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YouTube in Iran

: Gwen Ackerman and Ladane Nasseri, “Google Confirms Gmail and YouTube Blocked in Iran Since Feb. 10,” Bloomberg, February 13, 2012,

We recommend the 2006 book WhoControlstheInternet?

: Jack Goldsmith and Tim Wu, WhoControlstheInternet?: Illusions of a Borderless World (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006).

most users tend to stay within their own cultural spheres

: Author’s determination based on ten years as CEO of Google and two as executive chairman.

Particular terms like “Falun Gong”

: Mark McDonald, “Watch Your Language! (In China, They Really Do),” Rendezvous (blog), InternationalHeraldTribune, the global edition of the NewYorkTimes, March 13, 2012,

following a contentious trip

: Observations from Google’s executive chairman, Eric Schmidt.

Chinese officials had hired nearly three hundred thousand

: Nate Anderson, “280,000 Pro-China Astroturfers Are Running Amok Online,” ArsTechnica, March 26, 2010,

; Rebecca MacKinnon, “China, the Internet, and Google,” prepared remarks (not delivered) for Congressional-Executive Commission on China, March 1, 2010,

; David Bandurski, “China’s Guerrilla War for the Web,” FarEasternEconomicReview, July 2008, Note: the 280,000 figure was originally published in 2008, but restated in 2010.

In a white paper released in 2010

: Full Text: TheInternetinChina, IV. Basic Principles and Practices of Internet Administration (June 8, 2010), Chinese Government’s Official Web Portal,

YouTube was blocked

: Tom Zeller, Jr., “YouTube Banned in Turkey after Insults to Ataturk,” TheLede (blog), NewYorkTimes, March 7, 2007,

YouTube agreed to block the videos

: Jeffrey Rosen, “Google’s Gatekeepers,” NewYorkTimesMagazine, November 28, 2008,

some eight thousand websites

: Ayla Albayrak, “Turkey Dials Back Plan to Expand Censorship,” WallStreetJournal, August 6, 2011,

four-tier system of censorship

: Sebnem Arsu, “Internet Filters Set Off Protests Around Turkey,” NewYorkTimes, May 15, 2011,

thousands of people in more than thirty cities

: Ibid.

Under pressure, the government dialed back its plan

: Ayla Albayrak, “Turkey Dials Back Plan to Expand Censorship,” WallStreetJournal, August 6, 2011.

more aggressive filtering framework

: “New Internet Filtering System Condemned as Backdoor Censorship,” Reporters Without Borders, December 2, 2011,,41498.html.

Reporters Without Borders

: Ibid.

When a Turkish newspaper reported

: “Internet Filters Block Evolution Website for Children in Turkey,” Hurriyet (Istanbul), December 8, 2011,

; Sara Reardon, “Controversial Turkish Internet Censorship Program Targets Evolution Sites,” Science, December 9, 2011,

In South Korea, for example, the National Security Law

: “Countries Under Surveillance: South Korea,” Reporters Without Borders, accessed October 21, 2012,,39757.html.

government blocked some forty websites

: Ibid.

took down a dozen accounts

: Lee Tae-hoon, “Censorship on Pro-NK Websites Tight,” KoreaTimes, September 9, 2010,

government blocks websites within Germany

: “Europe,” OpenNet Initiative, accessed October 21, 2012,

; “Germany,” OpenNet Initiative, accessed October 21, 2012,

despite promising its citizens

: Clara Chooi, “Najib Repeats Promise of No Internet Censorship,” MalaysianInsider (Kuala Lumpur), April 24, 2011,

codify it in its Bill of Guarantees

: “Benefits,” MSC Malaysia, accessed October 21, 2012,

blocked access to file-sharing sites

: Ricky Laishram, “Malayasian Government Blocks the Pirate Bay, MegaUpload and Other File Sharing Websites,” TechieBuzz, June 9, 2011,

Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission

: Wong Pek Mei, “MCMC Wants Block of 10 Websites That Allow Illegal Movie Downloads,” TheStar (Petaling Jaya), June 10, 2011,

“We respect that each country has chosen for itself”

: Sukhbaatar Batbold (former prime minister of Mongolia) in discussion with the authors, November 2011.

Chile became the first country in the world

: Tim Stevens, “Chile Becomes First Country to Guarantee Net Neutrality, We Start Thinking About Moving,” Engadget, July 15, 2010,

About half of Chile’s 17 million people

: See population in 2011 and percentage of Internet users in 2011 in “Midyear Population and Density—Custom Region—Chile, 2011,” U.S. Census Bureau, International Data Base, accessed October 21, 2012,

and “Percentage of Individuals Using the Internet,” International Telecommunication Union (ITU), ICT Data and Statistics (IDS), accessed October 21, 2012,

“halal Internet”

: Neal Ungerleider, “Iran Cracking Down Online with ‘Halal Internet,’ ” FastCompany, April 18, 2011,

official launch was imminent

: Neal Ungerleider, “Iran’s ‘Second Internet’ Rivals Censorship of China’s ‘Great Firewall,’ ” FastCompany, February 23, 2012,

“government-approved videos”

: David Murphy, “Iran Launches ‘Mehr,’ Its Own YouTube-like Video Hub,”,2817,2413014,00.asp.

the first phase the national “clean” Internet

: Christopher Rhoads and Farnaz Fassihi, “Iran Vows to Unplug Internet,” WallStreetJournal, updated December 19, 2011,

; Nick Meo, “Iran Planning to Cut Internet Access to Rest of World,” Telegraph (London), April 28, 2012,

