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CHAPTER 6  THE FUTURE OF CONFLICT, COMBAT AND INTERVENTION

“orient [us] away from violence and toward cooperation and altruism”

: Steven Pinker, TheBetterAngelsofOurNature: Why Violence Has Declined (New York: Viking, 2011), xxv.

“The world begins to look different”

: Ibid., xxvi.

deliberately excludes some 2.2 million ethnic Roma


: Amnesty International (AI), “Romania Must End Forced Evictions of Roma Families,” press release, January 26, 2010, http://www.amnesty.org/en/for-media/press-releases/romania-must-end-forced-evictions-roma-families-20100126.
  The Roma are persecuted in similar fashion across Eastern Europe and, increasingly, Western Europe. In July 2010, President
Nicolas Sarkozy of

France led a campaign to forcibly repatriate his country’s foreign Roma population to Bulgaria and Romania. Within a month, more than fifty illegal Romany camps had been closed, and by September over a thousand Roma had been deported. See “France Sends Roma Gypsies Back to Romania,” BBC, August 20, 2010, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-11020429

; “France: Renewed Crackdown on Roma: End Discriminatory Roma Camp Evictions and Removals,” Human Rights Watch (HRW), News, August 10, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/news/2012/08/10/france-renewed-crackdown-roma

; “French Ministers Fume After Reding Rebuke Over Roma,” BBC, September 15, 2010, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-11310560.

“Online intimidation by hate groups”

: Christian Picciolini in discussion with the authors, April 2012.

Julius Caesar

: Julius Caesar, TheGallicWars, translation by John Warrington with a preface by John Mason Brown and an introduction by the translator (Norwalk, Conn.: Easton Press, 1983); see also Dr. Neil Faulkner, “The Official Truth: Propaganda in the Roman Empire,” BBC, History, last updated February 17, 2011, http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/romans/romanpropaganda_article_01.shtml.

“Video: IDF pilots wait for area to be clear”

: @IDFspokesperson

tweet, November 19, 2012.

Neda Agha-Soltan

: Nazila Fathi, “In a Death Seen Around the World, a Symbol of Iranian Protests,” NewYorkTimes, June 22, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/23/world/middleeast/23neda.html.

The videos were passed

: Thomas Erdbrink, “In Iran, a Woman Named Neda Becomes Opposition Icon in Death,” WashingtonPost, June 23, 2009, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/06/22/AR2009062203041.html.

raided their offices

: Information obtained in Jared Cohen’s research for his book OneHundredDaysofSilence: America and the Rwanda Genocide (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2007); see also Alison Liebhafsky Des Forges, LeaveNonetoTelltheStory: Genocide in Rwanda (New York: Human Rights Watch, 1999).

Hutu radio stations announced names and addresses

: Allan Thompson, ed., with a statement by Kofi Annan, TheMediaandtheRwandaGenocide (London: Pluto Press, 2007), 49, http://www.internews.org/sites/default/files/resources/TheMedia&TheRwandaGenocide.pdf.

“virtually inoperable”

: Dan Verton, “Serbs Launch Cyberattack on NATO,” FederalComputerWeek, April 4, 1999, http://fcw.com/articles/1999/04/04/serbs-launch-cyberattack-on-nato.aspx.

Tom Downey’s revealing March 2010 article

: Tom Downey, “China’s Cyberposse,” NewYorkTimesMagazine, March 3, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/07/magazine/07Human-t.html.

gruesome video

: Ibid.

perpetrator was soon tracked



: Ibid.

took just six days

: Ibid.

a bill (struck down one month later by the French Constitutional Council)



: Scott Sayare, “French Council Strikes Down Bill on Armenian Genocide Denial,” NewYorkTimes, February 28, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/29/world/europe/french-bill-on-armenian-genocide-is-struck-down.html.

“racist and discriminatory”

: “Turkey PM Says French Bill on Genocide Denial ‘Racist,’ ” BBC, January 24, 2012, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-16695133.

“singularity”

: P. W. Singer, WiredforWar: The Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the21st Century (New York: Penguin Press, 2009), 102.

