Quettaparma Quenyanna

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CALACIRIAN Calaciryan (prob. *Calaciryand-), full form Calaciryandë (i.e., "the region of Eldamar...in and near the entrance to the ravine [of Calacirya], where the Light was brighter and the land more beautiful") –RGEO:70 cf. LotR:252

CALL (noun) yello (shouth, cry of triumph) –GYEL, VT45:16

CAMEL ulumpë –QL:97

CAN (vb.), see BE ABLE

CANDLE lícuma (taper) –MC:223

CANOPY (vb) telta- (overshadow, screen), CANOPY (noun) telimbo (sky) –TEL, LT1:268

CANNIBAL-OGRES Sarquindi (sg #Sarquindë?) –LT2:347

CAPE mundo (nose, snout), stem *mundu- given the primitive form mbundu. (Note: mundo also means "ox", and as such the word may not have a distinct stem-form.) CAPE (OF LAND) nortil (stem *nortill-), said to be "only used of the ends of promontories or other seaward projections that were relatively sharp and spike-like". –MBUD, VT47:28

CAPTAIN hesto –VT45:22

CARANTHIR Morifinwë, short form Moryo (not equivalent in sense to his Sindarin name, which is the cognate of his "mother-name" [q.v.] Carnistir.) –PM:353

CARCANET firinga (necklace) –LT2:346/GL:36

CAROUSAL yulmë (drinking) (Note: a homophone means "smouldering heat") –WJ:416

CARPENTER samno (Þ) (wright, builder) –STAB

?CARPET farma (reading of gloss uncertain; another, even more difficult gloss begins in "st-" and may possibly read "string" or "stray") –VT46:15

CARRIER (the sign used to "carry" short vowel-symbols in the Tengwar system) anar (the word for "sun", which would require an initial vowel-carrier in the Tengwar mode used for Quenya) –VT45:6

CARRY – GL:38 has yulu-, but in WJ:416 the same stem (there spelt JULU) is said to mean "drink", indicating that yulu- "carry" had probably been abandoned in Tolkien's later Quenya. Use rather #col-; see BEAR.

CART norollë –GL:31

?CASSIOPEIA Wilwarin (the identification of this constellation is not certain. Wilwarin means "butterfly".) –Silm:426

CASTLE OF CUSTODY this is mentioned as the approximate meaning of Mandos (stem Mandost-) –MR:350

CAT yaulë; an earlier source also lists the word mëoi, but this word looks strange within the context of LotR-style Quenya (it would be sole singular form inoi) –PE16:132, LT2:348

CATCH (noun) atsa (hook, claw) –GAT

CAUSE (vb) tyar-; CAUSE (noun "reason") casta –KYAR, QL:43

CAVE felya, rondo, rotelë, rotto (small grot, tunnel), ARTIFICIAL CAVE hróta (dwelling underground, rockhewn hall) PHÉLEG, ROD, LT2:347, PM:365, VT46:12

CAVITY (hollow) súma (bosom) –MC:223

CEASE hauta- (take a rest, stop), pusta- (stop, put a stop to), tyel- (end) –KHAW, PUS, KYEL

CELEBORN Telporno (Letters:425) or Teleporno (UT:266). (The latter is stated to be the Telerin form, while Telporno must be the form used in Noldorin Quenya. Cf. Altáriel vs. Alatáriel; see GALADRIEL.)

CELEBRIMBOR (= "Silver-fist") Telperinquar (possibly *Telperinquár-. Cf. quárë "fist"). –Silm:429

CELEBRINDAL ("Silver-foot", Idril's epithet) Taltyelemna ("Taltelemna" in the printed Etymologies is a misreading, see VT45:25) Tolkien apparently abandoned the form Taltelepsa. –KYELEP

CELEGORM Turcafinwë, short form Turco (not equivalent in sense to his Sindarin name, which is a cognate of his mother-name [q.v.] Tyelcormo "hasty-riser"; the latter name was "never used in narrative".) –PM:352, 353

CELOS Celussë (see UT:426)

CENTRE endë (core, middle). (The form endë is probably to be preferred to entë in one late source.) Early material also has tólë. –NÉD, ÉNED, VT41:16, LT1:269