2012 ban on the import of foreign computer security software

: S. Isayev and T. Jafarov, “Iran Bans Import of Foreign Computer Security Software,” Trend, February 20, 2012,

Iran’s head of economic affairs told the country’s state-run news agency

: Rhoads and Fassihi, “Iran Vows to Unplug Internet,”

Pakistan has pledged to build something similar: “Request for Proposal

: National URL Filtering and Blocking System,” National ICT R&D Fund, accessed October 21, 2012,

; Ungerleider, “Iran’s ‘Second Internet’ Rivals Censorship of China’s ‘Great Firewall,’ ”

; Danny O’Brien, “Pakistan’s Excessive Internet Censorship Plans,” Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ), March 1, 2012, It is worth noting that at the time of writing, the Pakistani program had been “shelved.” See Shahbaz Rana, “IT Ministry Shelves Plan to Install Massive URL Blocking System,” TheExpressTribune (Karachi) (blog) with the InternationalHeraldTribune, March 19, 2012,

company that owns 75 percent of North Korea’s only official mobile network, Koryolink

: “Mobile Phones in North Korea: Also Available to Earthlings,” Economist, February 11, 2012,

For North Korean subscribers, Koryolink service is a walled garden

: Ibid.

North Korean daily RodongSinmun sending users the latest news by text message

: Ibid.

pay their phone bills in euros

: Ibid; David Matthew, “Understanding the Growth of KoryoLink,” NKNews, December 15, 2011,

leaping from three hundred thousand subscribers

: “Mobile Phones in North Korea: Also Available to Earthlings,” Economist, February 11, 2012.

Koryolink’s gross operating margin

: Ibid.

Ericsson and Nokia Siemens Networks

: Steve Stecklow, Farnaz Fassihi and Loretta Chao, “Chinese Tech Giant Aids Iran,” WallStreetJournal, October 27, 2011,

Huawei actively promoted its products

: Ibid.

Zaeim Electronic Industries Co., is also the favorite

: Ibid.

Huawei claims to offer Zaeim only “commercial public-use products and services”

: Ibid.

Huawei published a press release

: Huawei, “Statement Regarding Inaccurate and Misleading Claims About Huawei’s Commercial Operations in Iran,” press release, November 4, 2011,

“voluntarily restrict” its business operations

: Huawei, “Statement Regarding Huawei’s Commercial Operations in Iran,” press release, December 9, 2011,

“fully implement all of the intellectual property laws”

: Hu Jintao (former president of China) in discussion with a small group of business leaders at the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) CEO Summit in 2011.

It’s estimated that U.S. companies lost approximately $3.5 billion in 2009

: 2010Report to Congress on China’s WTO Compliance, United States Trade Representative (December 2010), 5,

79 percent of all copyright-infringing goods

: Ibid., 92.

Russia, India and Pakistan have all been singled out

: 2011Special301Report, United States Trade Representative, see “Section II: Country Reports Priority Watch List,” 25, 28, 30,

Israel and Canada

: Ibid., 27, 29.

definition of cyber warfare offered by the former U.S. counterterrorism chief Richard Clarke

: Richard A. Clarke and Robert K. Knake, CyberWar: The Next Threat to National Security and What to Do About It (New York: Ecco, 2010), 6.

In October 2012, the U.S. secretary of defense, Leon Panetta, warned

: Elisabeth Bumiller and Thom Shanker, “Panetta Warns of Dire Threat of Cyberattack on U.S.,” NewYorkTimes, October 11, 2012,

“war as a continuation of policy by other means”

: Carl von Clausewitz, OnWar (Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1968). The original quote is “war as a continuation of politik by other means.”

“it’s just much harder to know who took the shot at you”

: Craig Mundie in discussion with the authors, November 2011.

Mundie calls cyber-espionage tactics “weapons of mass disruption”

: Craig Mundie, “Information Security in the Digital Decade.” Remarks at the American Chamber of Commerce in Bangkok, Thailand, October 20, 2003,

until a virus known as Flame, discovered in 2012, claimed that title

: “Resource 207: Kaspersky Lab Research Proves That Stuxnet and Flame Developers Are Connected,” Kaspersky Lab, June 11, 2012,

causing the centrifuges to abruptly speed up or slow down

: David E. Sanger, “Obama Order Sped Up Wave of Cyberattacks Against Iran,” NewYorkTimes, June 1, 2012,

perhaps unwittingly introduced by a Natanz employee on a USB flash drive

: Ibid.

as the Iranian president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, admitted

: Julian Borger and Saeed Kamali Dehghan, “Attack on Iranian Nuclear Scientists Prompts Hit Squad Claims,” Guardian (Manchester), November 29, 2010,

had escaped “into the wild”

: Sanger, “Obama Order Sped Up Wave of Cyberattacks Against Iran,”

references to dates and biblical stories

: Elinor Mills, “Stuxnet: Fact vs. Theory,” CNET, October 5, 2010,

written by as many as thirty people

: Michael Joseph Gross, “A Declaration of Cyber-War,” VanityFair, April 2011,

an early variant of Stuxnet

: Elinor Mills, “Shared Code Indicates Flame, Stuxnet Creators Worked Together,” CNET, June 11, 2012,

Unnamed Obama administration officials confirmed

: Sanger, “Obama Order Sped Up Wave of Cyberattacks Against Iran,”

“Do you really expect me to tell you?”

: Meir Dagan in discussion with the authors, June 2012.

Olympic Games, was carried into the next administration

: Sanger, “Obama Order Sped Up Wave of Cyberattacks Against Iran,”

After building the malware and testing it

: Ibid.

