Quettaparma Quenyanna

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Quettaparma Quenyanna

† = poetic or archaic word (e.g. †él "star", elen being the ordinary word) or a poetic or archaic meaning of an ordinary word (e.g. russë "corruscation, †swordblade"), * = unattested form, ** = wrong form, # = word that is only attested in a compound or in an inflected form (e.g. #apa, #Apanóna; see AFTER below), TLT = Tolkien's lifetime (by some called "Real Time", as opposed to:) MET = Middle-Earth Time (or rather Arda Time, since Quenya originated in the Blessed Realm), LotR = The Lord of the Rings (HarperCollinsPublishers, one-volume edition of 1991), Silm = The Silmarillion (HarperCollinsPublishers 1994), MC = The Monsters and the Critics and other Essays, MR = Morgoth's Ring, LR = The Lost Road, Etym = The Etymologies (in LR:347-400), FS = Fíriel's Song (in LR:72), RGEO = The Road Goes Ever On (Second Edition), TI = The Treason of Isengard, WJ = The War of the Jewels, PM = The Peoples of Middle-earth, Letters = The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, LT1 = The Book of Lost Tales 1, LT2 = The Book of Lost Tales 2, Nam = Namárië (in LotR:398), Arct = "Arctic" sentence (in The Father Christmas Letters), GL = Gnomish Lexicon (in Parma Eldalamberon [PE] #11 references are selective), QL = Qenya Lexicon (in Parma Eldalamberon #12 references are again selective), VT = Vinyar Tengwar (PE and VT being journals publishing Tolkien material edited by C. Gilson, C.F. Hostetter, A.R. Smith, W. Welden and P. Wynne; please refer to the individual journals here referenced to determine which editors are involved in any given case), vb = verb, adj = adjective, interj = interjection, pa.t. = past tense, fut = future tense, perf = perfect tense, freq = frequentative form, inf = infinitive, gen = genitive, pl = plural form, sg = singular form. The spelling used in this wordlist is regularized (c for k except in a few names, x for ks, long vowels marked with accents rather than macrons or circumflexes; the diaeresis is used as in LotR). When s in a word represents earlier Þ (th as in "thing") and it should be spelt with the letter súlë instead of silmë in Tengwar writing (though Tolkien himself sometimes ignored or forgot this), this is indicated by (Þ) immediately following the word in question (e.g. sanda, sanya-; see ABIDE, ABIDING below).

Wordlist last updated December 17, 2008

A, AN (indefinite article) – no Quenya equivalent. Elen "star" may thus also be translated "a star" (LotR:94), Elda “Elf” is also the equivalent of “an Elf” (Letters:281). Sometimes Tolkien inserts “a” before a gloss to indicate that a noun rather than a verb is intended: rista “a cut” (RIS), vanta “a walk” (BAT). The word laurë Tolkien translated as “(a) golden light”, indicating that “a” has no equivalent in Quenya (VT49:47). The absence of the definite article i "the" usually indicates that the noun is indefinite (though there are exceptions – see THE).

ABANDON hehta- (pa.t. hehtanë is given) (put aside, leave out, exclude, forsake) –WJ:365

ABHOR feuya-, yelta- (loathe); THE ABHORRED Sauron (Þ) –PHEW/VT46:9, Silm:418, VT45:11

ABIDE mar- (be settled of fixed) (fut. #maruva is attested: maruvan "I will abide"); ABIDE BY himya- (cleave to, stick to, adhere); ABIDING sanda (Þ) (firm, true); LAW-ABIDING sanya (Þ) (regular, normal) (variant vorosanya with a prefixed element meaning "ever"). –UT:317/LotR:1003, KHIM/VT45:22, STAN/VT46:16


ABOVE: According to VT44:26, Tolkien in one text glosses apa as "above but touching", but apa is normally taken as the preposition "after" instead. For "above", the preposition or "over" may be used.