CENTURY haranyë (or perhaps it means the last day of a century – Tolkien's wording is not clear. The latter interpretation may be more likely.) –LotR:1142

CHAIN (noun) limil . Also proper name Angainor (= "The Great Chain" with which Morgoth was twice bound; LT1:249 has the form Angaino) –QL:54, Silm:59

CHAIR hamma –VT45:20

CHAMBER sambë (Þ) (-san,samb- in compounds; cf. BEDCHAMBER) (room) –STAB

CHAMPION aráto (eminent man) –Silm:428

CHANCE (vb.) marta- (more or less = "to happen"; see HAPPEN) –QL:63

CHANGE (vb) (transitive:) vista-, (intransitive:) #ahya- (only pa.t. ahyanë is attested) –PE17:191, PM:395


CHANT #lir- (cited in source as lirin "I chant", 1st pers. aorist) (sing) –LIR1

CHARACTER (settled character) indómë ("also used of the 'will' of Eru [God]", VT43:16). For "character" = letter, see LETTER.

CHASTISEMENT paimesta –QL:72

CHEESE tyur (tyurd-) (QL:50; tyuru- in GL:28 is actually a verb "to 'turn' milk"; cf. QL:50.)

CHERRY pio (this word was also applied to plums). CHERRY TREE aipio (also used = "plum tree"???) –LT2:347, GL:18

CHIEF (adj) héra (principal); CHIEF (noun) #turco (isolated from Turcomund "chief of bulls, *chief bull"; this may not be pure Quenya, but Turco appears as a the short name of Turcafinwë, Celegorm's Quenya name – though that is translated "strong, powerful (in body)" rather than referring to more "political" power) –KHER, Letters:423, PM:352

CHIEFTAIN (or CHIEF, VT45:17) haran (stem harn-, as in pl harni) (in Etym also = king, but in LotR and other texts the Quenya word for "king" is aran pl. arani – see KING), cáno, cánu (see COMMANDER) (ruler, governor, commander) –3AR, UT:400

CHILD hína, also vocative hina with a short vowel, used when addressing a (young) child. Pl. híni rather than ?hínar; see CHILDREN OF ILÚVATAR below. CHILD NOT YET FULLY GROWN, see BABY. "Child" as the last element in compounds: -hin (-hín-, pl. -híni), e.g. CHILDREN OF ERU Eruhíni from sg. #Eruhin; CHILDREN OF ILÚVATAR Híni Ilúvataro; MY CHILD hinya (short for hinanya, used as a vocative only). (For "child", Etym also has seldë; Tolkien changed the meaning from "daughter". Possibly, seldë is meant to have the meaning "female child", hence "girl". Selda was apparently introduced as a gender-neutral word for "child".) The word onna, elsewhere defined as “creature” and etymologically meaning *”something” begotten, is used for “child” in one late text (onnalya/onnalda “your [sg. and pl.] child”, VT49:41).WJ:403, Silm:387/432, VT44:35, SEL-D-/VT46:13, VT49:41

CHILDISH winima (read *vinima in Exilic Quenya) –VT47:26

CHILL ninquë (stem *ninqui-) (pallid, white); BE CHILL (of weather) nicu- (be cold) –WJ:417 cf. NIK-W-

CHILLY ringa (damp, cold) –LT1:265

CHIN venta –QL:101

CHOKE quoro- (suffocate), CHOKED quorin (drowned). Verbs ino seem not to occur in later Quenya; read *quor-? It has also been questioned whether the combination quo- is still possible in Tolkien's later Quenya. –LT1:264

CHOOSING #cilmë (isolated from Essecilmë "name-choosing", q.v.) –MR:214

CHRIST Hristo (variant Hrísto with a long vowel, though long vowels in front of consonant clusters do not normally occur in Quenya). Another form, apparently an attempt at translating this title rather than merely adapting to Quenya phonology the word "Christ", was Elpino of uncertain etymology. However, Tolkien may have abandoned this form. –VT44:15-16, 18

CHRONOLOGICAL ACCOUNT lúmequenta (history). The unglossed term lumenyárë appears to mean *"chronological story". –LU, NAR2

