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Question 13: What is the topic of the passage?
A. Sources of environmental damage B. The pollution from the city
C. Bad effects of industrial waste D. The quality of the environment
Question 14: According to the passage, the industry is likely to be thought as_ .
A. a danger to the environment B. the only source of pollution
C. the utmost harmful activity D. a threat to human health
Question 15: The word “it” in the first paragraph refers to .
A. the remaining waste B. a danger
C. the environment D. the threat of the remaining waste
Question 16: Which of the followings affect an ecosystem as the whole?
A. Surface water contamination B. Soil contamination
C. Groundwater contamination D. Air contamination
Question 17: According to the passage, which of the followings supports healthy ecosystems?
A. Lower food chain organisms B. Animals C. Water-based organisms D. Wetlands
Question 18: Which of the followings is NOT badly affected by contaminated groundwater?
A. Human B. Plants C. Rocks D. Animals
Question 19: Which of the followings is the flow of water from the ground to the surface?
A. Streams B. Ponds C. Rivers D. Springs
Question 20: Which of the followings has the closest meaning to the word “absorbed” in the last paragraph?
A. Consumed B. Taken in C. Swallowed D. Piled up

4: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer for each of the questions.


Understanding India's Caste System
It has been said that life is what we make of it. In other words, if we work hard and focus on our goals, we can have great careers and enjoy high status is society. However, these opportunities don”t exist for everyone. In some places, the family you are born into will decide almost everything about your life. India”s caste system is an example of this.
The caste system is a major part of the Hindu religion that has existed for thousands of years. It is a
way of organizing and grouping people based on the occupation of the family. Castes will determine
whom people can socialize with and their place in society. Originally, a person‟s caste was supposed to be determined by their personality, but over time it has been linked to their job and family.
There are four classes, also known as varnas, in India‟s caste system. The highest one is Brahmin. People in this class have jobs in education and religion. These are seen as extremely important functions for the society as they deal with the knowledge. The second highest level is the Kshatriya, or ruling class. People from this group can be soldiers, landowners, or have jobs in politics. The class beneath this is the Vaishya. These people often work in the commercial sector as merchants. The fourth class level is the Shudra. Shudras typically work as unskilled labourers doing factory or farm work, or they may also be employed as artists.
There is another group, the Harijan, that is at the bottom and considered to be outside of the caste system. For many years, they were known as Untouchables, people from this caste held the most undesirable jobs in society, such as cleaning up garbage. Furthermore, they weren‟t allowed to pray at public temples or drink water from the same wells as other classes. If someone from another caste came into contact with an Untouchable, they were considered dirty and would be expected to bathe vigorously to clean themselves.
Although the caste system still exists in India, the government is taking steps to improve the living conditions and decrease unemployment rates for the Shudras and Harijan. This includes providing better health care, offering literacy programmes, and making sure that people from higher social classes do not exploit them. It seems unlikely that the caste system will disappear any time soon, but the overall conditions for those at the bottom do seem to be improving.

  1. Which of the following is not true about India‟s caste system?

    1. The caste system has been used in India for a long time.

    2. The Kshatriya is the second highest class.

    3. Hard work helps people move up in the caste system.

    4. It is possible that a Shudra would work on a farm.

  2. The word “this” in paragraph 1 refers to .

    1. the fact that your origin will mostly decide your future

    2. the pleasure of life in India

    3. the India‟s caste system existing for thousands of years

    4. the major part of the Hindu religion

  3. What is the caste system mainly based on?

    1. What a person believes on B. When a person starts school

C. Who a person‟s parents are D. Where a person was born

  1. What kind of job would a Brahmin likely have?

    1. A priest B. A warrior C. An inventor D. A painter

  2. What could replace the word “ruling” in paragraph 3?

    1. defeating B. guessing C. delaying D. governing

  3. All of the following are true about the Harijan EXCEPT that .

    1. they used to be known as Untouchables

    2. they had to do undesirable jobs in society

    3. any contact between someone from another caste with an Untouchable was considered unacceptable

    4. anyone from another caste coming to contact with an Untouchable is not allowed to pray at temples

  4. What does the passage suggest about the future of the caste system?

    1. One day soon it won‟t be used anymore in India.

    2. It is probably going to get worse before it gets better.

    3. The bottom groups will rise to rule over the top classes.

    4. It will likely continue to exist for a long time in India.

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