A. 9°C

B. 10°C

C. 11°C


D. 13°C
Explanation for question 50.
Question 51.

Which concept is supported by the passage and by the information in the graph?

A. Internal waves cause water of varying salinity to mix.

B. Internal waves push denser water above layers of less dense water.

C. Internal waves push bands of cold water above bands of warmer water.

D. Internal waves do not rise to break the ocean’s surface.

Explanation for question 51.


Question 52.

How does the graph support the author’s point that internal waves affect ocean water dynamics?

A. It demonstrates that wave movement forces warmer water down to depths that typically are colder.

B. It reveals the degree to which an internal wave affects the density of deep layers of cold water.

C. It illustrates the change in surface temperature that takes place during an isolated series of deep waves.

D. It shows that multiple waves rising near the surface of the ocean disrupt the flow of normal tides.

Explanation for question 52.

Stop

If you finish before time is called, you may check your work on this section only. Do not turn to any other section.

Answers and explanations for questions 43 through 52 are provided in the next section of this document.

Answers and Explanations for Questions 43 through 52



Explanation for question 43.

Choice C is the best answer. In the first paragraph, the author identifies the natural phenomenon “internal waves” (sentence 2), and explains why they are important: “internal waves are fundamental parts of ocean water dynamics, transferring heat to the ocean depths and bringing up cold water from below” (sentence 4).

Choices A, B, and D are incorrect because they do not identify the main purpose of the first paragraph, as that paragraph does not focus on a scientific device, a common misconception, or a recent study.


Explanation for question 44.

Choice B is the best answer. In sentence 3 of paragraph 2, researcher Tom Peacock argues that in order to create precise global climate models, scientists must be able to “capture processes” such as how internal waves are formed. In this context, to “capture” a process means to record it for scientific study.

Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because in this context “capture” does not mean to control, secure, or absorb.


Explanation for question 45.

Choice D is the best answer. In sentence 3 of paragraph 2, researcher Tom Peacock argues that scientists need to “capture processes” of internal waves to develop “more and more accurate climate models.” Peacock is suggesting that studying internal waves will inform the development of scientific models.

Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because Peacock does not state that monitoring internal waves will allow people to verify wave heights, improve satellite image quality, or prevent coastal damage.


Explanation for question 46.

Choice C is the best answer. In sentence 3 of paragraph 2, researcher Tom Peacock provides evidence that studying internal waves will inform the development of key scientific models, such as “more accurate climate models.”

Choices A, B, and D are incorrect because they do not provide the best evidence that studying internal waves will inform the development of key scientific models; rather, they provide general information about internal waves.


Explanation for question 47.

Choice A is the best answer. In sentence 1 of paragraph 7, the author notes that Tom Peacock and his team “were also able to devise a mathematical model that describes the movement and formation of these waves.” In this context, the researchers devised, or created, a mathematical model.

Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because in this context “devise” does not mean to solve, imagine, or begin.


Explanation for question 48.

Choice B is the best answer. Tom Peacock and his team created a model of the “Luzon Strait’s underwater topography” and determined that its “distinct double‑ridge shape . . . [is] responsible for generating the underwater [internal] waves” (sentence 1 of paragraph 6). The author notes that this model describes only internal waves in the Luzon Strait but that the team’s findings may “help researchers understand how internal waves are generated in other places around the world” (sentence 2 of paragraph 7). The author’s claim suggests that while internal waves in the Luzon Strait are “some of the largest in the world” (sentence 3 of paragraph 3) due to the region’s topography, internal waves occurring in other regions may be caused by some similar factors.

Choice A is incorrect because the author notes that the internal waves in the Luzon Strait are “some of the largest in the world” (sentence 3 of paragraph 3), which suggests that internal waves reach varying heights. Choices C and D are incorrect because they are not supported by the researchers’ findings.


Explanation for question 49.

Choice D is the best answer. In sentence 2 of paragraph 7, the author provides evidence that while the researchers’ findings suggest the internal waves in the Luzon Strait are influenced by the region’s topography, the findings may “help researchers understand how internal waves are generated in other places around the world.” This statement suggests that all internal waves may be caused by some similar factors.

Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because they do not provide the best evidence that internal waves are caused by similar factors but influenced by the distinct topographies of different regions. Rather, choices A, B, and C reference general information about internal waves or focus solely on those that occur in the Luzon Strait.


Explanation for question 50.

Choice D is the best answer. During the period 19:12 to 20:24, the graph shows the 13°C isotherm increasing in depth from about 20 to 40 meters.

Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because during the time period 19:12 to 20:24 the 9°C, 10°C, and 11°C isotherms all decreased in depth.


Explanation for question 51.

Choice D is the best answer. In sentences 2 and 3 of paragraph 1, the author notes that internal waves “do not ride the ocean surface” but “move underwater, undetectable without the use of satellite imagery or sophisticated monitoring equipment.” The graph shows that the isotherms in an internal wave never reach the ocean’s surface, as the isotherms do not record a depth of 0.

Choice A is incorrect because the graph provides no information about salinity. Choice B is incorrect because the graph shows layers of less dense water (which, based on the passage, are warmer) riding above layers of denser water (which, based on the passage, are cooler). Choice C is incorrect because the graph shows that internal waves push isotherms of warmer water above bands of colder water.


Explanation for question 52.

Choice A is the best answer. In sentence 4 of paragraph 1, the author notes that internal waves are “fundamental parts of ocean water dynamics” because they transfer “heat to the ocean depths and brin[g] up cold water from below.” The graph shows an internal wave forcing the warm isotherms to depths that typically are colder. For example, at 13:12, the internal wave transfers “heat to the ocean depths” by forcing the 10°C, 11°C, and 13°C isotherms to depths that typically are colder.

Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because the graph does not show how internal waves affect the ocean’s density, surface temperature, or tide flow.



This is the end of the answers and explanations for questions 43 through 52.

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