PRACTICE TEST 31 10
PRACTICE TEST 32 18
PRACTICE TEST 33 26
PRACTICE TEST 34 33
PRACTICE TEST 35 40
PRACTICE TEST 36 47
PRACTICE TEST 37 54
PRACTICE TEST 38 61
PRACTICE TEST 39 66
PRACTICE TEST 40 71
PRACTICE TEST 41 78
PRACTICE TEST 42 85
PRACTICE TEST 43 92
PRACTICE TEST 44 97
PRACTICE TEST 45 102
PRACTICE TEST 46 107
ANSWER KEY 113
were both creatures and creators of communities, as well as symptoms of the frenetic
quest for community. Even in the first part of the nineteenth century, Americans were
Line already forming the habit of gathering from all corners of the nation for both public and
(5) private, business and pleasure purposes. Conventions were the new occasions, and
hotels were distinctively American facilities making conventions possible. The first
national convention of a major party to choose a candidate for President (that of the
National Republican party, which met on December 12, 1831, and nominated Henry
Clay for President) was held in Baltimore, at a hotel that was then reputed to be the
(10) best in the country. The presence in Baltimore of Barnum's City Hotel, a six-story
building with two hundred apartments, helps explain why many other early national
political conventions were held there.
In the longer run, too. American hotels made other national conventions not only
possible but pleasant and convivial. The growing custom of regularly assembling from
also for commercial, professional, learned, and avocational ones - in turn supported
the multiplying hotels. By mid-twentieth century, conventions accounted for over a
third of the yearly room occupancy of all hotels in the nation, about eighteen thousand
different conventions were held annually with a total attendance of about ten million
Nineteenth-century American hotelkeepers, who were no longer the genial,
deferential "hosts" of the eighteenth-century European inn, became leading citizens.
Holding a large stake in the community, they exercised power to make it prosper. As
owners or managers of the local "palace of the public", they were makers and shapers
this high social position.
(A) led (B) protected (C) tied (D) strengthened
(A) from Baltimore (B) of learned people
(C) owning a hotel (D) holding a convention
3. The word "assembling" in line 14 is closest in meaning to
(A) announcing (B) motivating (C) gathering (D) contracting
(A) hotels (B) conventions (C) kinds (D) representatives
(A) European inn (B) host (C) community (D) public
(A) active politicians (B) European immigrants
(C) Professional builders (D) Influential citizens
7. Which of the following statements about early American hotels is NOT mentioned in the passage?
(A) Travelers from abroad did not enjoy staying in them.
(B) Conventions were held in them
(C) People used them for both business and pleasure.
(D) They were important to the community.
Beads were probably the first durable ornaments humans possessed, and the
intimate relationship they had with their owners is reflected in the fact that beads are
among the most common items found in ancient archaeological sites. In the past, as
Line today, men, women, and children adorned themselves with beads. In some cultures
(5) still, certain beads are often worn from birth until death, and then are buried with their
owners for the afterlife. Abrasion due to daily wear alters the surface features of beads,
and if they are buried for long, the effects of corrosion can further change their
appearance. Thus, interest is imparted to the bead both by use and the effects of time.
portable, available in infinite variety, and often valuable in their original cultural
context as well as in today's market. Pleasing to look at and touch, beads come in
shapes, colors, and materials that almost compel one to handle them and to sort them.
information one hopes to unravel. Even the most mundane beads may have traveled
great distances and been exposed to many human experiences. The bead researcher
must gather information from many diverse fields. In addition to having to be a
generalist while specializing in what may seem to be a narrow field, the researcher is
(20) faced with the problem of primary materials that have little or no documentation. Many
ancient beads that are of ethnographic interest have often been separated from their
original cultural context.
The special attractions of beads contribute to the uniqueness of bead research. While
often regarded as the "small change of civilizations", beads are a part of every culture,
mercantile, technological, and cultural sophistication.
(A) Materials used in making beads (B) How beads are made
(C) The reasons for studying beads (D) Different types of beads
9. The word "adorned" in line 4 is closest in meaning to
(A) protected (B) decorated (C) purchased (D) enjoyed
(A) ritual (B) importance (C) clothing (D) history
(A) durability (B) portability (C) value (D) scarcity.
