Question arrange the following in increasing order of ‘Productivity in Ecosystem’ (metric tonne per year) a) Estuaries>Agriculture Land>Temperate Grassland>Continental shelf b) Estuaries>Agriculture Land>Continental Shelf>Temperate grassland



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QUESTION 1.
Arrange the following in increasing order of Productivity in Ecosystem (metric tonne per year) a) Estuaries>Agriculture Land>Temperate Grassland>Continental shelf b) Estuaries>Agriculture Land>Continental Shelf>Temperate grassland c) Agriculture Land> Estuaries> Temperate grassland > Continental Shelf d) Estuaries> Temperate grassland> Continental Shelf> Agriculture Land
Correct Answer A
Your Answer Unanswered
Explanation
In ecology, productivity or production refers to the rate of generation of biomass in an ecosystem. It is usually expressed in units of mass per unit surface (or volume) per unit time,
for instance grams per square metre per day. Productivity of autotrophs such as plants is called primary productivity, while that of heterotrophs such as animals is called secondary productivity. Source Chapter 14 NCERT class 12 biology
QUESTION 2.
Which among the following is/are examples of primary succession
1. The renewal of a forest after are. New growth of plant in an area after a volcanic eruption
3. Forest renewal after the disease
4. A forest renews after logging a) 1 and 3 band c) None of the above d) Only 2
Correct Answer C
Your Answer Unanswered
Explanation
All these are examples of secondary succession. Source Chapter 14 NCERT class 12 biology
QUESTION 3.
Which of the following organisms exhibit bioluminescence?
1. Annelids
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2. Catshark
3. Krill
4. Viperfish Select the correct code a) 1, 2, 3 and 4 band c) 2 and 3 d) 1,2 and 4
Correct Answer A
Your Answer Unanswered
Explanation
All of the above organisms mentioned exhibit bioluminescence.
-Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism. It is a form of chemiluminescence. Bioluminescence occurs widely in marine vertebrates and invertebrates, as well as in some fungi, microorganisms including some bioluminescent bacteria and terrestrial invertebrates such as fireflies. Source Chapter 14 NCERT class 12 biology
QUESTION 4.
Consider the following statements about Biodiversity
1. Biodiversity is the term popularised by the Ernst Haeckel.
2. Biodiversity, a contraction of biological diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
3. In India more number of species are found in Eastern Ghats than Western Ghats. Which of the statements are correct a) 1 and 3 b) Only 2 c) All of the above d) 1 and 2
Correct Answer B
Your Answer Unanswered
Explanation
Biodiversity is the term popularised by the sociobiologist Edward Wilson to describe the combined diversity at all the levels of biological organization. Thus statement 1 is wrong. Since Western Ghats is a biodiversity hot spot while Eastern Ghats are not therefore Western
Ghats have more species than Eastern Ghats.
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QUESTION 5.
Consider the following about IUCN Red List
1. A species is dubbed as critically endangered if reduction in population (> 90% over the last years, population size (numberless than 500 mature individuals.
2. A species is dubbed as critically endangered if reduction in population (> 70% over the last years, population size (numberless than 5000 mature individuals. Which of the following statements is/are correct a) 1 only b) 2 only c) Both 1 and 2 d) Neither 1 nor 2
Correct Answer D
Your Answer Unanswered
Explanation
A species is dubbed as critically endangered if reduction in population (> 90% over the last years, population size (numberless than 250 mature individuals).Thus statement 1 is incorrect- A species is dubbed as critically endangered if reduction in population (> 70% over the last years, population size (numberless than 2500 mature individuals).Thus statement 2 is incorrect
QUESTION 6.
How do people living in high altitudes adapt to the low level of oxygen in the atmosphere
1. Increasing breathing rate
2. Increased RBC production
3. Increasing binding ability of haemoglobin Select the correct code a) 1, 2 and 3 band c) 1 and 3 d) 2 and 3
Correct Answer B
Your Answer Unanswered
Explanation
People living in high altitudes have high RBC production and increased breathing rates. The ability of oxygen to bind with haemoglobin is decreased at higher level.
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All these adaptations help the body to adapt to low oxygen level. Source Chapter 13 NCERT Biology class 12th
QUESTION 7.
Consider the following statements
1. The ozone is formed in the lower part of the stratosphere.
2. The low-level ozone protects us from UV rays while upper ozone is harmful. Which of the following is/are correct a) 1 only b) 2 only c) Both 1 and 2 d) Neither 1 nor 2
Correct Answer A
Your Answer Unanswered
Explanation
Statement 1 is Correct. The ozone layer is found in the lower part of the stratosphere and it acts as a shield absorbing ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Statement 2 is incorrect. The low-level ozone is not useful for human life. It is harmful to breathe and it damages crops, trees and other vegetation. While upper ozone protects us from
UV rays. Source Chapter 16 NCERT Biology class 12th
QUESTION 8.