ABUNDANCE úvë; ABUNDANT úvëa (in a very great number), úmëa (swarming, teaming – but elsewhere a similar word is defined as "evil", so úvëa may be preferred), alya (rich, blessed, prosperous) –UB, VT48:32, GALA

ABUSE (vb, evidently meaning to abuse verbally) naitya- (put to shame) –QL:65

ABYSS undumëMC:222 cf. 215

ACCOMODATE camta- (sic; the cluster mt seems unusual for Quenya, and while the source does not explicitly say that this word is Quenya, it is difficult to understand what other language could be intended) (to [make] fit, suit, adapt) –VT44:14

ACCOUNT (noun) quentalë (history), lúmequenta (chronological account, history); HISTORICAL ACCOUNT quentasta (any particular arrangement, by some author, of a series of reconds or evidences into a given historical account – not History as such, which is quentalë) –KWET, LU, VT39:16

ACCURSED húna (cursed). –PE17:149

ACRE resta (sown field) –VT46:11 cf. RED

ACROSS arta (athwart) (Note: arta also means "fort, fortress"; the word olla may be a better word for *“across” in Tolkien’s later forms of Quenya; see OVER) –LT2:335

ACT OF WILL nirmë –VT39:30

ACTOR tyaro (agent, doer) –KYAR

ACTUAL anwa (real, true), nanwa (existing, true) –ANA, VT49:30

ACUTE tereva (fine, piercing); ACUTE, ACUTENESS laicë (In the printed Etymologies, a similar word is also the adjective "keen, sharp, acute", but according to VT45:25, this is a misreading; the final vowel of the adjective should be -a, not -ë. However, the conceptual validity of the adjective laica, and therefore also the corresponding noun laicë, is questionable; see PIERCING.) –TER, LAIK

ADAPT camta- (sic; the cluster mt seems unusual for Quenya; while the source does not explicitly say that this word is Quenya, it is difficult to understand what other language could be intended) (to [make] fit, suit, accomodate) –VT44:14

ADD napan-, yantya- (augment) –PE17:146, 15:68

ADHERE himya- (abide by, cleave to, stick to) –VT45:22, cf. KHIM

ADHERING himba (sticking) –KHIM

ADMIRAL ciryatur (only attested as the personal name Ciryatur of an admiral, but the word means *"ship-ruler") –UT:239

ADORN netya- (trim). (Note: netya is also an adj. "pretty, dainty".) SMALL THING OF PERSONAL ADORNMENT netil –VT47:33

ADULT (adj) vëa (manly, vigorous); ADULT MAN vëaner; ADULT MALE nér (ner-, as in. pl neri) (man) –WEG, DER

ADÛNAKHOR HerunúmenUT:222, Silm:322

AEGNOR Aicanáro (so in Silm:435 and PM:345; MR:323 has Aicanár) (Sharp Flame, Fell Fire)

AFFECT #ap- (given as aorist stem apë) (to concern, to touch one) –VT44:26

AFFECTIONATE méla (loving) –VT39:10

AFFLICTED – be afflicted: moia- (labour). The participle *moiala may then be used to translate "afflicted" as an adjective, describing one who is "labouring" or toiling as a thrall. –VT43:31

AFTER apa (also attested in compounds like Apanónar, see below), #ep- (used in compounds when the second part of the compound begins with a vowel, only attested in epessë "after-name" – see NICKNAME.) This ep- is a shorter form of epë, which means “before” of spatial relationships but “after” of time (since the Eldar imagined time coming after their present as being before them, VT49:12); apa and epë may be seen as variants of the same word. Other variant forms of apa "after" include opo and /po (VT44:36, VT49:12). According to VT44:26, the preposition apa may also appear as pa, (cf. yéni pa yéni "years after years" in VT44:35), but pa/ is in other manuscripts defined as "touching, as regards, concerning". THE AFTER-BORN Apanónar (sg #Apanóna) (i.e., an Elvish name of Men, according to WJ:387 "a word of lore, not used in daily speech") –Silm:122/WJ:387, UT:266

AGAIN ata; AGAIN (prefix) en-, (prefix) at-, ata- (back-, re-) (AT[AT])

AGAINST: According to VT44:26, Tolkien in some documents glosses apa or as "touching, against", but apa is normally the preposition "after" instead (see AFTER). The allative case in -nna is normally sufficient to express motion towards or against something. Possibly this ending can also take on the meaning of “against” with connotations of enmity and confrontation, as when the pl. allative valannar is used in the phrase *“made war on/against the Valar” (LR:47).

