Reading passage 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-12



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Entertainment Weekly March 30 2018
Reading Practice
READING PASSAGE 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-12, which are based on
Reading Passage 1.
Racy telenovelas inspire social change
Brazil's popular soap operas have done more than just entertain people - they have reduced the birthrate by three million and driven up the rate of divorce,
a new report has found. Their colourful storylines of glamorous love triangles,
paternity mysteries and rags-to-riches successes have long dominated
Brazilian airwaves. Now the racy telenovelas that are the mainstays of the country's powerful TV Globo network are being credited with more than just their audience pulling-power.
A study of population data stretching back to 1971 has revealed that Brazil's popular and often fanciful soap operas have had a direct impact on the nation's divorce and birthrates, as the main channel that broadcast them gradually extended its reach across the country. According to the report, prepared for the
Inter-American Development Bank, the rate of marriage breakup rose and the number of children born to each woman fell more quickly in areas receiving the
TV Globo signal for the first time.
Over the two decades that were studied, an estimated three million fewer
Brazilian babies were born than would have been if telenovelas had never been broadcast, and 800,000 more couples separated or divorced. If the effect
Reading Practice Test 3
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continued to the present day, the numbers would be even greater. 'Exposure to modern lifestyles as portrayed on television, to emancipated women's roles,
and to a critique of traditional values, was associated with increases in the share of separated and divorced woman across Brazil's municipal areas' the report's authors said.
Every Brazilian knows that what happens on TV Globo can affect the real world.
Its schedules dictate kickoff times for football matches, its costumes influence design and fashion and the telenovelas' plotlines have influenced the outcome of elections. However, the revelation that the cult of the telenovela has had such impact on the most intimate aspects of its viewers' fives will startle
Brazilians. Maria lmmacolata Lopes, the coordinator of the Telenovela Centre at USP, one of Brazil's leading universities,
said it was the first time that research had been undertaken on such a wide scale.
Alberto Chong, one of the study's authors, said the reason for the change was the 'aspirational ethos' of the country's soaps, which, unlike their grittier equivalents in Britain, tend to portray the upper levels of Brazilian society. That generally means characters are whiter, wealthier and better educated than most of Brazil's 190 million people. They have fewer children and are more likely to be separated or divorced. Viewers instantly took to that image. 'If the leading female character of a telenovela was divorced or separated, the divorce rate rose, by an average of 0.1 percentage point, Mr Chong said. 'At the same time, women in areas reached by the Globo signal had 0.6 percent fewer children than those in areas with no signal' This may appear to be a small impact, but equates to millions fewer babies born over two decades.
TV Globo reacted with hostility to the study, saying that it underestimated the intelligence of the channel's viewers. A spokesman asserted that the soaps'
portrayal of divorce and smaller families reflected the trends of the time, rather than brought them about. 'Our dramas are attuned to the questions being asked in society. While we don't doubt the novelas make people think, we don't believe they actually influence their opinions or choices' said
Luis Erlanger, Globo's communications director. Mr Chong rejected the view,
pointing out that the chances of a newborn baby being named after a soap star were significantly higher in areas where the soaps were broadcast.
Other international studies have shown that television can infuence behaviour and transform social mores, especially where the population does not have constant access to mixed media. In India, the arrival of cable television in remote areas caused pregnancy rates to fall and enrolment in education among girls to rise. Inhabitants of Lutsaan, a village in northern India,
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were passionate fans of the radio drama Tinka Tinka Sukh. The programme is claimed to have promoted gender equality and encouraged renouncement of the local custom of demanding a bridal dowry. Enrolment of girls in the local school rose by 25 percent. In other parts of the country, soap viewers were more likely to refute the commonly held view that a husband was justified in beating his wife.
A Rwandan radio serial Musekeweya has had an even more notable impact.
Devised and broadcast by Radio La Benevolendja, a partner of Oxfam, the story centres on the conflict between two fictional tribes and the doomed romance between two of its characters. The project has the high hope of mending ethnic tension and encouraging reconciliation. This maybe fiction,
but the backdrop is very evidently the period just before the horrendous events of One of the earliest programmes to have a far-reaching impact on audiences was the Peruvian telenovela
