Test1 and Test3 can be combined to form a reliable scale
None of the above
9. Consider the following MultiTrait MultiMethod Matrix. What do you conclude regarding the validity of the two new measures of curiosity and openness?
The discriminant validity of Curiosity New is high
The convergent validity of Curiosity New is high
The discriminant validity of Openness New is high
The convergent validity of Openness New is high
10. You have been asked to study employee satisfaction at a Dutch supermarket chain. In total, this chain has 14.000 employees. The supermarket chain has given you contact details from 1.000 randomly selected employees. From this list, you chose 200 employees to send a survey to. A total of 143 employees completed the survey, the other 57 did not respond.
What is the sample you used in this study?
The 14.000 employees of the supermarket chain
The 1.000 randomly selected employees
The 200 employees who received the survey
The 143 employees who filled out the survey
11. You were disappointed to find that only 143 employees participated in your study (see previous question). After checking the characteristics of the people who refused to participate, you find that males were more likely to refuse to participate than females (a case of systematic non-response). How does systematic non-response affect the accuracy and precision of your sample?
The accuracy of the sample is reduced while the precision remains the same
The precision of the sample is reduced while the accuracy remains the same
Both the accuracy and the precision of the sample are reduced
12. Which of the following statements about explained variance is/are true?
The R2 coefficient of explained variance can be used to identify the direction of the relationship between variables X and Y.
In a simple regression model, high explained variance indicates that the X and Y variables correlate strongly with each other.
Both statements are true
I is true, II is not true
I is not true, II is true
Both statements are not true
13. You are investigating the financial situation of car dealerships in the Netherlands. Thousands of car dealerships are scattered all over the country, so you need to select a sample of dealerships for your study. To draw your sample, you select three municipalities in different parts of the country and you pick a random sample of dealerships from these municipalities.
Which type of sampling are you using?
14. One way to test if cognitive tests administered to children in primary school are useful is to check whether their results on these tests are related to their study performance in high school. Which type of validity are you testing in this situation?
15. You want to measure the concept ‘empathy’ in a study into management styles. For this particular concept, the sentence ‘The extent to which a manager is perceived as caring, attentive, and genuinely interested in others’ is an example of a…
16. Modern cars are increasingly equipped with gadgets that improve traffic safety. One such gadgets is an eye-tracking device that monitors your eye movements to detect whether you are falling asleep. If you do, it sounds an alarm. However, in testing it appeared that every time drivers diverted their eyes from the road, the alarm went off. Which description fits the performance of the gadget best?
Validity and reliability were both high
Validity was high, reliability was low
Validity was low, reliability was high
Validity and reliability were both low
17. You conduct an experiment into ways to promote pro-environmental behavior at work. Specifically, you are trying to reduce energy use. You divide the employees of an office into two groups: A group that receives information about various ways to save energy, and a group that does not receive any information. After two weeks, you compare the energy use in the two groups over the past two weeks to see if the information was effective. Which type of experiment did you use here?
Pre- and post-test design
Post-test only design
Pre-test post-test control group design
Post-test only control group design
18. Which of the following statements about experiments is/are true?
In a blind experiment, the researcher does not know if he/she is giving the treatment to the experimental group or the control group.
Using a blind experiment helps to reduce researcher (measurer) error
Using a blind experiment helps to reduce participant error
All of the statements listed above are true
19. What should you do when cases have missing values?
Delete all questions (variables) which contain missing values
Delete all cases with missing values from the analysis
All of the above are appropriate strategies in case of missing values
20. Imagine you are running an experiment on the effect of music volume on sales in supermarkets. A supermarket allowed you to change the volume of the music in the supermarket for a period of three weeks. You compare three different volume settings: no music in week 1, soft music in week 2, and relatively loud music in week 3. At the end of the experiment, you compare the sales results for each volume level to measure the effects of music volume on sales.
Which type of experiment are you conducting here?
Open questions: EasyLeasy (27 points)
The option of leasing instead of buying a bicycle has become very popular in the Netherlands in a relatively short time. Students in particular seem to prefer paying a relative modest monthly fee to have access to a bicycle instead of paying a one-off sum to buy one. As more and more people are looking to lease a bicycle, more companies are starting to provide this service. One company that has recently started leasing out bicycles is EasyLeasy. This company is hoping to grow into one of the biggest lease bike providers in the Netherlands by offering superior value to customers.
Imagine that you work for EasyLeasy as a market researcher. Your job is to conduct research, analyze data, and report outcomes and recommendation to the management team.
Question 1a (4 points): You want to ask a sample of current customersof EasyLeasy about their experiences with the company. You will use this information as input for new marketing campaigns. One of the concepts you want to measure in this questionnaire is customer support. Provide two indicators for customer support and explain for each indicator why it is suitable.
Question 1b (10 points): An important topic you want to cover in your questionnaire is the perceived status of the EasyLeasy brand. Design three questions for a short survey on the perceived status of EasyLeasy. The questions should be methodologically appropriate and lead to three different data types. Include the response scale and indicate the data type for each question.
In a separate study, you want to find out which type of bicycle is most attractive to students. EasyLeasy has three types of bicycles: Basic, Comfort, and Excellent. You want to run an experiment to test which type is most attractive. To do so, you have rented an empty shop on the Vismarkt in which you can present a bicycle to a participant. All three bicycles are present in the shop; you can choose which one you show to the participant.
You run the study by following these basic steps:
You ask a passing student to participate in the study
You show the student either the basic, the comfort, or the excellent version.
You ask the student to fill out a short questionnaire, including a question about the attractiveness of the bicycle. This is how attractiveness was measured:
How attractive do you find this bicycle?
Very unattractive 1 2 3 4 5 Very attractive
Afterwards, you enter all answers in a dataset and draw conclusions with regard to the attractiveness of the bicycles.
Question 1c (3 points): Does this study fulfill the criteria for a true experiment? Use these criteria to motivate your answer.
During the study described on page 10, you also asked participants whether they are interested in leasing an EasyLeasy bicycle. You want to use this information to test whether the attractiveness of the bicycle is predictive of the interest in leasing a bicycle. You used the following scale to measure interest:
On a scale of 1-10, how interested are you in leasing an EasyLeasy bicycle?
………………… (write down number between 1-10 here).
Question 1d (5 points): Which statistical test should be used to determine the effect of attractiveness on interest? Explain why.
Question 1e (5 points): Use the output of the test you chose in question 1d to clearly describe the results of the analysis and to draw a conclusion regarding the hypothesis that attractiveness of the bicycle is predictive of the interest in the bicycle (output is available on p. 13-15).
Independent samples T-test