AGE randa (cycle) (as in “the Third Age”; not the age of a person); AGES OF AGES yénion yéni –RAD, VT44:36

AGENT tyaro (actor, doer) –KAR

AGILE tyelca (swift) –KYELEK

AGO ; LONG AGO andanéya, anda né (once upon a time) –YA, VT49:31

AGONY qualmë (death), unqualë (death; according to VT45:24, Tolkien changed this word to anqualë) –KWAL, VT45:5, 24, 36

AH (interj.) ai (alas) Ai! laurië lantar lassi Ah! golden fall the leaves (Nam)

AIR vista (= air as substance); vilya older [MET] wilya (sky); vilma (lower air) (perhaps changed to vista, but vilma was not struck out in Etym); lindë (tune, song, singing); PUFF OF AIR hwesta (breeze, breath); UPPER AIRS AND CLOUDS fanyarë (skies), AIRY vilin (breezy) –WIS, WIL/LT1:273, LIN, SWES/LotR:1157, MC:223, LT1:273

ALAS (interj.) ai (ah) (Etym also gives a word nai, but this clashes with nai "be it that" in Namárië.); also orro or horro as an "exclamation of horror, pain, disgust: ugh, alas! ow!" –Nam/RGEO:66, NAY, VT45:17

ALIKE véla –VT49:10

ALIVE cuina; BEING ALIVE (noun not adj) cuilë (life) (LT1:257 gives coina, coirëa; see LIVING) –KUY

ALL illi (as independent noun), also ilya (all of a particular group of things, the whole, each, every) (Note: ilya normally appears as ilyë before a plural noun: ilyë tier "abll paths"); ALLNESS, THE ALL ilúvë (the whole). According to early material, ALL THE... (followed by some noun) is rendered by i quanda, e.g. *i quanda cemen "all the earth; the whole earth". ALL THAT IS WANTED fárë, farmë (plenitude, sufficiency) –VT47:30, VT39:20, VT44:9, IL, Nam cf. RGEO:67, Silm:433/WJ:402, QL:70, PHAR/VT46:9

ALLOW lav- (yield, grant); NOT ALLOW TO CONTINUE nuhta- (stunt, prevent from coming to completion, stop short) –DAB, WJ:413

ALONE (see also LONELY, SOLE) er (one, alone, only, but, still), eressë (singly, only, also as noun: solitude) –ERE, LT1:269


ALSO yando –QL:104

ALTHOUGH (or "nothwithstanding") – Christopher Gilson argues that the word ómu occurring in an untranslated "Qenya" text could have this meaning (PE15:32, 37). If this interpretation is regarded as too uncertain, the idea expressed by phrases involving "(al)though" may be rephrased using ananta "and yet" (e.g. "although the house is small, we love it" > *i coa pitya ná, ananta melilmes = "the house is small, and yet we love it").

ALWAYS illumë (earlier variants of the relevant text also have vora and vorë, forms Tolkien may or may not have abandoned) –VT44:9

ALTOGETHER aqua (fully, completely, wholly) –WJ:392

*AMANIAN (only translated "of Aman" by Tolkien) amanya (which can also mean “blessed”, VT49:41). Cf. also Úmanyar, Úamanyar, Alamanyar "those not of Aman" (the Elves who started on the march from Cuiviénen but did not reach Aman; contrast the Avamanyar, another name of the Avari.) –WJ:411, 373, 370, MR:163

AMBIDEXTROUS ataformaitë (pl. ataformaiti is attested) –VT49:10

AMEN (Hebrew: "truly, certainly, may it be so") násië (another form, násan, was apparently abandoned by Tolkien) –VT43:24, 35

AMLOTH *Ambalotsë (Tolkien asterisked the word because it was not "attested", only a possible Quenya form of Amloth. See "UPRISING-FLOWER".) –WJ:318

AMONG imíca, mici; see also BETWEEN. –VT43:30

AMRAS Telufinwë (meaning "Last Finwë", not the equivalent in sense to his Sindarin name. The short form of his name was Telvo *"Last One". His mother-name [q.v.] was Ambarussa, but this name was not used in narrative.) –PM:353

AMROD Pityafinwë (meaning "Little Finwë", not the equivalent in sense to his Sindarin name. The short form of his name was Pityo *"Little One". His mother-name [q.v.] was Ambarto, or Umbarto, but these names were not used in narrative.) –PM:353