Larry Constantine … challenges Sanger’s analysis

: Larry Constantine, interview by Steven Cherry, “Stuxnet: Leaks or Lies?,” TechwiseConversations (podcast), IEEESpectrum, September 4, 2012,

Michael V. Hayden, the former CIA director, told Sanger

: Sanger, “Obama Order Sped Up Wave of Cyberattacks Against Iran,”

Sanger reported that American officials denied that Flame was part of the Olympic Games

: Ibid.

security experts at Kaspersky Lab

: “Resource 207: Kaspersky Lab Research Proves That Stuxnet and Flame Developers Are Connected,”

; Mills, “Shared Code Indicates Flame, Stuxnet Creators Worked Together,”

identified a particular module, known as Resource 207

: “Resource 207: Kaspersky Lab Research Proves That Stuxnet and Flame Developers Are Connected,”

a senior Kaspersky researcher explained

: Mills, “Shared Code Indicates Flame, Stuxnet Creators Worked Together,”

diplomatic fight in 2007 over the Estonian government’s decision

: “Bronze Soldier Installed at Tallinn Military Cemetery,” RIANovosti (Moscow), April 30, 2007,

mass of prominent Estonian websites

: Ian Traynor, “Russia Accused of Unleashing Cyberwar to Disable Estonia,” Guardian (Manchester), May 16, 2007,

Estonia is often called the most wired country on Earth

: Joshua Davis, “Hackers Take Down the Most Wired Country in Europe,” Wired, August 21, 2007,

Urmas Paet, accused the Kremlin directly

: Doug Bernard, “New Alarm Bells, and Old Questions, About the Flame Virus and Cyber-War,” VOA (blog), May 30, 2012,

NATO and European Commission experts were unable to find evidence

: “Estonia Has No Evidence of Kremlin Involvement in Cyber Attacks,” RIANovosti (Moscow), June 9, 2007,

websites for the Georgian military and government were brought down

: John Markoff, “Georgia Takes a Beating in the Cyberwar with Russia,” Bits (blog), NewYorkTimes, August 11, 2008,

; John Markoff, “Before the Gunfire, Cyberattacks,” NewYorkTimes, August 12, 2008,

Russian hackers targeted the Internet providers in Kyrgyzstan

: Gregg Keizer, “Russian ‘Cybermilitia’ Knocks Kyrgyzstan Offline,” Computerworld, January 28, 2009,

shutting down 80 percent of the country’s bandwidth for days

: Christopher Rhoads, “Kyrgyzstan Knocked Offline,” WallStreetJournal, January 28, 2009,

Some believe the attacks were intended

: Ibid.; “Kyrgyzstan to Close US Airbase, Washington Says No Plans Made,” Hurriyet (Istanbul), January 17, 2009,

In late 2009, Google detected unusual traffic within its network

: David Drummond, “A New Approach to China,” GoogleBlog, January 12, 2010,

Google’s decision to alter its business position in China

: David Drummond, “A New Approach to China, an Update,” GoogleBlog, March 22, 2010,

Pentagon gave the directive to establish United States Cyber Command (USCYBERCOM)

: “U.S. Cyber Command,” U.S. Strategic Command, updated December 2011,

Robert Gates declared cyberspace to be the “fifth domain” of military operations

: Misha Glenny, “Who Controls the Internet?,” FinancialTimesMagazine (London), October 8, 2010,

; Susan P. Crawford, “When We Wage Cyberwar, the Whole Web Suffers,” Bloomberg, April 25, 2012,

new “cyber-industrial complex” somewhere between $80 billion and $150 billion annually

: Ron Deibert and Rafal Rohozinski, “The New Cyber Military-Industrial Complex,” GlobeandMail (Toronto), March 28, 2011,

A raid on the Egyptian state security building after the country’s

: Ibid.; Eli Lake, “British Firm Offered Spy Software to Egypt,” WashingtonTimes, April 25, 2011,

Chinese telecom was contacted

: WikiLeaks cable, “Subject: STIFLED POTENTIAL: FIBER-OPTIC CABLE LANDS IN TANZANIA, Origin: Embassy Dar Es Salaam (Tanzania), Cable time: Fri. 4 Sep 2009 04:48 UTC,”

Sichuan Hongda announced

: Fumbuka Ng’wanakilala, “China Co Signs $3 Bln Tanzania Coal, Iron Deal,” Reuters, September 22, 2011,

loan agreement with China

: “China, Tanzania Sign $1 Bln Gas Pipeline Deal: Report,” Reuters, September 30, 2011, Africa edition,

State-owned enterprises make up 80 percent

: “Emerging-Market Multinationals: The Rise of State Capitalism,” Economist, January 21, 2012,

$150 million loan for Ghana’s e-governance venture

: Andrea Marshall, “China’s Mighty Telecom Footprint in Africa,” eLearningAfricaNewsPortal, February 21, 2011,

research hospital in Kenya

: “East Africa: Kenya, China in Sh8 Billion University Hospital Deal,” AllAfrica, April 22, 2011,

“African Technological City” in Khartoum

: John G. Whitesides, “Better Diplomacy, Better Science,” ChinaEconomicReview, January 1, 1970,

There are currently four main manufacturers

: Opinion of the authors.

Some refer to this as the upcoming Code War

: Michael Riley and Ashlee Vance, “Cyber Weapons: The New Arms Race,” BloombergBusinessWeek, July 20, 2011, As you can see, we did not coin the term “code war.”