DARPA’s mission

: DARPA, “About,” accessed October 9, 2012, http://www.darpa.mil/About.aspx

; DARPA, “Our Work,” accessed October 9, 2012, http://www.darpa.mil/our_work/.

three Ds

: Singer, WiredforWar, 63.

iRobot, the company that invented

: Ibid., 21–23.

Two PackBots were deployed during the Fukushima nuclear crisis

: Amar Toor, “iRobot Packbots Enter Fukushima Nuclear Plant to Gather Data, Take Photos, Save Lives,” Engadget, April 18, 2011, http://www.engadget.com/2011/04/18/irobot-packbots-enter-fukushima-nuclear-plant-to-gather-data-ta/.

Foster-Miller, makes a PackBot competitor

: Singer, WiredforWar, 26.

And then there are the aerial drones

: For descriptions of the Predator, Raven and Reaper drones, see Singer, WiredforWar, 32–35, 37, 116.

31 percent of all military aircraft

: Spencer Ackerman and Noah Shachtman, “Almost 1 in 3 U.S. Warplanes Is a Robot,” DangerRoom (blog), Wired, January 9, 2012, http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2012/01/drone-report/.

“lethal kinetics”—operations involving fire—“will be handed over to bots”

: Harry Wingo, in discussion with the authors, April 2012.

SWORDS robots

: Singer, WiredforWar, 29–32; Noah Shachtman, “First Armed Robots on Patrol in Iraq (Updated),” DangerRoom (blog), Wired, August 2, 2007, http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2007/08/httpwwwnational/.

combat units in the future

: Navy SEAL in discussion with the authors, February 2012.

“It’s a big strategic question for them”

: Peter Warren Singer in discussion with the authors, April 2012.

Joint Tactical Radio System

: Bob Brewin, “Pentagon Shutters Joint Tactical Radio System Program Office,” Nextgov, August 1, 2012, http://www.nextgov.com/mobile/2012/08/pentagon-shutters-joint-tactical-radio-system-program-office/57173/

; Matthew Potter, Defense Procurement News, “Joint Program Executive Office Joint Tactical Radio System (JPEO JTRS) Stands Down and Joint Tactical Networking Center (JTNC) Opens,” press release, October 1, 2012, http://www.defenseprocurementnews.com/2012/10/01/joint-program-executive-office-joint-tactical-radio-system-jpeo-jtrs-stands-down-and-joint-tactical-networking-center-jtnc-opens-press-release/.

“They just can’t afford that kind of process anymore”

: Peter Warren Singer in discussion with the authors, April 2012.

“The military was, in some ways”

: Ibid.

Even Venezuela has joined the club



: Brian Ellsworth, “Venezuela Says Building Drones with Iran’s Help,” Reuters, June 14, 2012, http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/06/14/us-venezuela-iran-drone-idUSBRE85D14N20120614.

“Of course we’re doing it”

: Robert Beckhusen, “Iranian Missile Engineer Oversees Chavez’s Drones,” DangerRoom (blog), Wired, June 18, 2012, http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2012/06/mystery-cargo/.

“Most advances in technology, particularly big ones, tend to make people nervous”

: Regina Dugan, in discussion with the authors, July 2012.

“non-state actors that range”

: Peter Warren Singer in discussion with the authors, April 2012.

unmanned drones, available to rent for surveillance

: Singer, WiredforWar, 265.

In 2009, it was contracted to load bombs

: James Risen and Mark Mazzetti, “C.I.A. Said to Use Outsiders to Put Bombs on Drones,” NewYorkTimes, August 20, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/21/us/21intel.html.

For example, some real-estate firms are now using private drones

: Somini Sengupta, “Who Is Flying Drones over America?,” Bits (blog), NewYorkTimes, July 14, 2012, http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/07/14/who-is-flying-drones-over-america/.

Kansas State University has established a degree

: Jefferson Morley, “Drones Invade Campus,” Salon, May 1, 2012, http://www.salon.com/2012/05/01/drones_on_campus/.

“battle of persuasion”

: Peter Warren Singer, quoted by Noah Shachtman, “Insurgents Intercept Drone Video in King-Size Security,” DangerRoom (blog), Wired, December 17, 2009, http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2009/12/insurgents-intercept-drone-video-in-king-sized-security-breach/.

