Quettaparma Quenyanna

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GALADRIEL Altariel (Altariell-; gen. Altariello is attested. Altariel is the form used in Noldorin Quenya, Galadriel's own mother-tongue; the Telerin form is Alatáriel [UT:266]. According to PM:347, the true Quenya equivalent of the Telerin form would have been Ñaltariel, but this form was apparently not used.) –Silm:433, RGEO:66

GALADHRIM (the “tree-people” of Lórien) Ornelië –TI:239

GAME tyalië (sport, play) –TYAL/LT1:260

GANDALF Olórin (his name in Valinor, derived from a stem meaning "dream" – not an actual translation of "Gandalf", meaning "Elf of the Wand", a name he was given by people who did not know that he was actually a Maia.) –LotR:391, UT:396 cf. 391

GAOL #mando (isolated from Angamando "Iron-Gaol"; mando is also defined as "safe keeping"). –MR:350

GAP fásë (gulf) –GL:36

GARDEN tarwa (enclosure) –QL:87


GASH cirissë (slash), hyatsë (cleft)KIRIS, SYAD

GATE ando; GREAT GATE andon (pl andondi). (LT1:264 has osto "the gates of the Sun" and Ostor "East", but in Tolkien's later Quenya osto means "town" or "fortress".) –AD, LotR:1157, LT1:264

GATHER comya- (assemble), hosta- (collect, assemble); GATHERING (of three or more coming from different directions) yomenië (meeting) –PE17:158, MC:223, WJ:407

GENEROUS faila (fair-minded, just) –PM:352

GENTLE milya (soft, weak) (Note: milya- is also a verb "long for"), moica (soft), GENTLE BREEZE vílëVT45:34, GL:58, LT1:273

GET net- (pa.t. nentë given) – QL:66

GET LOW (of the Sun) númeta-, númenda-LT1:263

GERM erdë (seed. Note: a homophone means "person".) –ERÉD

GESTURE-CODE hwermë –WJ:395, VT39:5

GIANT (noun) norsa (Þ) (see also MONSTER). Another word for "giant" (hanaco) was struck out by Tolkien. –NOROTH, VT45:21

GIFT anna; LAND OF GIFT (a name of Númenor) Andor (haplology of *Annandor), DEAR GIFT (the meaning of Melian's name) Melyanna, GIFT OF GOD, see GRACE. –ANA, Silm:313, 434

GIMILZÔR TelemnarUT:223

GIMLET teret (auger) –LT1:255

GIRD: Early “Qenya” material has a verb qilti- “gird, encircle” (QL:78); read perhaps *quilta- if the verb is to be adapted to Tolkien’s later Quenya (cf. the noun quilta “belt, girdle”).

GIRDLE #lesta (isolated from #Lestanórë; see DORIATH. #Lesta is the cognate of Sindarin lest as in Lest [or List] Melian "the Girdle of Melian" [WJ:228]. Note: #lesta also means "measure".) GIRDLE, BELT quilta. –WJ:369, Silm:390, QL:78

GIRL wen (stem wend-, as in the pl. wendi) (maid). The word seldë was not clearly glossed by Tolkien, but appears to mean "female child", hence "girl". The form wendi "young or small woman, girl" in VT48:18 is perhaps intended as the older form of wendë ("maiden") rather than a "contemporary" Quenya word. The form "wenki" from the same source may have a similar meaning, and again it is possible that this is actually Common Eldarin for Quenya *wencë, wenci-. –LT1:271, VT46:13, VT48:18

GIVE anta- (pa.t. #antanë is attested in VT49:14 [antanen “I gave”], though the pa.t. “gave” was ánë in early "Qenya", QL:31; possibly both forms are valid in later Quenya as well). In one text, Tolkien apparently used ana as the imperative "give!", but the text was rewritten and this may have been an ephemeral form (VT44:13). GIVE INSTRUCTIONS TO, see INSTRUCT. GIVER antë (f), anto (m) (the latter word from Etym is probably obsoleted by anto "mouth" in LotR:1157 – an alternative word for "[male] giver" might be *antando). Another fem. word for "giver" is #ánië, isolated from massánië (see BREAD-GIVER).ANA, VT44:13, PM:404