DDoS attacks crippled major government websites

: Kim Zetter, “Lawmaker Wants ‘Show of Force’ Against North Korea for Website Attacks,” Wired, July 10, 2009,

suggested that the network of attacking computers, or botnet, began in North Korea

: Choe Sang-Hun and John Markoff, “Cyberattacks Jam Government and Commercial Web Sites in U.S. and South Korea,” NewYorkTimes, July 9, 2009,

; Associated Press (AP), “U.S. Officials Eye N. Korea in Cyberattack,” USAToday, July 9, 2009,

Officials in Seoul directly pointed their fingers at Pyongyang

: Choe and Markoff, “Cyberattacks Jam Government and Commercial Web Sites in U.S. and South Korea,” New York Times, July 9, 2009.

Republican lawmaker demanded

: Zetter, “Lawmaker Wants ‘Show of Force’ Against North Korea for Website Attacks,” Wired, July 10, 2009.

analysts concluded they had no evidence that North Korea or any other state was involved

: Lolita C. Baldor, Associated Press (AP), “US Largely Ruling Out North Korea in 2009 Cyber Attacks,” USAToday, July 6, 2010,

analyst in Vietnam had earlier said that the attacks originated in the United Kingdom

: Martyn Williams, “UK, Not North Korea, Source of DDOS Attacks, Researcher Says,” IDGNewsServiceandNetworkWorld, July 14, 2009,

South Koreans insisted

: “N. Korean Ministry Behind July Cyber Attacks: Spy Chief,” YonhapNews, October 30, 2009,

semiconductors and motor vehicles to jet-propulsion technology

: Michael Riley and Ashlee Vance, “Inside the Chinese Boom in Corporate Espionage,” BloombergBusinessWeek, March 15, 2012,

England’s East India Company hired a Scottish botanist

: “Famous Cases of Corporate Espionage,” BloombergBusinessWeek, September 20, 2011,

Chinese couple in Michigan

: Ed White, Associated Press (AP), “Shanshan Du, Ex-GM Worker, Allegedly Tried to Sell Hybrid Car Secrets to Chinese Companies,” HuffingtonPost, July 23, 2010,

Chinese employee of Valspar Corporation

: “Cyber Espionage: An Economic Issue,” ChinaCaucus (blog), Congressional China Caucus, November 9, 2011,

; ForeignSpiesStealingU.S. Economic Secrets in Cyberspace, Report to Congress on Foreign Economic Collection and Industrial Espionage,2009–2011, Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive, (October 2011), 3,

DuPont chemical researcher

: “Economic Espionage,” Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive, accessed October 22, 2012,

“The basic premise is that when you have a network disease”

: Craig Mundie in discussion with the authors, November 2011.

In Mundie’s vision

: Ibid.

10 million lines of code

: DARPA, “DARPA Increases Top Line Investment in Cyber Research by 50 Percent over next Five Years,” news release, November 7, 2011,

; Spencer Ackerman, “Darpa Begs Hackers: Secure Our Networks, End ‘Season of Darkness,’ ” DangerRoom (blog), Wired, November 7, 2011,

“We went after the technological shifts”

: Regina Dugan, in discussion with the authors, July 2012.

They brought together cybersecurity experts

: Cheryl Pellerin, American Forces Press Service, “DARPA Goal for Cybersecurity: Change the Game,” U.S. Air Force, December 20, 2010,


countries coming online have incredibly young populations

: See low Internet penetration in 2011 for Ethiopia, Pakistan and the Philippines in “Percentage of Individuals Using the Internet,” International Telecommunication Union (ITU), ICT Data and Statistics (IDS), accessed October 16, 2012,

, and young populations for those countries as of 2011 in “Mid-Year Population by Five Year Age Groups and Sex—Custom Region—Ethiopia, Pakistan, Philippines,” U.S. Census Bureau, International Data Base, accessed October 16, 2012,

women were able to play a much greater role

: Courtney C. Radsch, “Unveiling the Revolutionaries: Cyberactivism and the Role of Women in the Arab Uprisings,” James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy, Rice University, May 17, 2012; Jeff Falk, “Social Media, Internet Allowed Young Arab Women to Play a Central Role in Arab Spring,” May 24, 2012, Rice University, News and Media,

; WomenandtheArabSpring: Taking Their Place?, International Federation for Human Rights, accessed November 4, 2012,

; Lauren Bohn, “Women and the Arab Uprisings: 8 ‘Agents of Change’ to Follow,” CNN, February 3, 2012,

small groups of protesters nearly every morning

: Ministers in the transitional government in Tripoli in discussion with the authors, January 2012.

Al Jazeera English was quick to report on the number of protester deaths

: “Fresh Protests Erupt in Syria,” Al Jazeera, last updated April 8, 2011,

Al Jazeera Arabic website did not

: David Pollock, “Al Jazeera: One Organization, Two Messages,” Washington Institute, Policy Analysis, April 28, 2011,

the disparity was due to the Arabic station’s political deference to Iran

: Ibid.

they acknowledged similar grievances

: Activists from the Jasmine Revolution in discussion with the authors, January 2012.

Twitter account started by a twenty-something graduate student

: Stephan Faris, “Meet the Man Tweeting Egypt’s Voices to the World,” Time, February 1, 2011,,8599,2045489,00.html.

posted updates about the protests

: Ibid.


Twitter handle was a major conduit of information

: Ibid.