Simplemente Maria first aired in the late s. The central character was a rural girl who escaped to the city to find work as a maid. She learnt to read and, more importantly, to sew, enabling her to become a successful fashion designer. The show was so popular that when Maria married her literacy teacher, thousands of avid viewers collected outside the church to bestow gifts on the happy couple. Across the country, increased enrolment in literacy classes coincided with the storyline.
Back in Brazil, although they have lost viewers to the internet, the influence of the novelas remains evident. The increased presence of slender blondes is credited with driving a shift away from what was once a nationwide preference for guitar-shaped brunettes. 'Novelas in Brazil take on a greater importance than a simple drama because they move people' said Mauro Alencar, the author of several books about the genre. 'But the novela is above all a reflection of society. It feeds off what is exposed in day today life and recreates a fictional version.'
Questions 1-4
Choose the correct letter A, BC or D.
Write your answers in boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet.
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Multiple choice with single
answer
Task guide
This task normally consists of questions that focus on a particular part of the passage rather than on information spread throughout the passage.
The exception to this is a 'global' question, which checks your comprehension of the whole passage. 'Global' questions might check that you understand the message that the passage conveys or the writer's purpose. You might need to choose the best summary of the passage or the best title for it. A global question is always the last question on a passage (see Question the last question on this passage).
Multiple choice questions are either in the form of wh questions
(see question 1 above, or sentences that need completion (see
Questions 2 and 3 above. Occasionally, a question will ask you which one of four options is not true or correct - 'Which of the following statements about the city is NOT correct, for example.
If there are several multiple-choice questions, they will follow the order of the relevant information in the passage.
Occasionally, a multiple-choice question will direct you to a specific paragraph or section and check that you understand the main point of it or the message it conveys (see Question 4 above).
Multiple-choice questions often test your understanding of complex information and opinion. You will need to read a specific part of the text very carefully.
Language used in the questions will paraphrase language used in the passage. You will often need to read very carefully to identify words and phrases in the passage and in the questions that mean the same thing.
Make sure that the option you choose answers the question. An option will sometimes be true according to the text but not provide an answer to the question that you have been asked.
Step-by-step guide
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Step 1 - Locate the question in the passage
Read the question carefully and locate the relevant part of the passage.
If the question does not direct you to a specific paragraph, it will usually refer you to something that can easily be located. Remember that questions will follow the order of the relevant information in the passage.
Step 2 - Read carefully
Read the four options carefully as you read the relevant part of the passage carefully.
Step 3 - Find the answer
Locate the specific line or keywords that provide the answer.
Identify reasons for dismissing incorrect options.
Look at Question 1 and answer the questions below. In which paragraphs) will you find the relevant information. Do you need to read further on in the text to answer this question. Can you identify any words and phrases in the relevant paragraphs) that relate directly to any of the options?
Answer the questions below about each of the options A-D.
Option A. Does the writer say that more or fewer children are being born. Does the writer suggest that families are increasing or decreasing in size?
Option B. Does the writer focus on marriages remaining intact or marriages breaking up. Do the phrases love triangles and paternity mysteries suggest stability or instability?
Option C. What does the phrase rags-to-riches successes mean. Does it suggest that escaping one's social class is possible or impossible?
Option D. Do the examples in the first paragraph suggest that soap page Access https://ieltsonlinetests.com for more practices
storylines are very realistic. Which word in the first line of the second paragraph means not realistic?
Which option is the correct answer?
1
According to the text, which of the following features is typical of
Brazilian telenovelas?
A
B
C
D TV Globo soap operas
A
B
C
D Viewers are attracted to Brazilian soap operas because
A
B
C
D What is the point made in the sixth paragraph?
A
B
C There is a tendency to favour large families.
Relationships are often unstable.
Characters cannot escape their social class.
Storylines are generally realistic.
are more popular than football matches.
are frequently set in the fashion industry.
have a degree of political content.
frequently shock the viewing public.
they would like to be more like the characters in them.
they reflect what happens in their own lives.
the characters are excellent role models.
they clearly show viewers how to behave.
TV networks deserve criticism for their irresponsible storylines.
TV drama should be seen purely as entertainment.
People are behaving just like the characters they see in the telenovelas.