RQ-170 Sentinel

: Scott Peterson, “Downed U.S. Drone: How Iran Caught the ‘Beast,’ ” ChristianScienceMonitor, December 9, 2011, http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Middle-East/2011/1209/Downed-US-drone-How-Iran-caught-the-beast.

“land on its own where we wanted it to”

: Scott Peterson and Payam Faramarzi, “Exclusive: Iran Hijacked U.S. Drone, Says Iranian Engineer,” ChristianScienceMonitor, December 15, 2011, http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Middle-East/2011/1215/Exclusive-Iran-hijacked-US-drone-says-Iranian-engineer-Video.

known as spoofing

: Adam Rawnsley, “Iran’s Alleged Drone Hack: Tough, but Possible,” DangerRoom (blog), Wired, December 16, 2011, http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2011/12/iran-drone-hack-gps/.

$6 million

: Dan Murphy, “Obama Taking Heat for Asking for U.S. Drone Back? Pay Little Heed,” ChristianScienceMonitor, December 15, 2011, http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Backchannels/2011/1215/Obama-taking-heat-for-asking-for-US-drone-back-Pay-little-heed.

leaks resulted in detailed articles

: Daniel Klaidman, “Drones: How Obama Learned to Kill,” May 28, 2012, NewsweekandDailyBeast,

http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2012/05/27/drones-the-silent-killers.html

; Jo Becker and Scott Shane, “Secret ‘Kill List’ Proves a Test of Obama’s Principles and Will,” NewYorkTimes, May 29, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/29/world/obamas-leadership-in-war-on-al-qaeda.html

; David E. Sanger, “Obama Order Sped Up Wave of Cyberattacks Against Iran,” NewYorkTimes, June 1, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/01/world/middleeast/obama-ordered-wave-of-cyberattacks-against-iran.html

; Charlie Savage, “Holder Directs U.S. Attorneys to Track Down Paths of Leaks,” NewYorkTimes, June 8, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/09/us/politics/holder-directs-us-attorneys-to-investigate-leaks.html?pagewanted=all.

the Bosnian campaign of the 1990s

: Siobhan Gorman, Yochi J. Dreazen and August Cole, “Insurgents Hack U.S. Drones,” WallStreetJournal, December 17, 2009, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB126102247889095011.html.

U.S. military troops first discovered laptops

: Ibid.

As Peter Singer pointed out, during World War I, when the tank first appeared



: Peter Warren Singer in discussion with the authors, April 2012.

targeted Soviet tanks

: Abdul Rahim Wardak in discussion with the authors, June 2012.

“The ground robots our soldiers use”

: Peter Warren Singer in discussion with the authors, April 2012.

Faced with this decision

: Ibid.

Responsibility to Protect (RtoP)



: Jayshree Bajoria, “Libya and the Responsibility to Protect,” Counsel on Foreign Relations, analysis brief, March 24, 2011, http://www.cfr.org/libya/libya-responsibility-protect/p24480.

a brave American soul called Fred

: Libyan ministers in discussion with the authors, June 2012.

Bangladesh is among the most frequent contributors of troops

: “Ranking of Military and Police Contributions to U.N. Operations,” United Nations Peacekeeping, Resources, August 31, 2012, http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/contributors/2012/august12_2.pdf.

CHAPTER 7  THE FUTURE OF RECONSTRUCTION

a small GSM … network limited to government officials

: “Apple’s iPhone and Afghanistan’s Taliban,” Cellular-News (London), February 13, 2009, http://www.cellular-news.com/story/36027.php.

Saddam Hussein banned mobile phones entirely

: W. David Gardner, “For Sale: Iraq’s Cell-Phone Franchises,” InformationWeek, July 27, 2005, http://www.informationweek.com/news/166403218.

combatants in the ensuing conflicts were the only ones

: Author discussions with members of the Libyan ministry of communications and informatics, June 2012.