GIVE BIRTH nosta- (but in later sources, nosta- is glossed "beget", q.v.) –LT1:272

GIVEN (OR ADDED) NAME anessë (pl anessi is attested. This word encompasses both "after-names" and "mother-names".) –MR:217

GLAMHOTH Sancossi (see GOBLIN) –LT2:341

GLASS calca, hyellë, hyelma (the latter perhaps = "a glass", whereas hyellë could be glass as a substance), maril (crystal perhaps with stem marill-). LITTLE GLASS lipil. Cf. also vírin, "a magic glassy substance of great lucency used in fashioning the Moon" –VT47:35, KHYEL/VT45:23, VT46:13, LT1:258, LT2:339


GLEAM (WHITE) ilca- (part. ilcala is attested)MC:223

GLINT (vb) tinë (pres 3rd pers sg); GLINT (noun) tindë, wintil; GLINTING tinda (silver)TIN, LT1:261

GLITTER (vb) mirilya-; GLITTERING rilya (in the Etymologies as printed in LR, this word also seemed to be glossed "brilliance", but according to VT46:11, this gloss properly refers to another word), GLITTERING LIGHT rilma; GLITTERING REFLECTION (from jewels, glass, polished metals, or water) nalta (radiance alata in Silm:433 is the Telerin form. In PM:347, nalta is spelt with initial ñ, that is, ng. Initial ng had become n in Third Age Quenya, and I follow the system of LotR and transcribe it accordingly. But if this word is written in Tengwar, the initial n should be transcribed with the letter noldo, not númen.) –MBIRIL, RIL/VT46:11, PM:347

GLOBE coron (#corn-, as in dat.sg. cornen) (ball); GLOBED corna (round) –KOR

GLOOM ungwë, lumbë (shadow), huinë (darkness, shadow), lómë (stem lómi-) (night, twilight, darkness, dusk), yaru; GLOOMY morna (black, dark, sombre); CHILD OF GLOOM lómëar (probably not a valid word in LotR-style Quenya) –UÑG, LUM, VT41:8, GL:37, LT1:255, Silm:431

GLORIOUS alcarinqua (radiant) (The shorter form alcarin is attested in VT44:10 and also as a title of king Atanatar II. Cf. also Alcarinquë, a name of Jupiter.) The form alcarë appears as an adjective "glorious" in VT44:10, but this was apparently an ephemeral form, and the Etymologies, alcarë is rather a longer form of the noun alcar "glory". –AKLA-R-, WJ:412, RGEO:73/LotR:1075/VT44:10, Silm:55

GLORUND, GLORUNN Laurundo, Undolaurë (Tolkien later changed Glorund to Glaurung. Read *Laurungo, *Ungolaurë in Quenya?) –LT2:341

GLORY alcar, alcarë (splendour, brilliance) In VT44:10, alcarë is an adjective "glorious" rather than a noun "glory", but this was apparently an ephemeral form. –AKLA-R-/RGEO:73/UT:317/WJ:369/Silm:427, VT43:37, VT44:34, VT47:13

GLOWING lúsina adj. “glowing” (of things). Note: used of people, the word means “hearty” (QL:57). If this early Qenya term is to be used in LotR-style Quenya, one would have to assyme that it represents earlier lúÞina (root *LUTH) and spell it accordingly in Tengwar.

GNOME (only = wise one, Noldo) Noldo (spelt Ngoldo [Ñoldo] in Tengwar writing, reflecting the earlier pronounciation); pl. Noldor is attested. GNOMISH (general adjective:) Noldorinwa, (Gnomish language:) Noldorin, GNOME-LAND NoldomarLT1:262, Silm:61, LotR:1157, VT39:16