Consider the following statements about Global Environment Facility (GEF)
1. It is FINANCIAL MECHANISM for 5 major international environmental conventions namely
UNFCC, UNCBD, UNCCD, Ramsar Convention on Wetlands and Minatama Convention.
2. It works under the aegis of World Bank.
3. India is a partner country but GEF is yet to invest in India. a) Only 1 b) Only 2 c) Only 3 d) None
Correct Answer D
Your Answer Unanswered
Explanation
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Avery popular organization. Becomes important because it was in the news as it invested in
Ecosystem Service Improvement Project. http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?
relid=170041 Financial mechanism for 5 conventions
* Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
* United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
* UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)
* Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)
* Minamata Convention on Mercury Not Ramsar Convention. Hence 1 is Incorrect. Established on the eve of the 1992 Rio Earth Summit as a separate institution. Earlier was apart of WB. Hence 2 is incorrect. Statement 3 is incorrect. Such statements are in general false.
QUESTION 9.
Which of the following funds are administered/managed by World Bank
1.BioCarbon Fund Initiative for Sustainable Forest Landscapes Special Climate Change Fund(SCCF) Adaptation Fund Forest Carbon Partnership Facility a) Only 1 b) 1,2 c) 1,4 d) 1,3,4
Correct Answer C
Your Answer Unanswered
Explanation
Marrakech Accords lead to the creation of Special Climate Change Fund(SCCF) & Adaptation funds. They are not WB based. Read about few WB managed funds here - http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/climatechange/brief/world-bank-carbon-funds-facilities
QUESTION 10.
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Consider the following statements about IBA They are sites identified by IUCN International
2. It is based on internationally agreed set of criteria like host to threatened species, migratory birds, etc.
3. So far India has only 11 sites. a) Only 1 band c) Only 2 d) All
Correct Answer C
Your Answer Unanswered
Explanation
IBAs have been in news. http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Kochi/nine-more-bird-biodiversity-areas-in-kerala/
article19199445.ece Statement 1 is incorrect - It is Birdlife International. Please read about IUCN, Birdlife
International, PlantLife International and our domestic Bombay Natural History Society. Statement 2 is correct - It is a very generic statement and you are expected to understand the context and mark it as true. Statement 3 is incorrect - India has many IBAs
QUESTION 11.
Consider the following statements An ecotype describes a genetically different population within a species which is adapted to specific ecosystem conditions. An ecotone refers to a gradual change within an ecosystem causing slight variations in species. An ecocline refers to a transitional ecosystem between varying ecosystems Which of the above are correct. ab) Only 1 c) All d) None
Correct Answer B
Your Answer Unanswered
Explanation
These closely related terms are often confused.
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Ecotone and Ecocline and similar concepts and talk about boundaries of ecosystems.
Ecotone refers to a transitional ecosystem between 2 varying ecosystems. A crude eg. would be a wetland between a sea and land.
Ecocline is the gradual change (hence the word incline) within an ecosystem. A crude eg. would be as we go deeper in a sea, we see a gradual change in temperature, salinity, etc. These changes cause variations among species living here.
Ecotype is a recurring term referring to genetic modifications of the same species triggered by changes in the ecosystem. So statement 3 is correct.
QUESTION 12.
Consider the following statements wrt Ecological Succession Lichens are typically the first organisms to colonize bare rock and hence are considered keystone species. In case of a climax community, the species diversity is the maximum. Which of the following are correct a) 1 Only b) 2 Only c) Both d) None
Correct Answer D
Your Answer Unanswered
Explanation
Statement 1 is incorrect. It should be primary species not keystone species. Statement 2 is incorrect. There is no such relationship. There can be a situation where the species diversity is maximum but the ecosystem is not stable. Once it stabilizes, the diversity comes down. Had there been a general statement saying species diversity is large, it would've been true.
QUESTION 13.
Which of the following can be found as pollutants in the drinking water in some parts of India
1. Arsenic
2. Sorbitol
3. Fluoride
4. Formaldehyde
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5. Uranium Select the correct answer using the codes given below. a) 1 and 3 only band only c) 1, 3 and 5 only d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5
Correct Answer C
Your Answer Unanswered
Explanation
This is a previous year question. Such observation based questions are quite popular.
Sorbitol is kind of sugar, its not a pollutant. Eliminate 2. Uranium contamination is quite common
QUESTION 14.
Consider the following sentences about the UN Environment Assembly
1. Created in 2002, it is the world’s highest decision-making body on environmental issues.
2. It meets annually and the latest meeting dealt with ‘Desertification’. Which of the above are CORRECT a) 1 only b) 2 only c) Both 1 and 2 d) Neither 1 nor 2
Correct Answer D
Your Answer Unanswered
Explanation
The United Nations Environment Assembly is the world’s highest-level decision-making body on the environment. It was created in June 2012 during the United Nations Conference on
Sustainable Development, also referred to as RIO. The Environment Assembly meets biennially to set priorities for global environmental policies and develop international environmental law. The latest meeting, held at Nairobi (Kenya) in 2017, dealt with Pollution of air, land and soil,
freshwater, and oceans. This was the first time that a declaration to prevent, mitigate and manage of the above-mentioned multidimensional pollution was issued by nearly 200 member- nations
QUESTION 15.