MTC-Vodafone, a regional telecom company

: “Post-War Telecommunications Devel-opments in Iraq,” Office of Technology and Electronic Commerce, Research by Country/Region, accessed October 18, 2012, http://web.ita.doc.gov/ITI/itiHome.nsf/6502bd9adeb499b285256cdb00685f77/e781b255ae7a4f9a85256d9c0068abd9?OpenDocument.

MCI, got the nod in Baghdad

: Ibid.

towers were put up all over the country



: Senior CPA (Coalition Provisional Authority) official in discussion with the authors, January 2011.

the sector was booming

: Iraq—Telecoms, Mobile, Broadband and Forecasts: Executive Summary, BuddeComm, accessed October 18, 2012, http://www.budde.com.au/Research/Iraq-Telecoms-Mobile-Broadband-and-Forecasts.html.

U.N. established a mobile network

: “Press Briefing by the U.N. Offices for Pakistan and Afghanistan,” United Nations, News Centre, January 16, 2001, http://www.un.org/apps/news/infocus/afghanistan/infocusnews.asp?NewsID=136&sID=4.

four major operators in Afghanistan

: Afghanistan—Telecoms, Mobile, Internet and Forecasts: Executive Summary, BuddeComm, accessed October 18, 2012. http://www.budde.com.au/Research/Afghanistan-Telecoms-Mobile-Internet-and-Forecasts.html. The above source shows that as of 2011 there were 17.6 million total mobile subscribers in Afghanistan with the four major operators “carrying market shares in excess of 20%.” From this we estimate “some 15 million,” which is conservative.

carriers were able to restore functionality

: Tim Large, “Cell Phones and Radios Help Save Lives After Haiti Earthquake,” Reuters, January 25, 2010, http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/01/25/us-haiti-telecoms-idUSTRE60O07M20100125.

Digicel and Voilà, reported that they were able to operate

: Suzanne Choney, “Firms Scramble to Repair Haiti Wireless Service,” MSNBC, updated January 22, 2010, http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/34977823/ns/world_news-haiti/t/firms-scramble-repair-haiti-wireless-service/#.UIBq5MVG-8B.

Get the towers up, get them running

: Cameron R. Hume, in discussion with Jared Cohen, January 2010.

Donated cell towers had to be guarded

: Suzanne Choney, “Firms Scramble to Repair Haiti Wireless Service,” MSNBC, updated January 22, 2010, http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/34977823/ns/world_news-haiti/t/firms-scramble-repair-haiti-wireless-service/#.UIBq5MVG-8B.

Vodafone’s speedy restoration of service in Egypt

: “Statements—Vodafone Egypt,” Vodafone, see January 29, 2011, and February 2, 2011, http://www.vodafone.com/content/index/media/press_statements/statement_on_egypt.html.

“We had people sleeping in the network centers”

: Vittorio Colao in discussion with the authors, August 2011.

Roshan, is also the country’s biggest investor and taxpayer

: “Western Union and Roshan to Introduce International Mobile Money Transfer Service in Afghanistan,” Roshan, News, February 27, 2012, http://www.roshan.af/Roshan/Media_Relations/News/News_Details/12-02-27/Western_Union_and_Roshan_to_Introduce_International_Mobile_Money_Transfer_service_in_Afghanistan.aspx.

Roshan employs thousands

: Ibid.

8 percent stake in TheNewYorkTimes



: Russell Adams, “Carlos Slim Boosts Stake in New York Times Again,” WallStreetJournal, October 6, 2011, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970203388804576615123528159748.html.

“I think that more than feeling just Lebanese, I feel I am part of the world altogether”

: Carlos Slim Helú, in discussion with the authors, September 2011.

growth of mobile phones in Somalia

: Abdi Sheikh and Ibrahim Mohamed, “Somali Mobile Phone Firms Thrive Despite Chaos,” Reuters, November 3, 2009, Africa edition, http://af.reuters.com/article/investingNews/idAFJOE5A20DB20091103

; Abdinasir Mohamed and Sarah Childress, “Telecom Firms Thrive in Somalia Despite War, Shattered Economy,” WallStreetJournal, May 11, 2010, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704608104575220570113266984.html.

functions across all three regions

: “Somalia—Telecommunications Overview,” Infoasaid, accessed October 18, 2012, http://infoasaid.org/guide/somalia/telecommunications-overview.