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D There is disagreement about how influential TV drama really is
Questions 5-11
Classify the following ideas as referring to the country.
Write the correct letter AD in boxes 5-11 on your answer sheet.
A
Brazil
B
India
C
Peru
D
Rwanda changes to wedding tradition a relationship destined to fail a desire to learn how to read a reflection of real-life social and political unrest domestic violence being less tolerated changing perceptions of beauty an apparent inability to separate reality and fantasy
11
Classification
Task guide
For this task, you have to match pieces of information (generally statements) with categories within the passage.
You must not rely on what you think you might know about a category. You must locate the part of the passage that supports the statement.
Make sure that the information in the passage matches exactly the statement in the question. Often, other statements will have a connection with the statement but not match it exactly.

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The categories will be listed in a logical order, chronologically or alphabetically, for example. Neither the categories nor the questions will be presented in the same order in which they occur in the text. Make sure you write the letter you intend to write each time you answer a question.

Step-by-step guide
First, identify the part or parts of the passage which provide information about each category. This will mean that you can concentrate on the relevant part of the passage and will not have to keep checking the whole passage. Remember, though, that a category maybe mentioned in more than one part of the passage.
Step 1 - Locate the categories in the passage
Read through the passage and identify where information about each category AD is provided.
In which paragraphs) and where exactly in the paragraph is the information?
A Brazil
B India
C Peru
D Rwanda
Step 2 - Read carefully
Read the list of ideas carefully as you read the relevant part of the passage carefully.
Step 3 - Find the answers
For some questions, language used in the statements will paraphrase language used in the passage. However, classification tasks involve more than simply matching words and phrases with a similar meaning.
The aim of the task is to assess whether you understand ideas in the passage and can match them to the ideas expressed in the statements.
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Look again at the parts of the passage you identified instep and find the part that relates to Question 5. You want to find information about weddings in particular, and a specific reference to a change in tradition.
The ninth paragraph contains information about a wedding but does it specifically provide information about changing tradition - yes or no?
Which paragraph contains information about changes to wedding tradition?
Which word in the relevant paragraph means the same as custom and which phrase is related specifically to weddings?
Does the whole sentence say that there have been changes - yes or no?
Now identify which country (AD) this part of the passage relates to.
Write your answer for Question Question Look again at the parts of the passage you identified instep and find the part that relates to Question 6. Here, you want to find information about a relationship and specifically an unhappy one.
Which is the relevant paragraph?
Which is the key line that paraphrases relationship destined to fail?
Question 12
Choose the correct letter A, BC or D.
12
What is the conclusion that should be drawn from reading this passage?
A
B
C In the future, soap operas will shape the way many people live.
People being influenced by what they watch on TV has some obvious benefits.
Soap opera writers should ensure that their characters behave



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READING PASSAGE 2
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 13-27, which are based on
Reading Passage 2.
How to Build a Tree House
A tree house is a place where you can give free rein to your individual creativity. However, while there are almost as many types of tree house as there are types of tree, some general principles do apply when it comes to tree house construction.
Before you begin your tree house plans, check with your local planning authorities about any restrictions on building tree houses that may exist. In some places, if a structure is below a certain size and not used as a permanent dwelling it will not need planning approval, but there maybe restrictions on height or on windows overlooking adjacent properties. Safety is vital during construction. Always use a safety harness, and firmly tie it to a strong branch.
Think before you act, and keep a first aid kit handy.
First Steps
First, you need to choose a tree and decide on a position within it for your tree house. Think about what you want from your tree house Will it bean adult hideaway or children’s play area If you are considering a tree house for
D responsibly.
Average family size will continue to fall in countries where soap operas are very popular.