AN see A

ANCIENT yára (old, belonging to or descending from former times) –YA

AND ar. In the phrase eldain a fírimoin “to Elves and Men” (FS), ar is seemingly reduced to a before f, but contrast ar formenna *“and northwards” in VT49:26. (In Sauron Defeated p. ii, the word o is translated "and", but LotR, Silm and Etym all agree that the Quenya word for "and" is ar. A longer variant arë is mentioned in VT43:31.) A suffix meaning "and", -, occurs in the phrase Menel Cemenyë "heaven and earth" (VT47:11); this suffix is "normally used of pairs usually associated as Sun, Moon [*Anar Isilyë]; Heaven, Earth [Menel Cemenyë], Land, Sea [*Nór Eäryë], fire, water [*úr nenyë]" (VT47:31). AND YET a-nanta/ananta (but yet) –AR/Nam/FS, VT43:31, NDAN; the etymology of ar is discussed in VT47:31

ANGBAND Angamando (Iron-gaol) (so in MR:350 and Silm:428; Etym has Angamanda, or in deleted material Angavanda). –MR:350, Silm:428, MBAD, VT45:6

ANGELIC POWER Vala (pl. Valar or Vali, gen. pl. Valion is attested in Fíriel's Song); ANGELIC SPIRIT Ainu, f. Aini (holy one, god) –LotR:1157/BAL/FS, AYAN, LT1:248

ANGELN (island in the Danish peninsula) Eriollo –LT1:252


ANGROD Angaráto –Silm:428

ANIMAL #celva (only pl. celvar is attested, translated "animals, living things that move" in Silm appendix and WJ:341); laman (pl. lamni or lamani) ("usually only applied to four-footed beasts, and never to reptiles and birds"); MALE ANIMAL hanu (male) –Silm:52/53,/405:3AN, WJ:416

ANNOUNCEMENT canwa (order) –PM:362

ANOTHER enta (one more). (Note: a homophone means "that yonder"). See also OTHER. –VT47:15

ANYBODY – if anybody: aiquen (whoever); ANYONE mo (but this is also used as an impersonal pronoun “one”) –WJ.372, VT49:32

APPLE orva –PE13:116

APPROPRIATE (to a special purpose or owner) #sat- (set aside). The verb #sat- is cited in the form "sati-", evidently including the connecting vowel of the aorist, as in *satin "I appropriate". –VT42:20

APRIL VíressëLotR:1144/1146

AR-ADÛNAKHOR Tar-HerunúmenUT:222, Silm:322

AR-BELZAGAR Tar-CalmacilUT:222

AR-GIMILZÔR Tar-TelemnarUT:223

AR-INZILADÛN Tar-Palantir –UT:223, Silm:324

AR-PHARAZÔN Tar-Calion (and, as an experimental form, Tar-culu?)UT:224, Silm:324, VT45:24

AR-SAKALTHÔR Tar-FalassionUT:223

AR-ZIMRAPHEL Tar-MírielUT:224, Silm:324

AR-ZIMRATHÔN Tar-HostamirUT:222

ARCH (crescent). –KU3

ARCTURUS (a star) Morwinyon (said to mean "the glint at dusk" or "glint in the dark")LT1:260

ARE see BE

ARGON Aracáno –PM:345

ARM ranco (stem *rancu-, pl. ranqui) (LT2:335 gives [there spelt ], but this is apparently rendered obsolete by a later word in Tolkien’s conception: In Etym, is glossed "lion".) TRUNCATED ARM, see STUB, STUMP. –RAK

ARMY hossë (band, troop) –LT2:340

ARNOR Arnanor, Arnanórë ("royal land") –Letters:428

ARRANGEMENT pano (plan). Note: the word also means “piece of shaped wood”. –QL.72

ARRIVE: The verb ten- is used for this meaning in one source (present tense téna “is on point of arrival, is just coming to the end”). Other attested forms are tenë (aorist; 1st person tenin), pa.t. tennë “arrived, reached” (“usually used with locative not allative”: tennen sís “I arrive[d] here”), perfect eténië, future tenuva “will arrive”. Tolkien subsequently changed ten- to men-, but the latter is elsewhere ascribed the meaning “go”. –VT49:23-24

ARROW pilin (pilind-, as in the pl. pilindi) –PÍLIM

ART Carmë (making, production); BLACK ARTS núlë (sorcery). (The word is spelt “ñúle” in the source, reflecting the older pronunciation; in Tengwar spelling the initial nasal should therefore be represented by the letter Noldo). –UT:396, PE17:125

