Quoting studysmarter Survival Guide



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STUDYSmarter
Survival Guide

Referencing 2

Tips for quoting using footnotes


  • Make sure you enclose short quotes in inverted commas and indent long quotes.

  • Insert a superscript number1 immediately after direct quotes (and after the full stop if the quote is at the end of a sentence).

  • A corresponding superscript number will appear at the bottom of your page. This is where you put the bibliographic information and page number of the quote.

  • Find out which referencing style is used in your discipline. How to cite in footnotes varies depending on the
    referencing style used.

  • Introduce each quote.

  • Follow each quote with a discussion,
    explanation or critique which makes it clear why you used the quote and how it develops your argument.

  • Make sure the quote is integrated into your essay or report in a grammatically correct way.

  • Keep quotes to under 10% of your work.


Examples
According to Chan “water temperatures in the north of Australia are rising faster than predicted 10 years ago”. 1 This information indicates that scientists ...
Many climate predictions have proven to be inaccurate. For example, “water temperatures in the north of Australia are rising faster than predicted 10 years ago”.1 This information indicates that scientists …
Example of footnote at bottom of page
1 S Chan, Climate in the North of Australia, Australian University Press, Perth, 2009, p. 18.

Quoting, using the exact words of an author, can be an effective way to make a point when writing an essay or a report.

However, there are certain conventions you must follow if you want to avoid plagiarising.


Here are some tips to help you quote properly.



Tips for quoting using in-text referencing


  • Make sure you enclose short quotes in inverted commas and indent long quotes.

  • Include the author’s surname, date of publication AND page number in the text of your essay or report.

  • Introduce each quote.

  • Follow each quote with a discussion,
    explanation or critique which makes it clear why you used the quote and how it develops your argument.

  • Make sure the quote is integrated into your essay or report in a grammatically correct way.

  • Keep quotes to under 10% of your work.


Examples
There are a number of ways that quotes can be integrated into your essay or report., e.g.
According to Chan (2009, p.18) “water temperatures in the north of Australia are rising faster than predicted 10 years ago”. This information indicates that scientists ...
Many climate predictions have proven to be inaccurate. For example, “water temperatures in the north of Australia are rising faster than predicted 10 years ago” (Chan 2009, p.18). This information indicates that

scientists ...


Find out which referencing style is used in your discipline as each style is slightly
different.

Like this Survival Guide? Why not check out...

Survival Guides: Avoiding plagiarism, Avoiding academic misconduct, Paraphrasing


Want to know more about STUDYSmarter?

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Any suggestions?

We’d love to hear from you. Email us at study.smarter@uwa.edu.au


This resource was developed by the STUDYSmarter team for UWA students. When using our resources, please retain them in their original form with both the STUDYSmarter heading and the UWA logo.

Using long quotes
Long quotes are indented whether you are using an in-text or footnote referencing style.
Indented quotes are usually single spaced and often, though not always, justified. The examples below show how to indent long quotes using in-text referencing and footnotes.
Example 1 in-text reference

The health of women and children world wide is of concern to many international


agencies.
The world has UNICEF and WHO, a Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health, and many non-governmental organisations that advocate vigorously on behalf of women and children. Millennium Development Goals 4 (child survival) and 5 (maternal and reproductive health) are receiving greater political attention. (Horton 2010, p. 1941)
The increased attention that women’s and children's health is receiving will surely lead to a lower incidence of infant mortality. …
Example 2 footnoted reference

The health of women and children world wide is of concern to many international


agencies.
The world has UNICEF and WHO, a Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health, and many non-governmental organisations that advocate vigorously on behalf of women and children. Millennium Development Goals 4 (child survival) and 5 (maternal and reproductive health) are receiving greater political attention. 1
The increased attention that women’s and children's health is receiving will surely lead to a lower incidence of infant mortality. …

1 Horton, R . 2010, ‘The continuing visibility of women and children’ www.thelancet.com, vol.375, no.5, pp. 1941-1943.


  1. Horton, R . 2010, ‘The continuing visibility of women and children’ www.thelancet.com, vol.375, no.5, pp. 1941-1943.


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