Andy Carvin, who curated one of the most important streams of information

: Andy Carvin, interview by Robert Siegel, “The Revolution Will Be Tweeted,” NPR, February 21, 2011,

they had formed the National Transitional Council (NTC) in Benghazi

: “Anti-Gaddafi Figures Say Form National Council,” Reuters, February 27, 2011, Africa edition,

prominent opposition figures, regime defectors, a former army official, academics, attorneys, politicians and business leaders

: Dan Murphy, “The Members of Libya’s National Transitional Council,” ChristianScienceMonitor, September 2, 2011,

; David Gritten, “Key Figures in Libya’s Rebel Council,” BBC, August 25, 2011,

Citizens continued to protest the government

: “Tunisia’s Leaders Resign from Ruling Party,” NPR, January 20, 2011,

; Christopher Alexander, “Après Ben Ali: Déluge, Democracy, or Authoritarian Relapse?,” MiddleEastChannel (blog), ForeignPolicy, January 24, 2011,

“victim of the ministry of the interior”

: conversation with Tunisian prime minister Hamadi Jebali, January 2012.

spent fourteen years in prison

: David D. Kirkpatrick, “Opposition in Tunisia Finds Chance for Rebirth,” NewYorkTimes, January 20, 2011,

; Tarek Amara and Mariam Karouny, “Tunisia Names New Government, Scraps Secret Police,” Reuters, March 8, 2011,

“It is hard to imagine de Gaulles and Churchills appealing”

: Henry Kissinger in discussion with the authors, December 2011.

“If you are a revolutionary, show us your capabilities”

: Mahmoud Salem, “Chapter’s End!,” RantingsofaSandmonkey (blog), June 18, 2012,

He exhorted street activists to participate in governance

: Mahmoud Salem, “For the Light to Come Back,” RantingsofaSandmonkey (blog), March 30, 2012,

Tina Rosenberg’s book JointheClub

: For a more detailed interpretation of Tina Rosenberg’s JointheClub: How Peer Pressure Can Transform the World, see Saul Austerlitz, “Power of Persuasion: Tina Rosenberg’s Join the Club,” review, TheNational (Abu Dhabi), February 25, 2011,

; Jeffrey D. Sachs, “Can Social Networking Cure Social Ills?,” review, NewYorkTimes, May 20, 2011,

; Thomas Hodgkinson, “Join the Club by Tina Rosenberg—Review,” Guardian (Manchester), September 1, 2011,

; and Steve Wein-berg, “C’mon, Everyone’s Doing It,” review, Bookish (blog), HoustonChronicle, March 27, 2011,

Perhaps the most compelling evidence

: Tina Rosenberg, JointheClub: How Peer Pressure Can Transform the World (New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 2011).

powerful story of Serbian activists from the past training future activists around the world

: Ibid., 278–82, 332–36.

they subsequently reoccupied Tahrir Square

: “Egypt Anti-Military Protesters Fill Tahrir Square,” BBC, June 22, 2012,

; Aya Batrawy, Associated Press (AP), “Egypt Protests: Thousands Gather in Tahrir Square to Demonstrate Against Military Rule,” HuffingtonPost, April 20, 2012,

; Gregg Carlstrom and Evan Hill, “Scorecard: Egypt Since the Revolution,” Al Jazeera, last updated January 24, 2012,

; “Egypt Protests: Death Toll Up in Cairo’s Tahrir Square,” BBC, November 20, 2011,

Iranian regime during the 2009 postelection protests

: Christopher Rhoads, Geoffrey A. Fowler, and Chip Cummins, “Iran Cracks Down on Internet Use, Foreign Media,” WallStreetJournal, June 17, 2009,

Egyptian regime effectively shut down all Internet and mobile connections

: James Cowie, “Egypt Leaves the Internet,” Renesys (blog), January 27, 2011,

exception to this all-ISP block

: James Cowie, “Egypt Returns to the Internet,” Renesys (blog), February 2, 2011,

The country’s four main Internet service providers

: Cowie, “Egypt Leaves the Internet,”

mobile-phone service was also suspended

: Associated Press (AP), “Vodafone: Egypt Ordered Cell Phone Service Stopped,” HuffingtonPost, January 28, 2011,

Vodafone Egypt, issued a statement that morning

: “Statements—Vodafone Egypt,” Vodafone, see January 28, 2011,

fiber-optic cables housed in one building in Cairo

: James Glanz and John Markoff, “Egypt Leaders Found ‘Off’ Switch for Internet,” NewYorkTimes, February 15, 2011,

through its state-owned company Telecom Egypt, physically cut their service

: Ibid.

It was a move unprecedented in recent history

: Parmy Olson, “Egypt Goes Dark, Cuts Off Internet and Mobile Networks,” Forbes, January 28, 2011,

“Hitting one hundred percent of the population”

: Vittorio Colao in discussion with the authors, August 2011.

“We might not have liked the request”

: Ibid.; see also, “Statements—Vodafone Egypt,” Vodafone, see January 28, 2011–February 3, 2011,

send out its messages over the companies’ short-message-service (SMS) platform

: “Statements—Vodafone Egypt,” Vodafone, see February 3, 2011,

; Jonathan Browning, “Vodafone Says It Was Instructed to Send Pro-Mubarak Messages to Customers,” Bloomberg, February 3, 2011,

“But at a point it became incredibly political and one-sided”

: Vittorio Colao in discussion with the authors, August 2011.

“Vodafone Group PLC”—the parent company—“put out a statement”

: Ibid.

French Data Network, opened up Internet access

: Jonathan Browning, “Google, Twitter Offer Egyptians Option to Tweet,” Bloomberg, February 1, 2011,

Google launched a tweet-by-phone service

: Ujjwal Singh and AbdelKarim Mardini, “Some Weekend Work That Will (Hopefully) Enable More Egyptians to Be Heard,” GoogleBlog, January 31, 2011,

“We decided that this has to be discussed”

: Vittorio Colao in discussion with the authors, August 2011.