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children, keep it close to the ground Consider whether you want your tree house to be hidden or visible, and make sure it will not disturb other people.
Choose a mature, healthy tree with no special protection orders that may affect pruning. When selecting a tree it is best to consult a qualified arborist,
and if any pruning is necessary arrange for this to be done professionally.
Decide how you want to access your tree house and what materials you want to use. Whatever you decide, it is best to start small and simple.
Every tree is different, so let the tree be your guide. Follow the form of the tree, allow for growth and movement, and keep the structure lightweight. Keep the various positions of the sun in mind when planning small decks. If there is not one ideal tree, then several closely spaced, smaller trees will suffice.
Ideally, plan the structure on paper before starting work, allowing fora deck if you want one. Never make the tree house too big for the tree.
Building a Platform
The platform, providing a secure foundation for the rest of the structure, is the key element of almost any tree house. It should be built close to the trunk, with diagonal bracing for extra strength, if it is not supported by branches or posts.
Make sure the platform is level, and keep it balanced centrally around the tree to support uneven loads and reduce swaying.When securing the structure, do everything you canto limit damage to the tree. Ideally use rope lashing, but make sure you know the right knots. If necessary, use strong galvanised steel screws, as ungalvanised screws or nails will rust and encourage disease and rot. Avoid cutting the bark all the way round, or constricting it too tightly with rope or wire.
Once the platform is secure, you need to add the floor. For this you might use plywood sheets or conventional floorboards.The walls can either be built in situ in the tree or prefabricated on the ground and then hoisted up into position (for larger tree houses the latter is much easier and safer).To minimise the amount of work done while perched up in the tree, you can even add external wall finishes on the ground and prefix doors and windows.The roof may also be pre-assembled, but if branches are to penetrate it, or if it is an irregular shape, it is generally best to build it in situ. Once in position, the roof should be covered and protected with roofing felt. If desired the roof can be finished with local materials such as palm leaves or recycled shingles.
Windows and Doors
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experiment and indulge your design fantasies. Whether your taste leans toward Gothic towers or rustic cottages, the possibilities for windows and doors are endless. The important thing is to keep them in proportion to the size and design of the tree house. For safety and lightness, use Perspex or Plexiglas instead of glass for windows.Try to use old or recycled items whenever possible.
Deck and Railings
Nothing can beat the experience of sitting outside a tree house, among the leaves and branches, on an outside deck, balcony or veranda. A deck can be part of the tree house platform, or it might be in a separate place nearby,
perhaps at a different level and reached by a rope bridge or wooden walkway.
Whichever you choose, the deck must be surrounded by safe railings.
Functional these maybe, but as with doors and windows, you can still give your imagination free rein. For something different, why not make a giant hammock by attaching a strong rope net to the deck Spread with pillows and cushions it makes a great place to relax.
Tree House Access
Now that you have built your tree house, how will you getup there A simple wooden or rope ladder is fine if the house is not far from the ground, but steps,
ideally with handrails, are better for higher constructions. Spiral steps winding around the trunk are always fun and look more natural than a straight flight. If higher still, it is a good idea to break the journey with a series of landings.
Sometimes it is possible to build abridge or rope walkway from an adjacent tree, building or area of high ground. For really high tree houses, a rope pulley system with a harness or chair maybe the most convenient method. A rope pulley with a basket is indispensable for hoisting up provisions, whatever the height your tree house.
After all the effort involved in designing and building a tree house, the last thing you want is for it to fall down. Remember to check the floors, decks and railings frequently for rotor weakness. Inspect any steps, ladders and walkways, and repair damage immediately. Check the tree annually for growth and movement, and adjust or refix attachments to the tree as necessary.
Questions 13-18
Complete the sentences below with words taken from Reading Passage Write
NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS
for each answer will provide information about restrictions that might page Access https://ieltsonlinetests.com for more practices
apply to your construction.
Planning approval is not usually necessary fora small tree house that is not a A 15
held securely in place is essential when working high up in a tree.
A tree house planned as 16
can be built higher than one planned for children to play in.
You might not be allowed to prune a tree that has Small decks will benefit from 18
at different times of the day.
Sentence completion - filling
gaps with words from the text
Task guide
For this task, you have to complete individual sentences, using information provided in the text.
The texts will come from a variety of sources and even if the subject matter is outside your experience, such as this passage on tree houses, remember that all the information you need to answer the questions will be found in the text.
The task is similar to other gap-filling tasks (summary or flowchart completion, for example, but each sentence is separate, and there is not necessarily a connection between the specific topic of each. Contrast this task with a note completion task, which requires you to complete information in note form rather than complete full grammatically conventional sentences.
The task will normally consist of sentences that focus on a particular part of the passage rather than on information spread throughout the whole passage. If the sentences do relate to the whole passage, you will need to scan the text to locate the relevant pieces of information.
Sometimes, a sentence completion task will have its own heading,
which will help you locate the relevant part of the passage.
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You must write words that appear in the text. Do not use other words or phrases that you think make sense, and do not change the form of words.
Read the instructions carefully, as they will tell you how many words you can use for each answer. The number of words varies in each task of this type, but you will generally be instructed to use either two or three words (seethe instructions for Questions 13-18
above).

Step-by-step guide
Step 1 - Locate the relevant part of the passage
Read the sentences carefully and locate the relevant parts of the passage. Here, this is the first task applied to the passage, so it is likely that the sentences will relate to the first few paragraphs or sections.
Before starting the first task applied to a reading passage, you should quickly look at all the tasks. In this case, looking at the second task
(Questions 19-23) is very helpful. The heading for that task is
Platforms, windows and doors so you know that the sentences in the first task will relate to any information given before the paragraph headed Building a platform.
Start reading the text from the beginning to locate the information that provides the answer to the first question, and then read on. Remember that the questions follow the order in which the information is given.
Here, there are six sentences to complete and four relevant sections
(as well as a shorter introductory section. You should not make assumptions, but it is likely that there will beat least one question relating to each of the sections.
Though language used in the sentences will paraphrase language used in the passage, each sentence will usually contain a keyword or phrase that refers you to something that can easily be located. The first sentence, for example, contains restrictions, and you should quickly locate that word in the text.
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in the relevant part of the text, and write each below. Sentence 15 does not contain any of the actual words from the text no actual words
16............................
17............................
18............................
Step 2 - Read carefully
Read the sentences carefully as you read the relevant parts of the passage carefully. Remember that ideas in the sentences maybe worded very differently from how they are worded in the text.
Step 3 - Find the answer
Locate the specific keywords) that provides) the answer.
Question 13
The text tells you to check with certain organisations, whereas the sentence says that certain organisations will provide information. What are those organisations?
Remember that you can use up to three words for your answer. Is it necessary to do so here Write your answer below.