Only one commercial bank exists in Somalia

: Mohamed Odowa, “Rebuilding Trust in Somali Commercial Banking,” SomaliaReport, May 15, 2012, http://www.somaliareport.com/index.php/post/3347/Rebuilding_Trust_in_Somali_Commercial_Banking

; Dinfin Mulupi, “Opening a Bank in Somalia? Not a Crazy Idea, Says Businessman,” HowWeMadeItinAfrica (Cape Town), June 18, 2012, http://www.howwemadeitinafrica.com/why-we-decided-to-open-a-bank-in-somalia/17530/.

mobile money-transfer services allow

: Sahra Abdi, “Mobile Transfers Save Money and Lives in Somalia,” Reuters, March 3, 2010, http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/03/03/us-somalia-mobiles-idUSTRE6222BY20100303.

Bahraini telecom tried to expand

: Cynthia Johnston, Reuters, “U.S. Authority Tells Batelco to End Iraq Cellular Service,” ArabNews (Jeddah), July 27, 2003, http://www.arabnews.com/node/234902.

Somalia’s mobile penetration is much higher

: Author discussions with government officials in Somalia, October 2012. It is worth noting that official statistics for Somalia sometimes show a lower percentage.

Pirates on the Somali coast

: Jama Deperani, “Somali Pirate Rules and Regulations,” SomaliaReport, October 8, 2011, http://www.somaliareport.com/index.php/post/1706.

In a February 2012 report, the United Nations Security Council

: SecurityCouncilCommitteeonSomaliaandEritreaAddsOneIndividualtoListofIndividualsandEntities, United Nations Security Council SC/10545, February 17, 2012, http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2012/sc10545.doc.htm.

a list of the ten functions of the state

: Ashraf Ghani and Clare Lockhart, Fixing Failed States: A Framework for Rebuilding a Fractured World (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), 124–166.

three commissions were created

: WorkPackage7on Reparations,ReportofWorkshopII: The Interactions between Mass Claims Processes and Cases in Domestic Courts, Impact of International Courts on Domestic Criminal Procedures in Mass Atrocity Cases (DOMAC) and Amsterdam Center for International Law, June 18, 2010. See section by Peter van der Auweraert, presenter of “Panel Three: Iraq Reparation Schemes,” pages 27–31, http://www.domac.is/media/domac/Workshop-II-report-Final.pdf.

A parallel authority was set up to resolve disputes

: Ibid., see Discussion of the Cassation Commission, pages 28 and 30.

But despite their good intentions

: Ibid, 29–31.

The Somali diaspora

: France Lamy, “Mapping Towards Crisis Relief in the Horn of Africa,” Google Maps, August 12, 2011, http://google-latlong.blogspot.com/2011/08/mapping-towards-crisis-relief-in-horn.html.

The journalist Naomi Klein

: Naomi Klein, TheShockDoctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism (New York: Metropolitan Books/Henry Holt, 2007).

hundreds of thousands were killed

: “Paul Farmer Examines Haiti ‘After the Earthquake,’ ” NPR, July 12, 2011, http://www.npr.org/2011/07/12/137762573/paul-farmer-examines-haiti-after-the-earthquake.

The Haitian government believes

: “Haiti,” NewYorkTimes, updated August 26, 2012, http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories/haiti/index.html.

while a leaked memo

: Emily Troutman, “US Report Queries Haiti Quake Death Toll, Homeless,” Agence France-Presse (AFP), May 27, 2011, http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5jELhQRaWNNs56GOlifagC5F4DSZg?docId=CNG.699dc08a5f873f53071a317e008a7a5b.3a1.

“text to donate” campaign

: Lindsey Ellerson, “Obama Administration Texting Program Has Raised $5 Million for Red Cross Haiti Relief,” ABC News, January 14, 2010, http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/politics/2010/01/obama-administration-texting-program-has-raised-5-million-for-red-cross-haiti-relief/.

$43 million in aid

: Elizabeth Woyke, “Yes, You Can Still Donate Money to Haiti via Your Cellphone,” Forbes, January 12, 2011, http://www.forbes.com/sites/elizabethwoyke/2011/01/12/yes-you-can-still-donate-money-to-haiti-via-your-cellphone/.