Egyptian police’s vice squad would troll chat rooms

: InaTimeofTorture: The Assault on Justice in Egypt’s Crackdown on Homosexual Conduct, Human Rights Watch (HRW): 2004,

Cairo vice squad raided a floating nightclub

: Ibid.; “Egypt: Egyptian Justice on Trial—The Case of the Cairo 52,” International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission, October 15, 2001,

a Chinese version of the protests

: Andrew Jacobs, “Chinese Government Responds to Call for Protests,” NewYorkTimes, February 20, 2011,

retaliated against a group of women

: “Rights Group Decries Flogging Sentence for Female Saudi Driver,” CNN, September 27, 2011,

As news of her sentence spread

: Ibid.; Amnesty International (AI), “Flogging Sentence for Saudi Arabian Woman After Driving ‘Beggars Belief,’ ” press release, September 27, 2011,

led the government to revoke the decision

: “Saudi King Revokes Flogging of Female Driver,” CNN, September 29, 2011,

a decision to ban a satirical short film

: Prince Alwaleed bin Talal al-Saud in discussion with the authors, February 2011; Faisal J. Abbas, “Monopoly: The Saudi Short-Film Which Went a Long Way,” HuffingtonPost, September 9, 2011,

The film, Monopoly, appeared on YouTube

: Prince Alwaleed bin Talal al-Saud in discussion with the authors, February 2011. The film appeared on both Facebook and YouTube. The prince discussed the Facebook appearance of the video.

accumulated more than a million views

: Ibid.

one of the highest rates of YouTube playbacks

: “Saudi Arabia Ranks First in YouTube Views,” Al Arabiya, May 22, 2012,

; Simon Owens, “Saudi Satire Ignites YouTube’s Massive Growth in Middle East,” U.S. News, May 30, 2012,

fastest growing mobile market anywhere

: AfricanMobileObservatory2011: Driving Economic and Social Development Through Mobile Services, Groupe Speciale Mobile (GSM), 9, accessed October 17, 2011,

“The Internet is good for letting off steam”

: Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong in discussion with the authors, November 2011.

Young people everywhere

: Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong’s assertion that young people want to be cool is supported by Tina Rosenberg’s discussion of the need to be cool as a key part of Otpor’s strategy, which it has taught to opposition groups around the world. For examples of the “coolness factor” in Otpor, see Rosenberg, JointheClub, 223–224, 229, 256–58, 260, 276.


: Shamim Adam, “Singapore Curry Protest Heats Up Vote with Facebook Campaign,” Bloomberg, August 19, 2011,

; “Singaporeans to Launch Largest ‘Protest’ over ‘Currygate’ Incident,” TREmeritus (blog), August 21, 2011,

“A Chinese immigrant and a Singaporean of Indian descent quarreled”

: Lee Hsien Loong in discussion with the authors, November 2011.

almost a billion Chinese citizens

: Michael Kan, International Data Group (IDG) News Service, “China’s Internet Population Reaches 538 Million,” July 19, 2012, PCWorld,

; at the time of writing, China’s population exceeded 1.3 billion, so there were approximately 800 million Chinese citizens left to become connected. We factored in population increase projections over the next decade to estimate almost a billion. According to a 2012 report from the Committee to Protect Journalists, Eritrea was most censored, followed by North Korea.

“What happens in China is beyond anyone’s full control”

: Lee Hsien Loong in discussion with the authors, November 2011.

“The history of revolutions is a confluence”

: Henry Kissinger in discussion with the authors, December 2011.


we’re acutely vulnerable to cyber terrorism

: There is some overlap in tactics between cyber terrorism and criminal hacking, but generally the motivations distinguish the two. This is not unlike the distinction that is made between narco-trafficking and terrorism.

one of the greatest shared fears among American troops

: Army captain (in Iraq) in discussion with the authors, November 2009.

The IED of 2009 was cheaper and more innovative

: Ibid.

What was once a sophisticated and lucrative violent activity

: One of the authors first learned about this while speaking on a panel with
Jonathan Powers at Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies in 2005. The authors have since corroborated this data point with additional anecdotes from civilian and military officials who have been working on or deployed in Iraq over the past decade.

“maker phenomenon”

: Andy Rubin in discussion with the authors, February 2012.

Somalia’s al-Shabaab insurgent group on Twitter

: Will Oremus, “Twitter of Terror,” Slate, December 23, 2011,

Anwar al-Awlaki, the late American-born extremist cleric

: “Profile: Anwar al-Awlaki,” Anti-Defamation League (ADL), updated November 2011,

several successful and would-be terrorists cited him

: Pierre Thomas, Martha Raddatz, Rhonda Schwartz and Jason Ryan, “Fort Hood Suspect Yells Nidal Hasan’s Name in Court,” ABCBlotter, July 29, 2011,

; Bruce Hoffman, “Why al Qaeda Will Survive,” DailyBeast, September 30, 2011,

“Even the most anti-Western religious figures in Saudi Arabia”

: Prince Alwaleed bin Talal al-Saud in discussion with the authors, February 2012.

“We pitched propaganda stalls outside the Motorola offices”

: Maajid Nawaz in discussion with the authors, February 2012.

Colombian prison officials stopped an eleven-year-old girl

: “Colombia Catches Girl ‘Smuggling 74 Mobiles into Jail,’ ” BBC, February 6, 2011,

In Brazil, inmates trained carrier pigeons

: “Pigeons Fly Mobile Phones to Brazilian Prisoners,” Telegraph (London), March 30, 2009,

local gang hired a teenager

: Associated Press (AP), “Police: Brazilian Teen Used Bow and Arrow to Launch Illegal Cell Phones over Prison Walls,” FoxNews, September 2, 2010,

going rate for a contraband smart phone

: Former member of a South Central Los Angeles gang in discussion with the authors, April 2012.