Questions 19-23
Label the diagram below.
Write
NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS
from the reading passage for each answer.
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19
adds strength 20
preferable to nails and screws 21
constructed from plywood sheets or old boards 22
adds protection
23
most suitable materials for page Access https://ieltsonlinetests.com for more practices
windows
Labelling a diagram
Task guide
For this task, you have to complete a diagram or series of diagrams (as is the case here, using information provided in the passage.
Words that you write as answers for this task will often be quite technical, and frequently words that you don't know. The aim is to check that you can understand a description of a process
(mechanical or biological, for example) or how something works,
not to test whether you already know specialised vocabulary.
Contrast this task with a diagram labelling task in the Listening test. In the Listening test, you will usually match given labels to parts of a diagram, writing the correct letter as your answer. In the
Reading test, you usually have to write words or phrases that appear in the passage as answers. Occasionally, you have to choose options from a box.
Sometimes, you will simply need to label an item on a diagram
(see Question 19). Sometimes, you will need to complete a description of a diagram or part of it (see Questions 20-23). As in all gap-filling tasks, longer descriptions will paraphrase language used in the passage.
There might be some additional labels or descriptions on the diagram that you do not need to complete, but which you should read to get a better idea of what is shown.
The diagrams) will usually show information (a technical process,
for example) that is the focus of a particular part of the passage rather than on information spread throughout the whole passage.
The diagram task will usually have its own heading, and this will help you locate the relevant part of the passage.
Questions do not necessarily follow the order in which information is given in the passage as they do inmost other task types
(though in this particular task they do. Sometimes, particularly if the diagram shows a process, questions will be arranged around the page in a clockwise direction.
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You must write words that appear in the passage. Do not use other words or phrases that you think make sense, and do not change the form of words.

Step-by-step guide
Step 1 - Locate the task in the passage
Look at the title of the diagram task. In this case, you also have headings given to each section of the passage, so locating the relevant part is straightforward. Sometimes, you will need to scan the passage for keywords that appear in the diagram title. If the diagram task does not have a title, you must look carefully at the questions on the diagram, identify keywords and then locate those keywords in the passage.
As is the case here, the words used in the diagram task title will probably not be exactly the same as those used in the passage. In which two sections of the passage will you find answers to Questions
19-23?
Step 2 - Read carefully
Look at the diagram sequence carefully and make sure you understand what it shows and what the various part of it show. Then read the relevant parts of the passage carefully as you continue to look at the diagrams. Question Apart from the description you have to complete, two other labels are provided for this first diagram. You might already know trunk but if not,
the meaning is clear from the diagram. The platform is the topic of this section of the text, and platform occurs several times. The label on the diagram should help you understand exactly what the platform is. You need to label what it is that supports the platform.
The passage says that if the platform is not supported by branches or posts, as is the case here, it needs something for extra strength. Which two words are you going to write as your answer?
[1]
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Question The second diagram shows something that is preferable to nails and screws. It doesn't matter if you don't fully understand nails and screws- you just have to understand that they could be used instead of what is shown in the diagram. You have to identify what is a better option than using nails and screws to fix a platform in place and write it as your answer. Note that the phrase you need to write as your answer will probably not be familiar.
Now apply the same step-by-step approach to Questions 21-23.
Step 3 - Find the answers
The best approach is to answer each question in number order (so here from 19 through to 23). Since questions do not always follow the order of information in the passage, trying to answer the questions as you read through might become confusing and mean writing answers in the wrong place.