CIRCLE rindë; CIRCULAR rinda; CIRCULAR ENCLOSURE ("especially on a hill-top") corinRIN, KOR/LT1:257

CITY osto (town with wall round) –OS

CLAD vainaLT1:272


CLAN nossë (family, "house") –NŌ

CLARITY calassë (brilliance) –GL:39

CLASP tangwa (hasp) –TAK

CLAW atsa (hook, catch), nappa, namma (talon), #racca (isolated from raccalepta, see below); CLAW-FINGERED raccalepta –GAT, VT47:20, SD:68, 72


CLEARED (of land) latin, latina (free, open) –LAT

CLEAVE #hyar- (cited in source as hyarin "I cleave", 1st pers. aorist), pa.t. probably *hyandë given the form of the root. CLEAVER #hyando in Sangahyando (Þ) "Throng-cleaver, Cleaver of throngs" –SYAD, LT2:342, LotR:1085 cf. Letters:425

CLEAVE TO himya- (abide by, stick to, adhere) –KHIM, VT45:22

CLEFT yáwë (ravine, gulf/gully); sanca (Þ) (split), hyatsë (gash), ciris (probably ciriss-) (crack), falqua (mountain pass, ravine), cilya (gorge, pass between hills) (so in Etym, but cirya in the name Calacirya "Pass of Light" [gen. Calaciryo in Namárië] – though this clashes with cirya "ship". An early version of Namárië actually had Calacilyo, not Calaciryo; see An Introduction to Elvish p. 5.) –YAG/VT46:22, STAK, SYAD, RGEO:70/WJ:403, LT2:337, 341, KIL

CLEVER finca (said to mean clever “in petty ways”) –PE17:119

CLIFF ollo (seaward precipice) (The alternative form oldó may be archaic Quenya.) –LT1:252

CLOAK colla (vestment, actually a past participle "borne, worn" used as a noun). GREY-CLOAK Sindacollo, Singollo (so in Silm:421; MR:217 has Sindicollo. Note that colla has become #collo because –o is a masculine ending.) (Thingol). Verb "to cloak": fanta- (to veil, mantle) –MR:385, VT43:22

CLOSE holta- (shut); CLOSED pahta (NOT CLOSED see OPEN) –PE17:98, VT39:23

CLOTH lannë (tissue) –LAN

CLOUD fanya (white cloud; pl. fanyar is attested), lumbo (pl lumbor is attested. In LT1:259, it is stated that this word applies to a "dark lowering cloud"), ungo (dark shadow). (In ancient times the Elves probably also used the word fana [in Etym fána] for "cloud" or "veil", but in Quenya it came to denote the visible bodies in which the Valar manifested themselves to incarnates. When fana no longer meant "cloud", this meaning was evidently transferred to the derivative fanya, originally probably meaning "white" or as noun "white thing".) UPPER AIRS AND CLOUDS fanyarë (skies) –SPAN/VT46:15, MC:222, UÑG, Nam, RGEO:67, SYAD, RGEO:74, MC:223

CLUSTER loxë (bunch). Note: a homophone means "hair". (QL:55). CLUSTERS (of flowers) see BLOSSOM.

COAT vacco (jacket) –GL:21


COCK tocot –PE14:132

CODE OF SIGNS tengwesta (system of signs, grammar); GESTURE-CODE hwermë –WJ:394 cf. TEK, WJ:395

COITUS puhta (specified to be "one act"; a more general word for "sex" could perhaps be derived by adding an abstract or generalizing ending like -) –PE13:163

COLD (adj) ringa (so in MC:222 and LT1:265; Etym has ringë, stem *ringi-), (damp, chilly), yelwa (but this is glossed "loathsome" elsewhere). IT IS COLD Ringa ná (VT49:23). COLD (noun?) niquë, also vb niquë- "it is cold, it freezes"; COLD POOL OR LAKE (in mountains) ringwë (in the Etymologies as printed in LR, this word is cited as "ringe", but according to VT46:11, ringwë is the proper reading), BE COLD, CHILL (of weather) nicu-MC:222, RINGI/VT46:11, LT1:260, WJ:417