ARTIFICIAL CAVE hróta (dwelling underground, rockhewn hall) –PM:365

AS (prep) ve (like). The longer variant sívë appears to introduce a comparison with something that is near to the point or thought of the speaker, whereas tambë introduces a comparison with something remote, as in Tolkien's translation of one line from the Lord's Prayer: cemendë tambë Erumandë "on earth as in heaven" ("heaven" being remote – we may theorize that "in heaven as [here] on earth" would translate as *Erumandë sívë cemendë, since "earth" would represent the position of the speaker). NOTE: a homophone sívë means "peace". The word yan, related to the relative ya “which”, is also defined “as” in one text (VT49:18). AS REGARDS pa, (concerning, touching). AS USUAL ve senwa (also ve senya, but see USUAL). –Nam/RGEO:66, 67, VT43:12, 38, VT44:26, VT49:22

ASCENT rosta, ASCENSION orostaLT1:267, 256

ASGARD Valinor, Valinórë (Tolkien actually uses this gloss of Valinor, as Asgard is the City of the Gods in Norse mythology) –LT1:272

ASIDE stand aside! heca! – also with pronominal affixes: sg hecat, pl hecal "you stay aside!" (be gone!) LEAVING ASIDE hequa (not counting, excluding, except) –WJ:364, 365

*ASK #maquet- (only pa.t. maquentë is attested. The word is not translated, but undoubtedly means "asked": 'Mana i·coimas in·Eldaron?' maquentë Elendil [PM:403]. The question itself is translated "What is the coimas of the Eldar?", so the rest must be "Elendil asked". Furthermore, maquentë is transparently quentë "said" with the interrogative element ma [PM:357] prefixed.) ASK FOR – see DEMAND.


ASSEMBLE (transitive) comya- (gather), hosta- (gather, collect) –PE17:158, MC:223

ASSOCIATE (noun) otorno (sworn brother) osellë (Þ) (sworn sister) –TOR, THEL

ASTRONOMER meneldilLetters:386

AT , se (the form with a long vowel may be preferred since se is apparently also a 3rd person pronoun) (in). The locative case may also express “at”, e.g. lúmissen “at the times”. –VT43:30, 34, VT49:47

ATHELAS (a healing plant) asëa; see KINGSFOIL. –PE148

ATHWART arta (across) (Note: arta also means "fort, fortress"); GO ATHWART tara- (cross) –LT2:335, 347

AUGER teret (gimlet) –LT1:255

AUGMENT (vb.) yantya- (add) –PE15:68

AUGUST Urimë (so in LotR; UT has Úrimë) –LotR:1144, UT:302/470

AUTHORITY Máhan (pl Máhani is given, but seems perfectly regular). Tolkien once stated that Valar should strictly be translated "the Authorities" (MR:350), but Vala obviously cannot be used to translate "authority" in general; it was used only of the Valar themselves (WJ:404). Cf. also adj. valya "having (divine) authority or power". Máhani was adopted from Valarin and originally probably referred to the Valar themselves. We are not told whether Máhan could or should be applied to a non-divine authority (at least it should not be capitalized if so used). Note: Máhan means *"Supreme One" rather than "authority" as an abstract. –MR:350, BAL, WJ:399/402

AUTUMN yávië (harvest in the Calendar of Imladris, yávië was a precisely defined period of 54 days, but the word was also used without any exact definition), lasselanta ("leaf-fall", used of the beginning of winter or as a synonym of quellë; see FADING. Also spelt lasse-lanta with a hyphen), narquelion ("fire-fading" – this word from Fíriel's Song and Etym seems to correspond to narquelië in LotR, but the latter is the name of the month corresponding to our October.) LT1:273 has yávan "autumn, harvest", but this word may be obsoleted by yávië. –LotR:1142, 1144, 1145/Silm:439/LT1:254, DAT, FS, NAR/KWAL, Letters:382

AVENGE ahtar- or accar- (do back, react; requite) –PE17:166


AWAKE coiva- (so in LT1:257; read *cuiva- in Tolkien's later Quenya? Cf. the following:) AWAKENING (noun) cuivië (obsoleting coivië in LT1:257), cuivë; AWAKENING (adj) cuivëaKUY/Silm:429

AWKWARD hranga (hard; stiff, difficult). Note: hranga- is also a verb “thwart”. –PE17:154, 185

AWAY oa, oar (viewed from the point of view of the thing, person, or place left). Oar is used of movement only, as in "I went away". See also GO AWAY. –WJ:366 cf. 361, VT39:6.

AWNING teltassë –GL:70

AXE peleccoLT2:346

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