Afghanistan, a country with one of the lowest rates of connectivity in the world

: “Mobile-Cellular Subscriptions” and “Percentage of Individuals Using the Internet,” International Telecommunication Union (ITU), ICT Data and Statistics (IDS), accessed October 19, 2012,

tens of thousands of political prisoners were killed there annually

: The authors received this information during an unclassified briefing with prison staff, February 2009.

terrorist nerve center

: Rod Nordland and Sharifullah Sahak, “Afghan Government Says Prisoner Directed Attacks,” NewYorkTimes, February 10, 2011,

Following a violent riot in 2008 in the prison’s Cell Block Three

: Description of the terror cell operating from Pul-e-Charkhi comes from Jared’s briefings (unclassified) and interviews during his visit to the prison in February 2009; see also Joshua Philipp, “Corruption Turning Afghan Prisons into Taliban Bases: Imprisoned Taliban Leaders Coordinate Attacks from Within Prison Walls,” EpochTimes, August 29, 2011,

Agie responded to a joking request for his phone number

: Mullah Akbar Agie in discussion with Jared Cohen, February 2009.

Shortly thereafter, a series of cyber attacks crippled

: “Anonymous (Internet Group),” NewYorkTimes, updated March 8, 2012,

vowed to take revenge on any organization

: Sean-Paul Correll, “Operation: Payback Broadens to Operation Avenge Assange.” Pandalabs (blog), December 6, 2010,

; Mathew Ingram, “WikiLeaks Gets Its Own ‘Axis of Evil’ Defense Network,” GigaOM (blog), December 8, 2010,

A string of global investigations followed

: U.S. Department of Justice, “Sixteen Individuals Arrested in the United States for Alleged Roles in Cyber Attacks,” national press release, July 19, 2011,

; Andy Greenberg, “Fourteen Anonymous Hackers Arrested for ‘Operation Avenge Assange,’ LulzSec Leader Claims He’s Not Affected,” Forbes, July 19, 2011,

; “Hackers Arrested in US, NL and UK,” RadioNetherlandsWorldwide, July 20, 2011,

he told TheNewYorkTimes via e-mail

: Somini Sengupta, “Hacker Rattles Security Circles,” NewYorkTimes, September 11, 2011,

Boasting aside, Comodohacker was able to forge

: Ibid.

compromised the communications

: Ibid.

He said he attacked

: Ibid.

declared that he was “one of the strongest haters of Israel”

: “I Will Finish Israel Off Electronically: Ox-Omar,” Emirates24/7, January 22, 2012,

a file that contained four hundred thousand credit-card numbers

: Chloe Albanesius, “Hackers Target Israeli Stock Exchange, Airline Web Sites,” PCMagazine, January 16, 2012,,2817,2398941,00.asp.

most of these were duplicates

: Isabel Kershner, “Cyberattack Exposes 20,000 Israeli Credit Card Numbers and Details About Users,” NewYorkTimes, January 6, 2012,

He claimed to represent a group of Wahhabi hackers

: Jonathon Blakeley, “Israeli Credit Card Hack,” deLiberation, January 5, 2012,

“It will be so fun to see”

: Ehud Kenan, “Saudi Hackers Leak Personal Information of Thousands of Israelis,” YNet, January 3, 2012,,7340,L-4170465,00.html.

the websites of Israel’s El Al Airlines and its stock exchange were brought down

: Isabel Kershner, “2 Israeli Web Sites Crippled as Cyberwar Escalates,” NewYorkTimes, January 16, 2012,

attacks would be reduced if Israel apologized for its “genocide”

: Yaakov Lappin, “ ‘I Want to Harm Israel,’ Saudi Hacker Tells ‘Post,’ ” JerusalemPost, January 16, 2012,

; Saar Haas, “ ‘OxOmar’ Demands Israeli Apology,” YNet, January 16, 2012,,7340,L-4176436,00.html?

“badge of honor that I have been personally targeted”

: Danny Ayalon’s Facebook page, posts on January 13 and 16, 2012, accessed October 20, 2012,

DARPA approved eight contracts

: Austin Wright, “With Cyber Fast Track, Pentagon Funds Hacker Research,” Politico, December 7, 2011,

“democratized, crowd-sourced innovation”

: Statement by Dr. Regina E. Dugan, submitted to the Subcommittee on Terrorism, Unconventional Threats and Capabilities of the House Armed Services Committee, United States House of Representatives, March 23, 2010,

“There is a sense among many that hackers and Anonymous are just evildoers”

: Regina Dugan, in discussion with the authors, July 2012.

lack of Internet access in a large urban home

: Mark Mazzetti and Helene Cooper, “Detective Work on Courier Led to Breakthrough on bin Laden,” NewYorkTimes, May 2, 2011,

; Bob Woodward, “Death of Osama bin Laden: Phone Call Pointed U.S. to Compound—and to ‘The Pacer,’ ” WashingtonPost, May 6, 2011,—and-to-the-pacer/2011/05/06/AFnSVaCG_story.html.

But when Navy SEAL Team Six raided his home

: Joby Warrick, “Al-Qaeda Data Yield Details of Planned Plots,” WashingtonPost, May 5, 2011,; Woodward, “Death of Osama bin Laden,”—and-to-the-pacer/2011/05/06/AFnSVaCG_story.html.