COLLAPSE (vb) talta- (slip, slide down), COLLAPSE (noun) atalantë (downfall) –MC:223

COLLECT hosta- (gather, assemble); COLLECTION OF LEAVES olassië (foliage). GREAT COLLECTION OR CROWD OF THINGS OF THE SAME SORT úmë (not to be confused with the pa.t. of the negative verb "not be, not do"). –KHOTH/MC:223, Letters:282, VT48:32

COLOUR quilë (hue) –QL:77

COME #tul- (cited in source as tulin "I come", 1st pers. aorist); perfect #utúlië and future #tuluva are attested (the latter with the prefix entuluva "shall come again". Tulin may obsolete tulu- in LT1:270). COME AWAY hótuli- ("so as to leave a place or group and join another in the thought or place of the speaker") –TUL, LotR:1003, Silm:229, WJ:368

COMFORT (verb) tiuta- (console), COMFORT (noun) tiutalë (comfort, consolation, easement) –QL:93

COMMAND (verb) *can- (so when used of persons; when used with things as object, this verb means demand) –PM:361-362 (where the stem KAN is mentioned; the Quenya verb is not directly cited as such, but seems implied by Tolkien's discussion of how this stem was used in Quenya.) For “command” as a noun, see ORDER.

COMMANDER cáno ("usually as the title of a lesser chief, especially one acting as the deputy of one higher in rank", PM:345) (governor, chieftain) –PM:345, VT45:19

COMMANDMENT axan (law, rule, as primarily proceeding from Eru). Pl. axani is attested. –WJ:399, VT39:30, 23


COMMUNICATION centa (as in Ósanwë-centa, Communication of Thought. In other contexts, centa must be translated "enquiry" or *"essay") –MR:415, VT39:23

COMPACT (noun) vérë (troth, oath, bond) –WED

COMPARE sesta- (liken) –QL:82

COMPEL mauya-; BE COMPELLED TO DO SOMETHING horya- (have an impulse, set vigorously out to do); COMPULSION maustaMBAW, VT45:22

COMPLAINT nur (growl) –LT1:263

COMPLETELY aqua (fully, altogether, wholly) –WJ:392

CONCEAL halya- (veil, screen from light). In early "Qenya" there is also the word fur- (read perhaps *hur-), also translated "to lie". –SKAL, LT2:340

CONCEALED furin or hurin (hidden). According to Tolkien’s post-LotR ideas, the form in hu- would be preferred in late Quenya. –LT2:340

CONCEPTION (= idea, cf. VT46:6) noa (pl. nówi), (nów-). Not to be confused with noa = “former” or “yesterday”. –NOWO

CONCERN #ap- (given as aorist stem apë) (to affect, to touch one). CONCERNING pa, (as regards, touching) –VT44:26

CONCH hyalma (shell, horn of Ulmo) –SYAL

CONCLUDE telya- (transitive) (wind up, finish); CONCLUSION telma (further defined as "anything used to finish off a work or an affair") –WJ:411

CONDITION sóma (state). See STATE. –QL:85

CONFUSED rúcina (shattered, disordered) –MC:223

CONSEQUENTLY epetai –VT49:11, 12

CONSIDERING A MATTER (with a view to decision) úvië –VT48:32

CONSOLATION (noun) tiutalë (comfort, easement) –QL:93

CONSOLE tiuta- (comfort) –QL:93

CONSONANT #pataca (only pl. patacar is attested), #lambetengwë (literally "tongue-sign"; only pl. lambetengwi is attested; this refers to consonants as tengwi or phonemes), also náva-tengwë ("ñava-") (literally "mouth-sign"; only pl. náva-tengwi is attested; the shorter form #návëa pl. návëar was also used, but Fëanor replaced these terms with #pataca). Yet another term for "consonant" was #tapta tengwë "impeded element". (Only pl. tapta tengwi is attested; we would rather expect *taptë tengwi with the pl. form of the adjective. The nominal pl. of the adjective, taptar, was used in the same sense as tapta tengwi.) Tolkien also notes: "Since...in the mode of spelling commonly used the full signs were consonantal, in ordinary non-technical use tengwar [sg tengwa, see LETTER] became equivalent to 'consonants'." Cf. also surya "spirant consonant" and punta "stopped consonant", i.e. a consonant sign with an underposed dot to indiate that it is not followed by a vowel. –VT39:8, VT39:16, 17, WJ:396, SUS, PUT (see PUS), VT46:10, 33