GO lelya- or lenna- (pa.t. lendë in both cases; the printed Etymologies gives "linna" instad of lenna-, but according to VT45:27 this is a misreading) (proceed, travel); #men- (attested in the aorist: menë "goes"), vanya- (pa.t. vannë) (depart, disappear – it may be that Tolkien abandoned the verb vanya-, if it is regarded as the conceptual predecessor of auta-, see GO AWAY below), GO ROUND pel- (revolve, return; the Silmarillion Appendix also mentions “encircle” as a meaning of the root PEL, cf. also “Qenya” pele- “surround, fence in, pen in”; pa.t. pellë given, QL:73). GO OVER, see CROSS. GO ATHWART tara- (cross); GO AWAY auta- (leave, pass); pa.t. oantë, perf. oantië (in the physical sense "went away [to another place]", vánë ("the most frequently used past [tense]" – less "physical" than oantë, rather meaning to be lost or to disappear), also anwë (this pa.t. was "only found in archaic language"), perf. avánië (pl. avánier is attested); perf. vánië with no augment may occur in verse. GO FORTH TOWARDS (with the thing approached as direct object) tenta-, pa.t. tentanë (the verb can also mean “direct toward” or “be directed toward”, in the intransitive tense apparently with the pa.t. tenantë). CAUSE TO GO (in a desired direction) menta- (send), GONE vanwa (departed, vanished, dead, lost, past and over, no longer to be had) BE GONE! heca! also with pronominal affixes: sg hecat, pl hecal "you be gone!" (stand aside!) LET GO lerya- (release, set free), sen- (let loose, free) –WJ:363, LED/VT45:27, VT47:11, 30, PEL, LT2:347, WAN, Nam, WJ:364, VT41:5, VT49:23, WJ:366, VT41:5, VT43:18

GOAT – she-goat: nyéniLT1:262

GOBLET súlo (stem *súlu-), fion (but in later material, a word of similar shape is assigned the meaning “hawk” instead)SUG (see SUK), LT1:253

GOBLIN (Orc) urco (stem *urcu-, pl urqui) or orco (stem *orcu-, pl. orqui, or stem *orco-, pl. orcor); THE GOBLINS Sancossi (sancë "hateful" + hossi "armies", said to be the Quenya equivalent of Sindarin Glamhoth)

-ÓROK, LT2:202/MR:74/WJ:390, LT2:341

GOD Eru ("The One, He that is Alone", "the One God", a proper name that can hardly be used as a common noun meaning "god" in general. The form Eru corresponds to Enu in early “Qenya” material, LT2:343. Genitive Eruo, VT43:32; dative Erun, VT44:32). Other names/titles: Ilúvatar "Father of All", Ainatar *"Holy-Father". GOD (in general, "a god") aino (this word from PE15:72 is the equivalent of ainu within Tolkien's mythos, but since aino could be interpreted as simply a personalized form of aina "holy", it can perhaps be adapted as a general word for "god" or "holy one"). PAGAN GOD ainu, PAGAN GODDESS aini (angelic spirit, holy one). (As Christopher Tolkien notes, the Ainur are of course not "pagan" to the people of Middle-earth. In Etym and Silm, Ainu/Aini is capitalized.) SON OF GOD (Jesus) Eruion, MOTHER OF GOD (Mary, in Tolkien's Quenya renderings of Catholic prayers) Eruamillë (also Eruontari, Eruontarië *"God-begetter") –Silm:15/396/431, Letters:387, VT44:16-17, 34, LT1:248 cf. AYAN and Silm:426, VT43:32, VT44:7, 16-17, 18 34

GODWINE (name, "God-friend") Valandil (sc. *"Vala-friend") –VT46:4

GOLD (the metal) malta (so in LotR – Etym has malda [stem SMAL], but cf. the archaic form smalta mentioned under LAWAR); GOLD laurë (= "not the metal but the colour, what we should call golden light", Letters:308, "of light and colour, not of the metal", Silm:433, "not a metallic word. It was applied to those things which we often call 'golden' though they do not much resemble metallic gold: golden light, especially sunlight", RGEO:70, “golden light”, VT49:47, "a word for golden light or colour, never used for the metal", PM:353, "light of the golden Tree Laurelin", LR:368; a "mystic name" of gold, LT1:255 [possibly a notion Tolkien later abandoned]; in LT1:258 and LT2:341 the gloss is simply "gold".) RED GOLD †cullo (obsoleting culu in LT2:341? In LT1:255 culu is said to be a poetic word for "gold", but also used mythically as a name of all red and yellow metals), GOLDEN laurëa (pl laurië is attested; LT1:258 has laurina), GOLDEN-RED culda, culina (flame-coloured); (cf. Silm. Appendix: "cul- 'golden-red' in Culúrien") –LotR:1157/SMAL, Letters:308/RGEO:70/LAWAR, KUL, RGEO:70/Nam, Silm:429