Télécoms Sans Frontières

: Adele Waugaman, “Telecoms Sans Frontieres’ Emergency Response,” presentation to the U.S. Department of State, Haiti Earthquake, July 9, 2010, United Nations Foundation and Vodafone Foundation, http://www.unfoundation.org/assets/pdf/haiti-earthquake-tsf-emergency-response-1.pdf

; Tom Foremski, “Télécoms Sans Frontières—How a Simple Phone Call Helps in Haiti,” SiliconValleyWatcher, February 4, 2010, http://www.siliconvalleywatcher.com/mt/archives/2010/02/telecoms_sans_f.php.

Thomson Reuters Foundation’s AlertNet

: Thomson Reuters, “Thomson Reuters Foundation Launches Free Information Service for Disaster-Struck Population in Haiti: Text Your Location to 4636 to Register,” press release, January 17, 2010, http://thomsonreuters.com/content/press_room/corporate/TR_Foundation_launches_EIS.

delivery of funding from institutional donors

: José de Córdoba, “Aid Spawns Back-lash in Haiti,” WallStreetJournal, November 12, 2010, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702304023804575566743115456322.html

; Ingrid Arnesen, “In Haiti, Hope Is the Last Thing Lost,” WallStreetJournal, January 12, 2011, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704515904576076031661824012.html.

Hundreds of thousands of Haitians

: William Booth,

“NGOs in Haiti Face New Questions about Effectiveness,” WashingtonPost, February 1, 2011, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/02/01/AR2011020102030.html.

People well qualified to say what transpired

: See Paul Farmer, HaitiAftertheEarthquake (New York: PublicAffairs, 2012).

a pattern emerging

: See Jessica T. Mathews, “Power Shift,” ForeignAffairs, January/February 1997, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/52644/jessica-t-mathews/power-shift

, about the rise of NGOs.

70 percent overhead in “production costs”

: Aly Weisman, “Invisible Children Respond to #StopKony Viral Video Criticisms,” TheWire, Business Insider, March 8, 2012, http://www.businessinsider.com/invisible-children-respond-to-stopkony-viral-video-criticisms-2012-3.

bizarre detention

: Sarah Grieco, “Invisible Children Co-founder Detained: SDPD,” NBC 7 San Diego, March 17, 2012, http://www.nbcsandiego.com/news/local/jason-russell-san-diego-invisible-children-kony-2012-142970255.html.

There already are monitoring and rating systems for NGOs

:

GuideStar,



Charity Navigator,

GiveWell, CharityWatch,

Philanthropedia,

GreatNonprofits, and others fall into the former category. Their primary goal is to facilitate better-informed giving. They range from simply aggregating relevant information such as organizations’ Form 990 tax returns (GuideStar), to engaging charities directly to collect information and analyze evidence of impact (GiveWell). While these tools are incredibly valuable, our hunch is that they are only used by foundations and a small minority of individuals who give in considerable amounts. A report called



MoneyforGood confirms this hunch, finding that only 35 percent of individuals do research before giving and that those who do primarily go to the organization itself for information. See MoneyforGoodII: Driving Dollars to the Highest Performing Nonprofits, Summary Report2011, Hope Consulting, November 2011, 9–10, http://www.guidestar.org/ViewCmsFile.aspx?ContentID=4040.
  There are already some umbrella aid organizations like InterAction, but they have a couple of hundred members at best, which is only a fraction of the tens of thousands of NGOs involved in some kind of relief work.

demonstrated this to great effect

: Jason Palmer, “Social Networks and the Web Offer a Lifeline in Haiti,” BBC, January 15, 2010, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8461240.stm

; “How Does Haiti Communicate after the Earthquake?,” BBC, January 20, 2010, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/8470270.stm.

Ushahidi volunteers in the United States

: James F. Smith, “Tufts Map Steered Action amid Chaos,” BostonGlobe, April 5, 2010, http://www.boston.com/news/world/latinamerica/articles/2010/04/05/tufts_project_delivered_aid_to_quake_victims/?page=1

; Jessica Ramirez, “ ‘Ushahidi’ Technology Saves Lives in Haiti and Chile,” NewsweekandDailyBeast, March 3, 2010, http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/blogs/techtonic-shifts/2010/03/03/ushahidi-technology-saves-lives-in-haiti-and-chile.html.

