Translation allowed more people to read Bible without aid of clergy
Following publication of theses, Luther continued to study, debate
Contradicted basic Catholic beliefs, insisted God’s grace cannot be won by good works; faith alone needed
1519, declared only head of Christian Church was Jesus, not pope
Martin Luther’s Concerns (some of them)
Pope’s lavish lifestyle (Vatican-too costly)
Pope’s competed for political power with kings. (Kingdom of Christians)
Selling of Church offices to highest bidder (Simony)
Church services too fancy (golden chalices)
Church refused to support use of vernacular in services and Bible
Why was Martin Luther so successful?
Invention of the printing press in 1440 by Gutenberg spread Luther’s ideas. Between 1516-1546, 1 million copies of Luther’s ideas were circulated.
Why so Successful Continued…
He was bright/academic- top of his class at university- masters degree/professor of theology/Augustinian monk
Hardworking/intense – Wrote enough to fill 102 volumes of books- translated Bible from Greek to German in 11 weeks!
Extremely Pious (religious)- said the mass 7 times a day/fasted many times until near death!
Why Successful continued…
Germany not united – part of Holy Roman Empire. The Germans resented the Catholic Church because of abusive leadership in Rome and tithe money going to Rome. Martin Luther was popular with the people. After he was excommunicated he was protected by Frederick the Wise for another 20 yrs.
Martin Luther’s Beliefs
“Salvation by faith alone”- Paul’s letters to Romans 1:17
The Bible not the pope is the final authority
“Priesthood of all believers”- the faithful are all equal in God’s eyes.