Putting Advanced Transportation Technologies to Work for Clean Air and Energy Security



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Putting Advanced Transportation Technologies to Work for Clean Air and Energy Security

  • The Mobile Source Technical Review Subcommittee
  • April 18, 2001
  • David Rodgers
  • U.S. Department of Energy

Overview

  • Why Use Alternative Fuels?
  • What Alternative Fuel Vehicles are Available Now?
  • Alternative Fuel Vehicle R&D Challenges
  • Advanced AFVs and Hybrid Vehicles
  • Vision for Transportation Deployment Programs
  • Selected Transportation Deployment Policies
  • The Energy Policy Act (EPACT)
  • Federal Promotion of Clean and Efficient Vehicles

Why Use Alternative Fuels?

  • Petroleum Displacement
  • Energy Diversity
  • Air Quality Improvement
  • Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions
  • Domestic Economic Development

Estimated World Oil Supply

  • Source: EIA, Long Term World Oil Supply, July 28, 2000.

U.S. Transportation Oil Demand

  • 0
  • 2
  • 4
  • 6
  • 8
  • 10
  • 12
  • 14
  • 1970
  • 1980
  • 1990
  • 2000
  • 2010
  • 2020
  • GAP
  • Source: Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 19, DOE/ORNL-6958, September 1999, and EIA Annual Energy Outlook 2000, DOE/EIA-0383(2000), December 1999
  • Millions of Barrels per Day
  • Domestic Oil Production
  • Heavy Trucks
  • Automobiles
  • Light Trucks
  • 1990 2000 2010 2020
  • 325 384 455 507
  • Highway Carbon Emissions
  • (million metric tons)
  • Passenger Vehicles

Transportation Share of Emissions

  • Still a major contributor, despite reductions in new vehicle emissions achieved over the last decade
  • CO
  • NOx
  • Lead
  • VOCs
  • CO2
  • Particulates
  • 79%
  • 53%
  • 13%
  • 44%
  • 33%
  • 25%
  • SO2
  • 7%
  • Source: EPA

Relative Greenhouse Gases

  • 25
  • 50
  • 75
  • 100
  • Zero
  • Zero or a Credit
  • Zero

Summary of Present Situation

  • The U.S. Transportation Sector:
    • Is 95% dependent on petroleum;
    • Accounts for 67% of all U.S. petroleum use;
    • Produces a significant share of U.S. pollutant releases;
    • Has major impacts on consumers, the economy, and the national trade balance;
    • Currently has no readily available alternative to petroleum; and
    • Has limited infrastructure to support alternative fuels.

Alternative Transportation Fuels

  • Electricity
  • Ethanol
  • Hydrogen
  • Methanol
  • Natural Gas
    • Compressed
    • Liquefied
  • Propane
  • 100% Biodiesel
  • P-Series

Alternative Fuel Vehicles Available Now

  • Electric
  • Ethanol
  • Natural Gas
  • Propane

Electric Vehicles

  • Low Emissions
  • Quiet
  • At least 4% of new vehicles sold in California starting in 2003 must be EVs
  • Expensive
  • Limited Range
  • Toyota RAV4
  • Ford Ranger

Ethanol Vehicles

  • Low GHGs
  • Less Reactive
  • Subsidy Required to be Cost Competitive
  • Few Refueling Stations but Numbers Increasing
  • Ford Taurus
  • Chrysler Minivan
  • Ford Ranger

Natural Gas Vehicles

  • Very Low Emissions
  • Good Performance
  • Lower Cost Fuel
  • Limited Range, but Adequate for Most Applications
  • Few Refueling Stations
  • Higher Cost Vehicle
  • Ford Crown Victoria
  • Ford F-150
  • Honda Civic
  • New Flyer D40 LF Bus

Propane Vehicles

  • Low Emissions
  • Good Performance
  • Cost Similar to Gasoline
  • Few Typical Refueling Stations, Many Potential Places to Refuel
  • Higher Vehicle Cost
  • Ford F-150
  • Ford Club Wagon

Alternative Fuel Vehicle R&D Challenges

  • EV Batteries
  • Ethanol Production from Cellulose
  • Reduce Natural Gas and Propane Vehicle Cost
  • Expand Refueling Infrastructure
  • Hydrogen Production (for Fuel Cell Vehicles)

Potential Future AFV Technology

  • Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles
  • Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Vehicles
  • High Efficiency Direct Injection Engines for Light- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles
  • Fuel Cell Ford Focus
  • Fuel Cell Mercedes A-Class

Hybrid Passenger Cars

  • Honda Insight
  • Toyota Prius
  • DOE programs have spurred interest in hybrid vehicle technologies
  • Two models currently available
    • Toyota Prius (48 mpg)
    • Honda Insight (64 mpg)
  • Potential for very low emissions
  • Represent a “Spin-Off” of technology developed for EVs
  • Good potential for petroleum conservation

Vision for Transportation Deployment Programs

  • A sustainable alternative fuel infrastructure
  • Widespread availability of AFV and ATV products
  • True acceptance of diverse fuels and technologies in national/regional/local transportation portfolios
  • Cost-competitive technologies and fuels in a variety of markets
  • A diverse fuel supply for transportation
  • A change in societal norms leading to demand for clean and efficient vehicles

Long-term Outcomes

  • Billions of gallons of oil displaced or reduced
  • Thousands of tons of emission reductions
  • Tens of millions of AFVs and ATVs
  • Enhanced energy security and improved transportation sustainability

Deployment Strategies

  • Understand the market
  • Develop and provide unbiased information
  • Offer technical and financial assistance
  • Develop, issue, and enforce regulations
  • Find and support partners
  • Conduct mission advocacy