Questions 24-27
Complete each sentence with the correct ending A-H from the box below.
Write the correct letter AH in boxes 24-27 on your answer sheet.
A
should be higher than the main part of the construction.
B
saves carrying items up ladders and staircases.
C
can connect one tree with another.
D
should not be too unconventional in design.
E
is best suited to low constructions.
F
is a potentially dangerous option.
G
can be constructed to wind around the trunk of the tree.
H
may increase the likelihood of a construction collapsing.
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An outside deck A basic wooden ladder A rope walkway A rope pulley
27
Sentence completion choosing
endings
Task guide
For this task, you have to complete a number of sentences by choosing from a list of possible endings listed in a box, using information provided in the passage. There are always more options (sentence endings) than there are questions (sentence stems, so you must dismiss some of the options as incorrect.
This task may focus on information in a particular part of the passage or on information spread throughout the whole passage.
If the task checks your comprehension of the whole passage, you will have to scan the text for relevant information.
The questions will follow the order in which information is provided in the passage.
The options will be randomly arranged in the box.
The aim of this task is to test your understanding of the passage;
not to test your grammar. Any of the endings will fit grammatically with any of the stems, so you will need to read carefully to check that the information given is correct. Often, all the options will begin with the same part of speech, a simple past verb or a modal verb, for example. Language used in the sentence endings (and sometimes in the sentence stems) will paraphrase language used in the passage. You will need to read all of the options carefully to identify which say the same thing as the relevant parts of the text.
The additional options (those which are to be dismissed) will always relate to information provided in the text, and will often be close in meaning to information required to answer a question.
Don't choose an option simply because it appears to immediately page Access https://ieltsonlinetests.com for more practices
relate to a sentence stem - it maybe thereto deliberately mislead you.
Step-by-step guide
The best approach to this task is to:
read the beginning of each sentence.
locate the specific part of the text that relates to it.
read that part carefully as you read through the options (sentence endings).
decide which option correctly matches the information given in the text and so correctly completes the sentence stem.
Step 1 - Locate the relevant part of the passage and the
question in the text
Remember that this task might relate to information provided throughout the whole passage, so you might have to go back and scan the text from the beginning. However, here, since the first two tasks
(Questions 14-23) relate to the passage up to the end of the section headed Windows and doors, it would be a good idea to check first whether the final task relates only to the remaining part of the passage.
Read Question 24 and find where an outside deck is mentioned.
Once you have found that, you know that the other questions
(Questions25-27) will relate to information that follows, so you now know that you only have to read the final two sections to complete the task.
Step 2 - Read carefully
Read the relevant part of the section carefully as you read carefully through the list of options. Remember that ideas in the options will be worded differently from how they are worded in the text.
Step 3 - Find the answer
1. The text makes a number of points about outside decks. Which of the points below relate to an idea expressed in one of the options?
Outside decks can be separate from the main tree house.
Outside decks can be built on different levels.
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READING PASSAGE 3
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 28-40, which are based on
Reading Passage 3.
Do animals think?
Outside decks must be surrounded by safe railings.
Outside decks can bring out your creative side. Answer the questions below about some of the options.
Option A refers to an outside deck being on a different level but does the text actually say a deck is better being on a different level?
Option D suggests that part of the construction should be conventional. Does the relevant part of the text suggest that decks need to be conventional or that they can be very imaginative?
Option F suggests that something is potentially dangerous. Does the text include anything that suggests an outside deck could be dangerous. Which option is the correct answer?
Apply the step-by-step approach as you answer Questions 25-27. You should have a reason for dismissing the endings that do not complete any of the sentence stems.
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When an animal knows it is being chased and starts to run, is it obeying some ancient instinct, or does it know to be afraid?
A Mammals have brains so they can feel pain and fear and can react in disgust.
If a wildebeest did not feel pain, it would continue grazing as lions slowly devoured it. If an antelope did not sense fear, it would not break into a sprint at the first hint of cheetah. If a canine were not disgusted, it would not vomit it would not be, as the saying goes, sick as a dog.
Pain, fear and disgust are part of a mammal’s survival machinery developed over tens of millions of years of evolution. Homo sapiens have, however, only been around for about 200,000 years so all three emotional states owe something to mammal origins. If football hooligans can feel those emotions,
then so too do deer, foxes and dogs. The argument is about how aware or
‘conscious’ nonhuman mammals might be during these emotional events.
When an animal knows it is being chased and starts to run, is it obeying some instinct inherited from ancestors that knew when to flee a danger zone or does it actually know to be afraid?
B That might be the wrong question. A human startled by a strange shape in a darkened corridor experiences a pounding heart, lungs gasping for air and a body in recoil. This is the well-known flight or fight reaction. A human appreciates the full force of fear and has already started to counter the danger a fraction of a second before the brain has time to absorb and order the information presented by the menacing figure. This is because mental calculations are too slow to cope with surprise attack. Pain precedes logic.
Touch something hot and you withdraw your hand even before you have time to think about doing so. Once again, the wisdom is after the event.
c If humans can experience the universal emotions of fear, anger, disgust,
happiness, sadness, and surprise, then so can mammals. But does an animal think about its state of fear Does it have not just a mind but a theory of mind?
Does it have a sense of its own identity and that of another being Can it put itself in another animal’s shoes, so to speak?
All animals communicate, but only humans have language. The puzzle remains do animals think Can they think about abstractions, about the pastor about other animals Researchers have wrestled with a series of experiments to see whether animals are capable of behaving as if they had the capacity to learn, the will to improvise and the ability to guess what other animals are thinking. Dogs show a remarkable capacity to guess human intentions correctly. Dogs, however, have lived intimately with humans for page Access https://ieltsonlinetests.com for more practices