CONSPICOUS minda (prominent) –MIN

CONSTRUCTION tanwë (craft, thing made, construction, devise), ataquë (building) –TAN, TAK


CONTINUAL vórima (changed from vorima) (enduring, repeated); CONTINUALLY voro (also voro- in compounds) –BOR

CONTINUOUS vórëa (enduring, repeated), also vórima; CONTINUOUS REPETITION vorongandelë ("vorogandele" in the published Etymologies is a misreading; see VT45:7) (harping on one tune) –VT45:7, LIN1

CONTINUANT the term #mussë tengwë "soft element" (only attested in the pl.: mussë tengwi) covers vowels, semi-vowels (y, w) and continuants (l, r, m, n). –VT39:17

CONTRARY, ON THE úsië (VT49:8, 17), variant úsir, possibly abandoned by Tolkien (VT49:18); see also NO

CONTROL (verb) #tur- (cited in source as turin, "I...control", 1st pers. aorist) (pa.t. turnë) (wield, govern); IN CONTROL OF (possessing) arwa (followed by gen, e.g. *i heru arwa i nerion "the lord in control of the men") –TUR, 3AR

COOKED FOOD apsa (meat) –AP


COPPER urus (urust-), cf. POLISHED COPPER calarus (calarust-). In the Etymologies, the word rauta was originally defined "copper", but Tolkien changed the definition to "metal" in general. The earliers material has COPPER = tambë; OF COPPER tambina. Etym has COPPER-COLOURED aira (ruddy, red) –VT41:10, RAUTĀ, LT1:250, 256, 268, GAY

CORE endë (centre, middle). –NÉD, ÉNED

CORNER winca (nook) (QL:104, there written ‘winka). Read *vinca if this early “Qenya” form is to be adapted to LotR-style Third Age Quenya.

CORNFLOWER menelluin (lit. *"sky-blue") –Pictures of J. R. R. Tolkien

CORPOREAL sarcuva (bodily) –LT2:347; this is "Qenya"

CORPSE quelet (pl. queletsi), loico (dead body); CORPSE-CANDLE loicolícumaKWEL, MC:223

CORRUSCATION russë (†swordblade) –RUS

COTTAGE LT2:336 has os(t) "house and cottage", but this word is probably obsolete – osto means "city" or "fortress" in Tolkien's later Quenya.

COUNT the stem not- can be isolated from the word for "countable", see below. It actually occurs in Etym, but is glossed "reckon" instead. COUNT UP onot- (cf. not- "reckon" – the perfect of both these verbs would presumably be *onótië), COUNTABLE #nótima (isolated from únótimë "countless, not-countable, numberless", sg. únótima). NOT COUNTING hequa (leaving aside, excluding, except) –NOT, Nam, RGEO:67, VT39:14, WJ:364, 365

COUNTLESS únótima (pl. únótimë is attested) (numberless, not-countable, uncountable) –VT39:14, Nam, RGEO:67

COUNTRY nórë (land, race, nation, native land, family), #nórië (only attested in a compound, in the ablative case: sindanóriello, "grey-country-from", "out of a grey country". –NŌ, Nam/RGEO:67

COURAGE huorë (only attested as a proper name: Huorë, lit. "heart-vigour") –KHŌ-N

COURSE tië (line, direction, way, path, road) –TE3, RGEO:67

COURT paca (paved floor) –GL:63

COVER top- (cited as aorist sg. topë) (pa.t. tompë), also untúpa- (lit. "down-roof") –TOP, Nam/RGEO:67

COVERING telmë (hood) –TEL

COW (milch cow) yaxë. (An alternative form yaxi, simply glossed "cow", looks like a plural in LotR-style Quenya, unless it is a feminine form like tári "queen" and heri "lady") –GL:36

