Below are sample multiple choice and essay questions. These are not necessarily indicative of the specific material or types of questions that Drs. Selsby & Keating will ask on the exam. Remember, they want you to be able to apply your knowledge of the material learned in class and from the book and part of that comes from understanding the significance, application, and importance of that information. Good luck!
1) On the electrocardiogram, repolarization of the atria is represented by the:
A) P wave
B) QRS complex
C) T wave
D) PQ segment
E) It does not appear on the EKG since it is obscured by the QRS complex.
2) Which of the following is not a structural classification of neurons?
D) SA node > AV node > AV bundle > bundle branches > Purkinje fibers
E) AV bundle > AV node > bundle branches > SA node > Purkinje fibers
22) An increase in afterload will promote an immediate increase in cardiac output.
23) All parts of a neuron are not in the refractory period at the same time.
24) What is the correct sequence of the following events?
1. neurotransmitter is released
2. action potential reaches the axon terminal
3. Calcium ions enter the axon terminal
4. neurotransmitter binds to receptors on the post-synaptic cell
5. the post-synaptic cell is depolarized.
A) 2, 3, 1, 4, 5
B) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
C) 2, 1, 3, 5, 4
D) 3, 2, 1, 5, 4
25) When does the electrical symbol become transduced into a chemical signal?
A) when the action potential reaches the axon terminal
B) when the neurotransmitter is released
C) when the neurotransmitter binds to the post-synaptic cell
D) when the post-synaptic cell is depolarized
26) What is the primary difference between the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system?
A) The somatic nervous system allows us to consciously control our skeletal muscles, and the autonomic nervous system controls activity that humans cannot consciously control, such as the pumping of the heart and the movement of food through the digestive tract.
B) The autonomic nervous system enables us to control our involuntary muscles, while the somatic nervous system controls our glands.
C) The autonomic nervous system allows us to consciously control our skeletal muscles, and the somatic nervous system controls activity that humans cannot consciously control, such as the pumping of the heart and the movement of food through the digestive tract.
D) The somatic nervous system enables us to control our involuntary muscles, while the autonomic nervous system controls our glands.
A) breaks down acetylcholine.
B) activates acetylcholine.
C) is another name for acetylcholine.
D) helps acetylcholine bind to its receptor.
28) Which of the following membrane ion channels open and close in response to changes in the membrane potential?
A) Chemically gated channels
B) Non-gated channels
C) Mechanically gated channels
D) Voltage-gated channels 29) Which of the following statements is incorrect?
A) The firing of the SA node stimulates both atria to contract almost simultaneously.
B) The signal to contract is delayed at the AV node, allowing the ventricles to fill with blood.
C) The bundle fibers allow electrical signal to travel from the atria to the ventricles
D) Ventricular contraction begins at the AV valves and progresses downward toward the apex of the heart. 30) Which of the following is not true of chemical synapses?
A) Each is comprised of an axon terminal and a receptor region.
B) They communicate unidirectionally.
C) They possess pre- and postsynaptic membranes separated by a synaptic cleft.
D) They transmit nerve impulses directly from one neuron to another. 31) T tubules are extensions of the ______________ in skeletal muscle.
36) The amount of blood that returns to the heart is known as what?
A) Stroke Volume
37) What is it called when there is no relaxation at all between muscle contraction stimuli?
A) Fused tetany
B) Unfused tetany
C) Temporal Summation
D) Spatial Summation
38) These neuroglial cells convert glucose to lactate to nourish the brain.
C) Schwann Cells
D) Ependymal Cells
Essay Topics Below are 11 sample essay questions. For each, draft the response you would provide on an actual exam. Use key words and topic sentences to make an outline of a potential essay. Make sure to draw any diagrams required. Note: Most of these questions can most easily be answered with a schematic representation accompanied by brief descriptions of the drawn elements. In other words: if it helps – draw a picture.
1) Recreate the action potential curve. Explain what is happening at each phase.
Fig. 11.11 & Fig. 11.14
2) Explain the initiation, propagation and termination of the action potential through the neuron. Be sure to include refractory periods and neurotransmitters in your discussion.