15,000 years, so are unlikely to make ideal test subjects.
D Primates, humanity’s closest relatives, show unexpected abilities.
Researchers from St Andrews in 1999 counted 39 different ways in which chimpanzees deal with food. Since these differ according to group and geography, they have used the word culture to describe these differing methods. One female chimpanzee in Kyoto, convinced researchers that she could place Arabic numerals in ascending order one to nine. Monkeys astonished a team at Columbia University in New York in 1998 by distinguishing groups of objects numbering one to four. Chimpanzees in large captive colonies forge alliances, switch sides and double-cross each other.
They have also been seen in the wild systematically searching for leaves that have a medicinal effect. From such observations, anew branch of research has been born. It is called zoopharmacognosy.
E Chimpanzees and humans share a common ancestor, and 98% of their DNA.
Do more distant mammal relatives share the capacity for cogitation Several years ago, Keith Kendrick at the Babraham Institute in Cambridge astonished the world by revealing that sheep could recognise up to 50 other sheep and up to ten human faces for at least two years after first seeing them. If a sheep can tell the difference between its flock members from flashcards and screen pictures, it must surely have a sense of these other creatures even when they are not there. Perhaps this means it also has an idea of ‘self’.
F More disconcertingly, pigs have demonstrated their own theory of mind.
Mike Mendl of Bristol University revealed astonishing evidence at the British
Association science festival in 2002. A larger and stronger pig that did not know where food was hidden had learned to follow a weaker, but better informed pig, to the trough. At this point the weaker pig would start to use distracting behaviour to keep the bully pig guessing, and only lunge for the rations when not being watched. It seems the smaller pig could guess what the other was thinking and outsmart it. Ina human, this is what we call
‘intelligence’.
G One of the animal world’s highest achievers, however, is not a mammal at all. Betty the crow lives in an Oxford laboratory. She repeatedly picks up a straight piece of wire, bends it into a hook and uses the hook to lift an appetising treat from a tube too deep for her beak. Before achieving this feat for the first time, she had never previously seen apiece of wire. So an animal far removed from humankind could identify a challenge, contemplate a simple matter of physics, identify a tool shape, select a raw material, make a tool and retrieve the reward. Birds are cousins not of mammals but of the dinosaurs.
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Humans and birds last shared a common ancestor 200 million years ago.
Experiments like these confirm, over and over again, that other mammals are more like us than we thought. It becomes increasingly difficult to know just what it is that makes humans different
Questions 28-35
Reading passage 3 has six sections, A-G.
Which section contains the following information?
Write the correct letter AF in boxes 28-35 on your answer sheet.
NB You may use any letter
more than once
an investigation into the extent of animal intelligence and awareness the suggestion that an animal less recognised for its intelligence has an impressive memory evidence that at least one species of animal has multiple intelligences a comparison of what different living creatures experience emotionally
31
an account of a supposedly simple creature that has learnt a clever trick acknowledgment that inherited abilities should not be seen as a measure of intelligence. an explanation of what happens when a person is frightened an account of how one animal got the better of another
35
Matching information to sections
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of text
Task guide
For this task, the passage is divided into sections. Sometimes,
each section will be a single paragraph, but usually at least one of the sections will consist of more than one paragraph. You must identify which section contains specific pieces of information.
Task guide
For this task, questions will not be worded as full sentences - they will not begin with a capital letter and end in a full stop. The options are expressed as ideas, and will frequently require you to identify evidence, a suggestion, a comparison, an explanation and soon (seethe range of these words used in this task).
Sometimes, the same section will be the answer to more than one question. The instructions will tell you when you can use a letter more than once. It is also possible that a section will not be the answer to any of the questions, though the instructions will not tell you this. Don't worry that you have not chosen a section as one of your answers.
This task tests your overall understanding of the passage and the sections that make it up. The idea is not to scan for words or phrases that appear in both a question and a section of the text.
Don't choose an answer simply because that option contains the same words as a section of the passage. Keywords that appear in questions will often appear in a number of sections.
Don't choose a section as an answer because it contains information related to something in a question. Information in more than one section will almost certainly relate to something in a question, but only one section will contain the precise information you require.
Because this task tests your understanding of the whole passage,
any second task applied to the passage will mean reading all or parts of the text again.