(A) shape (B) color (C) material (D) odor
(A) communicate (B) transport (C) improve (D) discover
(A) carved (B) beautiful (C) ordinary (D) heavy
(A) are small in size
(B) have been buried underground
(C) have been moved from their original locations
(D) are frequently lost
16. Knowledge of the history of some beads may be useful in the studies done by which of the following?
(A) Anthropologists (B) Agricultural experts
(C) Medical researchers (D) Economists
17. Where in the passage does the author describe why the appearance of beads may change?
(A) Lines 3-4 (B) Lines 6-8 (C) Lines 12-13 (D) Lines 20-22
Shorebirds such as oystercatchers use their bills to pry open the tightly sealed shells of
their prey; hummingbirds have stiletto-like bills to probe the deepest nectar-bearing
Line flowers; and kiwis smell out earthworms thanks to nostrils located at the tip of their
(5) beaks. But few birds are more intimately tied to their source of sustenance than are
crossbills. Two species of these finches, named for the way the upper and lower parts
of their bills cross, rather than meet in the middle, reside in the evergreen forests of
North America and feed on the seeds held within the cones of coniferous trees.
exposes the seed. The crossed mandibles enable the bird to exert a powerful biting
force at the bill tips, which is critical for maneuvering them between the scales and
spreading the scales apart. Next, the crossbill snakes its long tongue into the gap and
draws out the seed. Using the combined action of the bill and tongue, the bird cracks
(15) open and discards the woody seed covering action and swallows the nutritious inner kernel.
This whole process takes but a few seconds and is repeated hundreds of times a day.
deep, others more slender and shallow. As a rule, large-billed crossbills are better at
seeming seeds from large cones, while small-billed crossbills are more deft at
(20) removing the seeds from small, thin-scaled cones. Moreover, the degree to which cones
are naturally slightly open or tightly closed helps determine which bill design is the best.
crossbill. This bird has a large, robust bill, yet most of Newfoundland's conifers
have small cones, the same kind of cones that the slender-billed white-wings rely on.
18. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The importance of conifers in evergreen forests
(B) The efficiency of the bill of the crossbill
(C) The variety of food available in a forest
(D) The different techniques birds use to obtain food
19. Which of the following statements best represents the type of "evolutionary fine-turning" mentioned in line 1?
(A) Different shapes of bills have evolved depending on the available food supply
(B) White - wing crossbills have evolved from red crossbills
(C) Newfoundland's conifers have evolved small cones
(D) Several subspecies of crossbills have evolved from two species
20. Why does the author mention oystercatchers, hummingbirds, and kiwis in lines 2-4?
(A) They are examples of birds that live in the forest
(B) Their beaks are similar to the beak of the crossbill
(C) They illustrate the relationship between bill design and food supply
(D) They are closely related to the crossbill
21. Crossbills are a type of
(A) shorebird (B) hummingbird (C) kiwi (D) finch
(A) seed (B) bird (C) force (D) bill
(A) opening (B) flower (C) mouth (D) tree
(A) eats (B) breaks (C) finds out (D) gets rid of
(A) bills (B) species (C) seeds (D) cones
(A) hungry (B) skilled (C) tired (D) pleasant
(A) strong (B) colorful (C) unusual (D) sharp
(A) It is larger than the other crossbill species
(B) It uses a different technique to obtain food
(C) The size of its bill does not fit the size of its food source
(D) It does not live in evergreen forests.
30. The final paragraph of the passage will probably continue with a discussion of
(A) other species of forest birds
(B) the fragile ecosystem of Newfoundland
(C) what mammals live in the forests of North America
(D) how the Newfoundland crossbill survives with a large bill
31. Where in the passage does the author describe how a crossbill removes a seed from its cone?
(A) The first paragraph (B) The second paragraph
(C) The third paragraph (D) The forth paragraph
If you look closely at some of the early copies of the Declaration of Independence,
beyond the flourished signature of John Hancock and the other 55 men who signed it,
you will also find the name of one woman, Mary Katherine Goddard. It was she, a
Line Baltimore printer, who published the first official copies of the Declaration, the first
(5) copies that included the names of its signers and therefore heralded the support of all
opened a printing shop in Providence, Rhode Island, in 1762. When he proceeded to
get into trouble with his partners and creditors, it was Mary Goddard and her mother
(10) who were left to run the shop. In 1765 they began publishing the Providence Gazette, a
weekly newspaper. Similar problems seemed to follow her brother as he opened
businesses in Philadelphia and again in Baltimore. Each time Ms. Goddard was
brought in to run the newspapers. After starting Baltimore's first newspaper, The
the newspaper's masthead for the first time.
commissioned Ms. Goddard to print the first official version of the Declaration of
Independence in January 1777. After printing the documents, she herself paid the post
(20) riders to deliver the Declaration throughout the colonies.