Consider the following statements about IUCN
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1. It is a treaty-based organisation whose members include only countries.
2. It collects/researches the conservation-related information of animals, birds, plants and fungi in its famous Red List. Which of the above statements are CORRECT a) 1 only b) 2 only c) Both 1 and 2 d) Neither 1 nor 2
Correct Answer D
Your Answer Unanswered
Explanation
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is a membership Union
(independent of the UNEP) uniquely composed of both government and civil society organisations. It provides public, private and nongovernmental organisations with the knowledge and tools that enable human progress, economic development and nature conservation to take place together. Created in 1948, IUCN has evolved into the world’s largest and most diverse environmental network. IUCN is the global authority on the status of the natural world (except on birds. This data is provided by BirdLife International) and the measures needed to safeguard it. Our experts are organised into six commissions dedicated to species survival, environmental law,
protected areas, social and economic policy, ecosystem management, and education and communication.
QUESTION 16.
Which of the following statements about TRAFFIC are TRUE
1. It is a joint program of WWF and IUCN.
2. It prohibits trade in wild plants and animals. a) 1 only b) 2 only c) Both 1 and 2 d) Neither 1 nor 2
Correct Answer A
Your Answer Unanswered
Explanation
TRAFFIC, the wildlife trade monitoring network, is the leading nongovernmental organization working globally on trade in wild animals and plants in the context of both biodiversity conservation and sustainable development.
TRAFFIC’s mission is to ensure that trade in wild plants and animals is not a threat to the conservation of nature.
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TRAFFIC was established in 1976 by IUCN and WWF to respond to the growing threats posed by illegal wildlife trade and overexploitation
QUESTION 17.
Which of the following statements about GEOENGINEERING are TRUE
1. It aims at combating thee ects of climate change at the regional level.
2. ‘Tropospheric Sulphate Aerosol Injection and Cumulus Cloud Thinning are amongst the most dominant geoengineering techniques. a) 1 only b) 2 only c) Both 1 and 2 d) Neither 1 nor 2
Correct Answer D
Your Answer Unanswered
Explanation
Geoengineering is the technique designed to tackle thee ects of climate change directly,
usually by removing carbon dioxide from the air or limiting the amount of sunlight reaching the planet's surface.
• It involves deliberate planet-scale interventions to counteract global warming.
• Techniques include placing mirrors in space that reflect sunlight away from the Earth and fertilising the oceans with iron to encourage the growth of algae that can soak up atmospheric carbon dioxide. Two of the most dominant geoengineering methods are - stratospheric sulphate aerosol injection and cirrus cloud thinning.
QUESTION 18.
Which of the following statements about Wildlife Crime Control Bureau are TRUE
1. It is a non-statutory body with the sole objective of combating organized wildlife crimes.
2. It is headquartered in New Delhi with a regional office in each state. a) 1 only b) 2 only c) Both 1 and 2 d) Neither 1 nor 2
Correct Answer D
Your Answer Unanswered
Explanation
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The Government of India constituted a statutory body, the Wildlife Crime Control Bureau
(WCCB) on 6 June 2007, by amending the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. Wildlife Crime Control Bureau is a statutory multidisciplinary body established under the
MoEFCC, to combat organized wildlife crime in the country. The Bureau has its headquarter in
New Delhi and five regional offices at Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai and Jabalpur.
QUESTION 19.
Consider the following statements
1. River Limpopo crosses the Tropic of Capricorn twice.
2. Mahi River in India crosses the Tropic of Cancer twice.
3. Nile River passes through the Equator twice. a) 1, 2 and 3 band c) 1 and 3 d) 2 and 3
Correct Answer B
Your Answer Unanswered
Explanation
There maybe many rivers which intersect the equator, tropic of Cancer or tropic of Capricorn,
but there are actually very few which do it twice. The Zaire River (Congo) very prominently intersects the Equator twice. The river Limpopo in Southern Africa crosses the Tropic of
Capricorn twice. The Mahi is a small river in India that crosses the Tropic of Cancer twice.
QUESTION 20.
Consider the following statements regarding Khajuraho.
1. Khajuraho temples were built by the Chola rulers between AD 900 and 1130.
2. The temples constructed at Khajuraho are Jain, Vaishnavite and Saivite Temples. Choose the correct statements) from the codes given below a) 1 only b) 2 only c) Both 1 and 2 d) Neither 1 nor 2
Correct Answer
Your Answer Unanswered
Explanation
Khajuraho, as we know, is the ancient capital of the Chandela Dynasty. The temples here were erected simultaneously in the 11th century and are nearly equally divided among the three
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religions viz. Jaina, Saiva and Vaishnava. Each group has one shrine greater than the rest around which small temples have been clustered. This largest temple is Kandariya Mahadev in
Saivite, Ramachandra in Vaishnavite and Jinanatha in Jain.
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