Mumbai attacks

: Hari Kumar, “India Says Pakistan Aided Planner of Mumbai Attacks,” NewYorkTimes, June 27, 2012,

; Harmeet Shah Singh, “India Makes Key Arrest in Mumbai Terror Plot,” CNN, June 26, 2012,

; “Mumbai Attacks ‘Handler’ Arrested in India,” Agence France-Presse (AFP), June 25, 2012,
  To better understand the role that technology played in the 2008 Mumbai attacks, we spoke to Prakash V.

Shukla, who is a senior vice president and the chief information officer for Taj Hotels Resorts and Palaces, which operates the Taj Mahal Hotel. He explained, “It was very clear from reviewing CCTV footage these individuals had never been to the Taj. However, they knew exactly where things were in the hotel, they knew how to get around, etc. The old part of the hotel was built over [a] hundred years ago, therefore we didn’t have floor plans. Combination of the Taj website,

Google Maps gave one a fairly good idea of the layout of the hotel. The website also describes the location of premium rooms, which are located on upper floors. It was very easy for them to plan attacks of high-profile targets like the Taj, Oberoi, the train station, etc. This, augmented with Hedley’s reports from actual reconnaissance work in India, gave the terrorists a fairly good idea of the locations. From the time attacks started, the terrorists immediately moved to the old wing (premium) of the hotel and started moving towards the upper floors. Satellite radios were procured. Along with several money transfers using electronic fund distribution. In India, several prepaid

SIM cards were procured.”

  High-profile terrorist attacks on commercial hotels will have implications for how the hospitality industry deals with security. In speaking with Shukla, we learned that “the hotel industry is going the way of the airline industry. The same measures that the airlines have taken in terms of scanning baggage, doing reference checks on passengers, are being carried out in the hotel industry. Taj, specifically, has a team from Israel who has consulted with us for over four years in creating a security architecture to prevent these types of attacks. In 2008, we had security but the guards were unarmed. We learned that the police were woefully inadequate to handle the situation, and by the time the NSG teams and the Marcos teams arrived it was already over twelve hours. The overall security architecture has several components. Profiling: Guests are profiled from incoming-arrivals list and security agencies are notified of the arrivals; walking in, guests are profiled, and each of our security folks [is] trained to observe individuals entering the hotel; all baggage is screened; disaster-planning drills are conducted on regular intervals; staff has been trained to observe; we now have armed security personnel who are in civilian clothes; all hotel security staff has gone through a month training in Israel on handling of firearms and handling of situations. We have spent [a] significant amount of money to put these measures in place, and we feel that our target would be harder than [the] rest of the hotel industry, and therefore we feel fairly confident that our hotels may not be retargeted. However, having said that, this is a dynamic situation. Whilst we grow in sophistication so do our enemies, and we have to constantly innovate and keep improving the security.”

The gunmen relied on basic consumer technologies

: Jeremy Kahn, “Mumbai Terrorists Relied on New Technology for Attacks,” NewYorkTimes, December 8, 2008,

; Damien McElroy, “Mumbai Attacks: Terrorists Monitored British Websites Using BlackBerry Phones,” Telegraph (London), November 28, 2008,

electronic trail

: “Global Lessons from the Mumbai Terror Attacks,” Investigative Project on Terrorism (IPT), November 25, 2009,

described a top al-Qaeda commander who was exceptionally cautious

: A Navy SEAL Team Six member in discussion with the authors, February 2012.

Canadian journalist Amanda Lindhout was kidnapped

: “Canadian Amanda Lindhout Freed in Somalia,” CBC (Ottawa), last updated November 25, 2009,

her former captors

: Author conversation with Amanda Lindhout, July 2012.

It is estimated that more than 90 percent of people worldwide

: Technology/ Internet Trends October 18, 2007, Morgan Stanley (China Mobile 50K Survey), 7. Posted on Scribd,

Osama bin Laden’s compound contained a large stash of pornographic videos

: Scott Shane, “Pornography Is Found in bin Laden Compound Files, U.S. Officials Say,” NewYorkTimes, May 13, 2011,

Secretariat of Public Security compound in Mexico City

: Venu Sarakki et al., “Mexico’s National Command and Control Center Challenges and Successes,” 16th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium in Quebec, Canada, June 21–23, 2011,

TIA was designed and funded to aggregate all “transactional” data

: Dr. John Poindexter, “Overview of the Information Awareness Office.” Remarks as prepared for the DARPATech 2002 Conference, August 2, 2002. Posted by the Federation of American Scientists (FAS),

provision to deny all funds for the program

: Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2004, S.1382, 108th Cong. (2003), see Sec. 8120; Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2004, H.R.2658, 108th Cong. (2003) (Enrolled Bill), see Sec. 8131.

some of its projects later found shelter

: Associated Press (AP), “U.S. Still Mining Terror Data,” Wired, February 23, 2004,

; Michael Hirsh, “Wanted: Competent Big Brothers,” NewsweekandDailyBeast, February 8, 2006,

An estimated 52 percent of the world’s population is under the age of thirty

: “Mid-Year Population by Five Year Age Groups and Sex—World, 2011,” U.S. Census Bureau, International Data Base, accessed October 20, 2012,

“What defeats terrorism is really two things”

: General Stanley McChrystal, interview by Susanne Koelbl, “Killing the Enemy Is Not the Best Route to Success,” DerSpiegel, January 11, 2010,

With more than four billion videos viewed daily

: Alexei Oreskovic, “Exclusive: YouTube Hits 4 Billion Daily Video Views,” Reuters, January 23, 2012,

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