During the American Revolution, Mary Goddard continued to publish Baltimore's
only newspaper, which one historian claimed was "second to none among the
colonies". She was also the city's postmaster from 1775 to 1789 - appointed by
Benjamin Franklin - and is considered to be the first woman to hold a federal position.
(A) The accomplishments of a female publisher
(B) The weakness of the newspaper industry
(C) The rights of a female publisher
(D) The publishing system in colonial America
33. Mary Goddard's name appears on the Declaration of Independence because
(A) she helped write the original document (B) she published the document
(C) she paid to have the document printed (D) her brother was in prison
34. The word "heralded" in line 5 is closest in meaning to
(A) influenced (B) announced (C) rejected (D) ignored
(A) was appointed by Benjamin Franklin (B) signed the Declaration of Independence.
(C) took over her brother's printing shop (D) moved to Baltimore
36. The word "there" in line 17 refers to
(A) the colonies (B) the print shop (C) Baltimore (D) Providence
(A) an accomplished businesswoman (B) extremely wealthy
(C) a member of the Continental Congress (D) a famous writer
38. The word "position" in line 24 is closest in meaning to
(A) job (B) election (C) document (D) location
many millions of stars, and it is held together by its own gravitational field. Most of the
material universe is organized into galaxies of stars together with gas and dust.
Line There are three main types of galaxy: spiral, elliptical, and irregular. The Milky
(5) Way is a spiral galaxy, a flattish disc of stars with two spiral arms emerging from its
central nucleus. About one-quarter of all galaxies have this shape. Spiral galaxies are
well supplied with the interstellar gas in which new stars form: as the rotating spiral
pattern sweeps around the galaxy it compresses gas and dust, triggering the formation
of bright young stars and in its arms. The elliptical galaxies have a symmetrical elliptical or
(10) spheroidal shape with no obvious structure. Most of their member stars are very old
and since ellipticals are devoid of interstellar gas, no new stars are forming in them.
The biggest and brightest galaxies in the universe are ellipticals with masses of about
1013 times that of the Sun, these giants may frequently be sources of strong radio
emission, in which case they are called radio galaxies. About two-thirds of all galaxies
(15) are elliptical. Irregular galaxies comprise about one-tenth of all galaxies and they come
in many subclasses.
terrestrial distances can be expressed as intervals of time, the time to fly from one
continent to another or the time it takes to drive to work, for example. By comparison
(25) with these familiar yardsticks, the distances to the galaxies are incomprehensibly large,
but they too are made more manageable by using a time calibration, in this case the
distance that light travels in one year. On such a scale the nearest giant spiral galaxy,
the Andromeda galaxy, is two million light years away. The most distant luminous
objects seen by telescopes are probably ten thousand million light years away. Their
(30) light was already halfway here before the Earth even formed. The light from the nearby
Virgo galaxy set out when reptiles still dominated the animal world.
(A) intense (B) principal (C) huge (D) unique
(A) The Milky Way
(B) Major categories of galaxies
(C) How elliptical galaxies are formed
(D) Differences between irregular and spiral galaxies
41. The word "which" in line 7 refers to
(A) dust (B) gas (C) pattern (D) galaxy
(A) an explosion of gas (B) the compression of gas and dust
(C) the combining of old stars (D) strong radio emissions
43. The word "symmetrical" in line 9 is closest in meaning to
(A) proportionally balanced (B) commonly seen
(C) typically large (D) steadily growing
44. The word "obvious" in line 10 is closest in meaning to
(A) discovered (B) apparent (C) understood (D) simplistic
(A) They are the largest galaxies.
(B) They mostly contain old stars.
(C) They contain a high amount of interstellar gas.
(D) They have a spherical shape.
46. Which of the following characteristics of radio galaxies is mentioned in the passage?
(A) They are a type of elliptical galaxy.
(B) They are usually too small to be seen with a telescope.
(C) They are closely related to irregular galaxies.
(D) They are not as bright as spiral galaxies.
47. What percentage of galaxies are irregular?
(A) 10% (B) 25% (C) 50% (D) 75%
(A) intervals (B) yardsticks (C) distances (D) galaxies
(A) To describe the effect that distance has no visibility.
(B) To compare the ages of two relatively young galaxies.
(C) To emphasize the vast distances of the galaxies from Earth.
(D) To explain why certain galaxies cannot be seen by a telescope.
50. The word "dominated" in line 26 is closest in meaning to
(A) threatened (B) replaced
(C) were developing in (D) were prevalent in