GONDOLIN Ondolindë ("Stone Song", so in Silm:149, 415; LT1:254 gives Ondolinda, changed from Ondolin) –LT1:254

GONDOR #Ondórë (genitive Ondórëo is attested, VT49:27), also attested in longer form Ondonórë (VT42:17)

GONE vanwa (departed, lost, past) –WAN, Nam

GONG tomboLT1:269

GOOD (of things) mára (fit, useful), GOOD (morally good) manë; GOOD OR FORTUNATE THING, see BOON. GOODBYE mára mestaMAG (see MA3), LT1:260, Arct

GOODS armar (sg #arma if there is a sg) –3AR

GOOSE ván, wán (pl. váni is given, but seems perfectly regular) –WA-N-

GORE nasta (spear-point, spear-head, triangle), nehtë (spearhead, narrow promontory, wedge. Note: a homophone means "honeycomb"), mear (from a root possibly meaning "ooze") –SNAS/VT46:14, UT:282, LT1:260

GORGE cilya (pass between hills, cleft) (so in Etym, but cf. #cirya in the name Calacirya "Pass of Light" [gen. Calaciryo in Namárië] – though this clashes with cirya "ship". An early version of Namárië actually had Calacilyo, not Calaciryo; see An Introduction to Elvish p. 5) –KIL

GORTHAUR Sauron (Þ)Silm:418 cf. THUS

GOSPEL evandilyon –QL:36

GOTHMOG Cosomot (prob. *Cosomoc-, cf the alternative form Cosomoco) –LT1:258

GOVERN #tur- (attested as turin "I...govern", 1st pers. aorist), pa.t. turnë (wield, control). LT1:273 has vard- "rule, govern", but this is hardly a valid word in LotR-style Quenya. –TUR

GOVERNANCE heren (fortune) –KHER

GOVERNOR cáno (chieftain, commander; see COMMANDER for details) –PM:345, 361-362

GRACE #Eruanna (literally *"God-gift, gift of God"), attested in the genitive form Eruanno. Also #erulissë, literally "God-sweetness" (attested in the instrumental case: erulissenen), or simply lissë, literally "sweetness". The word mána is also used for a grace or boon; see BOON. Adjective HAVING GRACE, perhaps manaitë (the form is not fully explained by Tolkien). –VT43:28, 29, VT44:18, VT49:41, 42

GRACIOUS raina (smiling, sweet-faced). NOTE: A homophone means "nettled, enlaced". –VT44:35

GRADE #tyellë (only pl tyeller is attested – note irregular plural instead of the expected form **tyelli) –LotR:1153

GRAIN orë (ori-) –QL:50

GRAMMAR tengwesta (system or code of signs) –TEK cf. WJ:394

GRANDCHILD indyo (descendant) (Indyo looks like Vanyarin Quenya; the combination ndy became ny in Noldorin Quenya [see MIDDLE]. The Noldor likely said inyo, which form occurred in a deleted marginal note in the Etymologies). –ÑGYO(N), VT46:19

GRANT lav- (yield, allow) –DAB

GRASP mapa- (seize). This word was struck out in one of Tolkien's earlier word-lists, but in Etym it was restored. In early material occurs map- "seize, take" with pa.t. nampë. –MAP, LT2:339, QL:59

GRASS salquë, (stiff and dry:) sara (Þ) (bent) –SALAK, STAR

GREAT túra (big), hoa (large), (great in size:) alta (large) (The form alat- is used in compounds when the next word has an initial vowel, as in Alatairë. Tolkien's gloss of alta, alat- was actually illegible, and I give the root meaning of the stem ÁLAT. The meaning of the Quenya word cannot differ too widely from it, for Alatairë is said to correspond to "Noldorin" Belegoer [in LotR-style Sindarin Belegaer], The Great Sea.) – An early [TLT] word for "great", velicë, is possibly obsolete in LotR-style Quenya: In LT1:254 velicë is said to correspond to Gnomish beleg, but according to LR:352 the stem from which beleg is derived is "not found in Q[uenya]". In post-LotR material the words velca, velcë briefly turned up, apparently meaning “large, great, big”, but Tolkien rejected these forms as well.) –PE17:115, ÁLAT, cf. BEL, cf. Silm:428, LT1:254