Step-by-step guide
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The best way to approach this task is to:
read the first question and then look through the text to find the answer.
go to the next question and repeat the process.
Question 28
Step 1 - Know what you are looking for
1. The question refers to an investigation. That means you are probably looking for:
A questions
B answers
C details and facts 2. The question refers to the extent of animal intelligence and awareness. That means you are looking for:
A concrete examples of animals behaving intelligently.
B a list of which animals are most intelligent.
C reference to how intelligent animals are and how that might be assessed.
Step 2 - Find the answer
Use your answers in Step 1 to identify the relevant section.
Look for information that matches the various elements of the question- something that relates to investigation, something that relates to the extent of animal intelligence and something that relates to intelligence and awareness.
Remember that you are not necessarily looking for words and phrases that mean exactly the same as those in the question. You need to find parts of the passage that refer to the idea expressed in the question.
Now write your answer to Question 28.
Question 29
Step 1 - Know what you are looking for
1. The question refers to an animal less recognised for its page Access https://ieltsonlinetests.com for more practices
intelligence. That means you might be looking for reference to:
A a dog or another domesticated animal.
B a chimpanzee or another species of ape.
C an animal that many people consider quite stupid 2. The question refers to an impressive memory. That means you are looking for information about an animal that:
A can count.
B recognises things.
C knows how to manipulate a situation.
Step 2 - Find the answer
Use your answers in Step 1 to identify the relevant section.
When you have located the relevant section, you will be able to answer these questions What type of animal is often considered stupid but surprised people What was this animal able to remember?
Questions 36-40
Answer the questions below.
Write
NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS
ONLY from the text for each answer.
According to the text, which animal is hunted and eaten by lions What sort of people are given as an example of low intelligence humans Which phrase in section B means runaway or stay and confront the danger According to the text, which two animals successfully completed numerical tasks What type of tool did Betty the crow make from apiece of wire page Access https://ieltsonlinetests.com for more practices

40
Short-answer questions
Task guide
For this task, you have to write answers to separate who, what,
where, when type questions, using information that is provided in the passage.
If this task is the first task applied to a passage, questions will usually apply to just one part of the text and you will not have to scan the whole text before you understand what the passage is about. When this task is the final task of two or three tasks,
questions will usually apply to the whole passage and you will need to read the text again to locate answers. This task often comes after a task that requires you to read for more general meaning, as is the case here.
Read the instructions carefully, as they will tell you how many words you can use for each answer - one, two or three words is usual. Sometimes instructions will say that you will also need to use a number. Make sure you do not use more words than is allowed.
The questions follow the order in which information is given in the passage.
Logically, most answers will be nouns, but other parts of speech are possible. Nouns will usually be either uncountable or plural so that you do not have to worry about whether or not to use an article. Occasionally, a short phrase will bean answer (if you have been told to use up to three words. Q Where was the gold discovered A in the tomb, for example.
You must write words that appear in the passage. Do not change the form of any words that you use in an answer.
Language used in the questions will paraphrase language used in the text (they will not include exactly the same words and phrases. You will need to identify words and phrases in the text that mean the same as or something similar to words and phrases in the questions.
Occasionally, a question will refer you to a specific paragraph or section of the text, especially if you are required to identify a page Access https://ieltsonlinetests.com for more practices
phrase that you may not be familiar with (see Question Occasionally, a question will require you to identify two answers
(see Question 39). You need to identify the two words and write and between them. You will only score one mark for both answers and you will not score a mark if only one of them is correct.

Step-by-step guide
The best way to approach this task is to:
answer each question one at a time.
locate the relevant part of the passage.
identify the information that specifically relates to each question.
Question 36
Step 1 - Locate the relevant part of the text
1. For this question, a keyword in the question appears in the text
(that will not always be the case. What is that word and which is the relevant paragraph 2 Now that you have located the keyword, which word in the same sentence means the same as eaten?
Step 2 _ Find the answer
The sentence you have identified as being relevant tells you about lions.
However, the order in which information is given is very different and the name of the animal you need to use as an answer is almost certainly unfamiliar to you. You need to read the sentence to workout which word is the name of the animal.
Write your answer for Question 36. (You can use an article with your answer but it is not necessary here.)
Question 37
Step 1 - Locate the relevant part of the text
For this question, no word in the question appears in the text. You will need to look for information that relates to the content of the question.
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You should start looking at the next part of the text - remember questions follow the order of the information in the text. Which paragraph includes a reference to a sort of person (not a general word like humans or homo sapiens but a sort of person)?
Step 2 - Check your answer
What is the word or phrase that you have located in that paragraph?
Are those people considered by most other people to be of low intelligence - yes or no?
Does the sentence in which the phrase appears tell you that the writer believes those people are of low intelligence - yes or no?
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Solution:
1
B
2
C
3
A
4
D
5
B
6
D
7
C
8
D
9
B
10
A
11
C
12
B
13
local planning authorities
14
permanent dwelling
15
safety harness
16
an adult hideaway
17
special protection orders
18
the sun
19
diagonal bracing
20
rope lashing
21
floor
22
roofing felt
23
Perspex or Plexiglas
24
F
25
E
26
C
27
B
28
C
29
E
30
D
31
A
32
G
33
C
34
B
35
F
36
wildebeest
37
football hooligans
38
flight or fight
39
chimpanzees and monkeys
40
a hook page Access https://ieltsonlinetests.com for more practices

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