OTT Deployment Portfolio

  • Clean Cities: A voluntary Federal program designed to accelerate and expand the use of alternative fuel vehicles in communities across the country
  • Testing and Evaluation: In partnership with industry, validate the performance and emissions of near market-ready advanced technology vehicles
  • EPACT Replacement Fuels: To implement the requirements of EPACT, collect data, perform analysis, prepare reports to Congress, and prepare, issue, and enforce needed regulations
  • Advanced Vehicle Competitions: Student competitions, such as the FutureTruck Challenge and the Ethanol Challenge, provide an unparalleled education in automotive engineering and push the envelope of advanced vehicle technologies

Clean Cities Program Accomplishments

  • 79 Designations
    • 2 new in 2000
      • Baton Rouge
      • Truckee Meadows
    • 3 Designations Scheduled in 2001
      • Triangle, NC (March 19)
      • Twin Cities, MN (April)
      • Vermont (June)
  • More than 4,400 stakeholders
  • 115,000 AFVs
  • More than 5,000 refueling stations
  • 102 million gallons of petroleum displaced per year
  • 19,000 metric tons of emissions reduced per year

Evolution of Deployment Activities

  • Reducing
  • AFV emissions testing
  • AFV case studies
  • Light-duty fleets
  • Analysis of AFV options
  • Neat fuels only
  • Increasing
  • Hybrid vehicle testing
  • Fuel-efficient vehicles
  • Niche markets
  • Analysis of future fuels
  • Blended fuels

Selected Transportation Deployment Policies

  • Information
  • Financial Incentives
  • Regulations & Standards
  • Year
  • Policy
  • 1991 & 1996
  • ISTEA & TEA-21
  • 1992
  • EPACT
  • 1988
  • AMFA
  • 1975
  • EPCA (CAFE)

The Energy Policy Act

  • Set a goal – 10% by 2000 and 30% by 2010
  • Voluntary programs
  • Public Information
  • Fleet mandates
  • Grants and incentives

Assumptions in 1992 EPACT

  • Barriers to alternative fuels are primarily informational
  • The vehicle mandates solves the chicken/egg problem
  • Fleets are uniform, centrally refueled, and easily regulated
  • Small tax incentives and grants are sufficient to push the market
  • Fuel providers will be the leaders in AFV use
  • Saying we have a goal is all that’s needed

Results Heading In Right Direction

  • Federal
  • State
  • Fuel Provider

Other Parts of EPACT Working Too

  • Clean Cities has 80 participants - thousands of vehicles
  • Public information on AFVs widely available
  • Refueling stations have grown
  • Dozens of AFVs offered by OEMs
  • U.S. AFVS among the best in the world

But not good enough to meet the EPACT 30% goal for 2010

  • 30% is about 30-40 Billion gallons
  • Oxygenates in gasoline are predicted to continue
  • Existing EPACT fleets and other AFVs contribute about 0.4%
  • Including Private & Local Fleets in EPACT could add at most 0.7% by 2010
  • 30
  • EPACT Fleets
  • Oxygenates in Gasoline
  • Other AF Vs
  • Private & Local Fleets
  • Percent of 2010 Gasoline Consumption
  • EPACT Goal
  • ?????

What Had to Have Happened to Meet EPACT Goals

  • To meet the EPACT goals would have required:
    • about 6% of all LDVs in 2000 to be AFVs
    • about 35% of all new LDVs in 2000 and beyond to be AFVs
  • Percent of New LDVs

Federal Promotion of Clean and Efficient Vehicles

  • Recognition of important Federal role
    • Regulation may be necessary
    • Incentives may be necessary
    • Consumer education will be necessary
  • Comprehensive program
    • Multiple market segments
    • Multiple technology options
  • Coordination and partnership
  • Long term commitment

Contacts at the Department of Energy Office of Technology Utilization

  • David Rodgers
  • Director, Tech. Utilization
  • 202-586-9118
  • David.rodgers@hq.doe.gov
  • Linda Bluestein
  • EPACT regulations
  • 202-586-6116
  • Linda.bluestein@hq.doe.gov
  • Shab Fardanesh
  • Federal fleet
  • 202-586-7011
  • Shabnam.fardanesh@hq.doe.gov
  • Christy Ficker
  • Green Vehicle Promotion
  • 202-586-8791
  • Christy.ficker@hq.doe.gov
  • Shelley Launey
  • 202-586-1573
  • Shelia.launey@hq.doe.gov
  • Dana O’Hara
  • EPACT regulations
  • 202-586-8063
  • Dana.ohara@hq.doe.gov
  • TG Powell
  • Clean Cities & Student Competitions
  • 202-586-8077
  • Tg.powell@hq.doe.gov
  • Marcy Rood
  • Clean Cities & International
  • 202-586-8161
  • Marcy.rood @hq.doe.gov
  • Lee Slezak
  • Testing & Evaluation
  • 202-586-2335
  • Lee.slezak @hq.doe.gov
  • Dennis Smith
  • Clean Cities Niche Markets
  • 202-586-1791
  • Dennis.smith @hq.doe.gov
  • Dorothy Wormley
  • Clean Cities Grants
  • 202-586-7028
  • Dorothy.wormley @hq.doe.gov

Resources at the Department of Energy

  • Clean Cities
    • 1-800-CCITIES
    • http://www.ccities.doe.gov
  • Alternative Fuels Data Center
    • Alternative Fuels Hotline 1-800-423-1363
    • http://www.afdc.doe.gov
  • Fuel Economy Guide
    • http://www.fueleconomy.gov
  • EV and Hybrid Test Data
    • http://www.ott.doe.gov/otu/field_ops
    • http://www.ott.doe.gov/hev


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