GREAT LONGING mavoinëLT2:345

GREAT NUMBER – in a very great number: úvëa (abundant) –UB

GREAT QUANTITY úvë (abundance) –UB

GREAT WOOD taurë (forest) –TAWAR


GREEN laica (so in Letters:282; earlier sources have laiqua, whereas laica meant something wholly different ["keen, piercing"] in earlier material: LT2:337), wenya (yellow-green, fresh), ezel, ezella (adopted from Valarin; only used in Vanyarin Quenya)."Green" is expressed as a mere prefix lai- (representing the root underlying the adjective laica) in: GREEN-ELVES Laiquendi; cf. also VERDIGRIS = lairus. GREENNESS wén, laiquassë (freshness, youth). –LÁYAK/LT1:267, WJ:399, GWEN, WJ:385, LT1:267

GREY #mista (isolated from lassemista "leaf-grey"), also hiswa, but the most usual word for "grey" may be sindë (stem *sindi-) (Þ) or sinda (Þ). (WJ has sindë "pale or silvery grey", wheras sinda is given in Silm:438; cf. also sindanoriello "from a grey land", Sindacollo "Grey-cloak" and Sindar "Grey-Elves, *Grey Ones".)GREY-ELVES Sindar (Þ) (sg. Sinda), less commonly Sindeldi (sg Sindel); GREY-CLOAK Sindacollo, Singollo (Þ) (so in Silm:421; MR:217 has Sindicollo, presupposing sindë, sindi- as the word for "grey"); GREY-ELVEN sindarinwa (adj), Sindarin (= Grey-Elven language) (Þ)LotR:505 cf. Letters:224, KHIS, LotR:1171, Silm:438, THIN/WJ:384, Nam, Silm:419, WJ:384, LotR:1157, 1161

GRIEF nyérë (sorrow). Pl. probably *nyérer not *nyéri; cf. the similar formation tyávë "taste" pl. tyáver. The noun nyérë points to a verbal stem *nyer- "grieve". –GL:60/LT1:261

GROT (small) rotto (cave, tunnel) –PM:365, VT46:12

GROUND talan (#talam-, as in pl. talami) (floor) –TALAM

GROUP OF FIVE (5 similar things) maqua (basically "hand", with 5 fingers); GROUP OF TEN (10 similar things) maquat (dual of maqua, here referring to a "pair of fives") –VT47:7, 10

GROW ol- (not clearly identified as a Quenya word in the source; it may be a primitive root); GROW FAT tiuya-VT45:13, TIW

GROWL (vb) yarra- (snarl), (of dogs:) núru- (grumble); GROWL (noun) nur (complaint)

-MC:223, LT1:263

GRUMBLE (vb) nurru- (murmur), núru- (growl [of dogs]). (These may simply be two forms of the same word. Nurru- is by far the later [TLT] form.) GRUMBLING (adj) nurruaMC:223, LT1:263

GUARD use the word glossed "watch, heed", q.v. Cf. LT1:258. For "guard" as a noun, #tirno "watcher" may be isolated from halatirno (see FISHWATCHER)

GUESS (vb) intya-; GUESS (noun) intya (supposition, idea) –INK

GUILT cáma (responsibility) –QL:43

GULF yáwë (cleft, ravine). According to VT46:22, it is possible that the gloss "gulf" actually reads "gully" in Tolkien's manuscript, and the other glosses may support this reading. The word londë (land-locked haven) is translated “gulf” in TI:423. Early “Qenya” has fásë = gulf, gap, but Tolkien’s later Quenya would not have s in this position (unless it represents earlier þ). –YAG, TI:423, GL:36



GYRATE hwinya- (eddy, swirl) –SWIN

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