CRACK ciris (probably ciriss-) (cleft) –LT2:335

CRAFT tanwë (thing made, device, construction); curwë. CRAFTSMAN tano (smith) –KUR

CREATE onta (pa.t. ónë, ontanë) –ONO


CRESCENT (arch), cúnë (bow) –KU3, LT1:271

CREST (of wave) wingë (wingi-) (foam, spindrift). LT1:256 gives ormë "crest, summit", but in Tolkien's later Quenya ormë means "wrath, haste, violence, rushing". CRESTED WAVE, WAVE-CREST falmaWIG/LT1:273, PHAL, VT42:15

CROOKED hwarin; raica (bent, wrong), rempa (hooked), cauca (bent, humped) –SKWAR, RÁYAK/VT39:7, REP, LT1:260

CROSS (vb.) langa- vb. “go over, pass over” –PE17:65

CROSS (noun) tarwë (crucifix); CROSS (vb.) lahta- (pass over, surpass, excel) –QL:89, PE17:92


CROSSING tarna (passage, #ford) –LT2:347

CROW quáco (so in WJ:395; Etym has corco)WJ:395/VT47:36, KORKA (see KARKA)

CROWD sanga (throng, press); rimbë (host). GREAT COLLECTION OR CROWD OF THINGS OF THE SAME SORT úmë (not to be confused with the pa.t. of the negative verb "not be, not do"). –STAG/Silm:438, RIM, VT48:32

CROWN ríë; CROWNED rína; STAR-CROWNED, CROWNED WITH STARS (a name of Taniquetil) Elerrína (so in Silm; Etym has Elerína) –RIG/VT46:11 (VT confirming that the proper reading is ríë with a long vowel, not "rie" as in the Etymologies as printed in LR), EL, Silm:42

CRUEL nwalca (Though spelt this way also in Etym, nwalca must be from older *ngwalca, for the stem is ÑGWAL. In Tengwar spelling, the letter nwalmë (< older ngwalmë) should be used to transcribe the initial nw of nwalca.)ÑGWAL

CRUCIFIX tarwë (cross); CRUCIFY tarwesta- –QL:89

CRUMB mië –PE13:150

CRUMBLE #ruxa- (only part. ruxala is attested) –MC:222 cf 215

CRY OF TRIUMPH (noun) yello (call, shout) –GYEL, VT45:16

CRYSTAL maril (glass – perhaps with stem marill-), CRYSTAL SUBSTANCE silima (a substance Fëanor alone knew how to make; the Silmarils were made of it. Etymologically, the word apparently means simply *"white-shining thing", or perhaps *"[substance] apt to shine white".) –VT46:13, RGEO:73, Silm:437

CUNNING – LT1:253 has findë, finië, but these words may not be valid in Tolkien's later Quenya (in Etym, findë means "tress, lock of hair").

CUP yulma (pl. yulmar is attested, VT21:6, 10; VT48:11). –Nam, RGEO:67

CUPOLA coromindo (dome), telluma (altered from earlier telumë under influence of a Valarin word; pl. tellumar is attested) –Nam/WJ:399/411, KOR, KOP

CURSE (vb.) húta-, pa.t. huntë or huntanë. CURSED húna (accursed). –PE17:149

CURUFIN Curufinwë, short form Curvo. (His "mother-name", never used in narrative, was Atarincë.) –PM:352, 353

CURUNÍR Curumo (Saruman) –UT:393, 401

CURVED cúna (bent; cúna is also used as a verbal stem, see BEND) –MC:223


CUSTODY mando (safe keeping); CASTLE OF CUSTODY Mandos (Mandost-) –MR:350

CUT (vb) rista-; venië (infinitive? stem #ven-?) (shape), CUT (noun) rista, venwë (shape). The verb nac- is defined as “hew, cut” in late material (nacin, VT49:24), though in Etym, it was assigned the meaning “bite” instead (NAK). CUT OFF (and get rid of or lose a portion:) #aucir-, (so as to have or or use a required portion:) #hócir- (Tolkien cited these verbs with what seems to be the ending -i of the aorist: auciri-, hóciri-). RIS, LT1:254, WJ:365-366, 368

CYCLE randa (age) –RAD

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