“I’m buried”

: Ramirez, “ ‘Ushahidi’ Technology Saves Lives in Haiti and Chile,” http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/blogs/techtonic-shifts/2010/03/03/ushahidi-technology-saves-lives-in-haiti-and-chile.html.

Roshan has launched a pilot program

: Eltaf Najafizada and James Rupert, “Afghan Police Paid by Phone to Cut Graft in Anti-Taliban War,” Bloomberg, April 13, 2011, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-04-13/afghan-police-now-paid-by-phone-to-cut-graft-in-anti-taliban-war.html.

“Where people have needs”

: Paul Kagame in discussion with the authors, September 2011.

(an estimated $1 billion annual business)

: Aditi Malhotra, “The Illicit Trade of Small Arms,” GeopoliticalMonitor (Toronto), Backgrounder, January 19, 2011, http://www.geopoliticalmonitor.com/the-illicit-trade-of-small-arms-4273/.

Mali with disgruntled Tuareg fighters

: Michel Moutot, Agence France-Presse (AFP), “West’s Intervention in Libya Tipped Mali into Chaos: Experts,” GoogleNews, April 5, 2012, http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5hJtUvEGQfS0X5Lip5M2Z7MOJIgkw?docId=CNG.90655ad2d0483083880b2914c0ec5599.251.

demilitarization of tens of thousands of former fighters

: ReintegrationProgram: Reflections on the Reintegration of Ex-Combatants, Multi-Country Demobilization and Reintegration Program (MDRP), September–October 2008, http://www.mdrp.org/PDFs/MDRP_DissNote5_0908.pdf.

“We believe that we need to put tools in the hands of ex-combatants”

: Paul Kagame in discussion with the authors, September 2011.

more than $380 million in aid

: Frederick Womakuyu, “South Sudan: Nation Embarks on Disarming Ex-Combatants,” AllAfrica, July 12, 2011, http://allafrica.com/stories/201107130081.html.

two hundred thousand former soldiers

: Ibid.

In Colombia, a largely successful DDR program



: Author observations while visiting the DDR program in Colombia on two separate occasions.

“Human-rights and justice groups can build”

: Nigel Snoad in discussion with the authors, March 2012.

Dozens of criminals

: ReportoftheInternationalCriminalCourt, Sixty-Sixth Session, United Nations General Assembly, August 19, 2011, 6–7, http://www.icc-cpi.int/NR/rdonlyres/D207D618-D99D-49B6-A1FC-A1A221B43007/283906/ICC2011AnnualReporttoUNEnglish1.pdf.

for many months before their trials

: Susana SáCouto, Katherine Cleary et al., “Expediting Proceedings at the International Criminal Court,” American University, Washington College of Law, War Crimes Research Office, International Criminal Court, Legal Analysis and Education Project, June 2011, http://www.wcl.american.edu/warcrimes/icc/documents/1106report.pdf.

the country’s new government

: ReconciliationAfterViolentConflict: A Hand-book, International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA), 2003. See section by Peter Uvin, “The Gacaca Tribunals in Rwanda,” 116–117, accessed October 19, 2012, http://www.idea.int/publications/reconciliation/upload/reconciliation_full.pdf.

the gacaca tribunal

: Ibid.

Conclusion



“Technology”

: Ray Kurzweil, TheAgeofSpiritualMachines: When Computers Exceed Human Intelligence (New York: Viking, 1999), 32.

Every two days

: M. G. Siegler, “Eric Schmidt: Every 2 Days We Create as Much Information as We Did up to 2003,” TechCrunch, August 4, 2010.

only two billion people

: “The World in 2010: ICT Facts and Figures,” ITUNews, December 2010, http://www.itu.int/net/itunews/issues/2010/10/04.aspx.

seven billion online

: “U.S. & World Population Clocks,” U.S. Cesus Bureau, accessed October 26, 2012, http://www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html.



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