Professor Dr. Surriya Shaffi Mir



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VU

ENG 101

      1. Professor Dr. Surriya Shaffi Mir



Table of Contents


Lecture No.

Topic


Page No.

Lecture No.01

Reading and Dictionary

4

Lecture No.02

Pronunciation

12

Lecture No.03

Reading for Main Idea

16

Lecture No.04

Reading: Topic, Main Idea

20

Lecture No.05

Reading: References

25

Lecture No.06

Reading Skills

30

Lecture No.07

Reading and Vocabulary

36

Lecture No.08

Word Formation- Prefixes

43

Lecture No.09

Reading: Description, Locating Information

51

Lecture No.10

Reading: Word Forms

59

Lecture No.11

Reading: Understanding Reading

66

Lecture No.12

Reading: Making Inferences

73

Lecture No.13

Reading: Assessing the Text

80

Lecture No.14

Reading: Assessing Texts

86

Lecture No.15

Evaluating Texts: Interpreting Visual Data

91

Lecture No.16

Reading: Evaluating Texts

102

Lecture No.17

Reading: Cloze for Comprehension

109

Lecture No.18

Reading: Skimming and Scanning

115

Lecture No.19

Reading: Scanning and Language Functions

122

Lecture No.20

Reading: Classifying, Cause and Effect Relationship

129

Lecture No.21

Reading: Presenting Information Graphically

137

Lecture No.22

Writing: Sentence Types

145

Lecture No.23

Writing: Effective Sentences: Unity, Coherence, Emphasis

153

Lecture No.24

WRITING: IDENTIFYING SENTENCE ERRORS

158

Lecture No.25

WRITING: REVISING SENTENCE ERRORS

163

Lecture No.26

Subject Verb Agreement

169

Lecture No.27

Writing

175

Lecture No.28

Word Choice

182

Lecture No.29

Punctuation

190

Lecture No.30

Writing: Paragraphs: Structural Parts

199

Lecture No.31

Writing: Paragraph

203

Lecture No.32

Writing: Paragraphs

209

Lecture No.33

Writing: Essay Writing

216

Lecture No.34

Essay writing

222

Lecture No.35

Writing: Essay Outlines

228

Lecture No.36

Writing: Selecting and Researching an Essay Topic

234

Lecture No.37

Writing: Ways of Organizing Texts: Linear

240

Lecture No.38

Writing: Ways of Organizing Texts

244

Lecture No.39

Writing: Ways of Organizing Texts

248

Lecture No.40

Writing Skills

252

Lecture No.41

Writing: Summary Writing

257

Lecture No.42

Grammar and Usage: Tenses and Passive Sentences

261

Lecture No.43

Grammar and Usage: Word Order: Adverbs

268

Lecture No.44

Grammar and Usage: Articles

277

Lecture No.45

Language Functions: Language Forms and Functions

286


Lesson -01

Reading and Dictionary
This lesson is in two parts. In the first part, you will learn about the:
• uses of a language dictionary

• how to use a dictionary


In the second part of the lesson, you will read an interesting story.

Definition of Dictionary

A dictionary is a book that not only lists and records the words of a language but it also tells you how speakers of the language spell, pronounce, define, explain and use the words of their language.


Reference Book - provides useful information. It is valuable only if you learn how to use it correctly and efficiently.

List of Dictionary Uses (9)
The following is a list of things that can be learned from a dictionary:
(i) Spelling

(ii) Pronunciation

iii) Part of speech

iv) Origin of word

(v) Meaning/explanation

(vi) Usage/restrictive lables

(vii) Synonyms & antonyms

(viii) Foreign words & phrases

ix) General information.
i) Spelling
Many students find English spelling very confusing. So what do you do? Consult your dictionary. It will clarify your confusion by showing you the different spellings of the same word.
Look at the words catalogue and theatre. You must have noticed that the dictionary lists both BRE and AE/US spelling of the words. Both are correct.
Exercise (i) Spelling:

Use the dictionary to answer the following questions about spelling.

a) What other possible spellings does your dictionary give for these words?

Centre Color

b) Does your dictionary say anything about the spelling ‘humor’ and ‘rumor’?


(ii) Pronunciation

Students have problems in pronouncing English words. A dictionary will help you learn the pronunciation of any word but only if you are familiar with the symbols in which they are written. We will discuss this in greater detail in the next lesson.


All language dictionaries carry a pronunciation key/table. Be sure to read it.
(iii) Part of speech

All dictionaries indicate the part of speech a word belongs to - whether the word is commonly used as a Noun, Pronoun, Verb (transitive, intransitive), Adjective, Adverb, Conjunction, or Preposition etc.


iv) Origin of Words

Some dictionaries indicate the origin and derivation of a word before it became an English word.


(v) Meaning/ Explanation / Definition of words

The most important information that a dictionary provides about a word is its meaning. Most of the words have many meanings or shades of meaning. Do not just read the first listed meaning of the word you are looking for. Go down the numbered list. Look for the meaning that best suits the context in which the word is used.


Also look up words above and below the word that you are looking for. You will find that words are often closely related. It will help to extend your recognition of the word in other forms and contexts.

Exercise (v-a) Meaning:

Look up the words ‘fast’ and ‘set’ in a dictionary. Write the total number of different meanings of each word. Include all the numbered and lettered meanings for each part of speech.


Exercise (v-b):



Meaning/ Explanation / Definition of words.
Use the dictionary to find the specific meanings of the word ‘play’ in each of the following:

1. The boys like to play on the hard court.

2. Amna will play the sitar in the concert.

3. The play produced by the arts club was a success.

4. It was a clever play that won the football game.

5. The gardener played the hose on the flower beds.

6. A ‘week without water can make one weak’ is a play on words.



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