Potential Final Exam Questions Earth Chemistry

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Potential Final Exam Questions

Earth Chemistry
1. The atomic number of (Xenon is 54) and the atomic number of (Silver is 47). Which of these atoms has more electrons? Explain.
2. Suppose an electrically neutral element has an atomic number of (23) and a mass number of (48). Calculate the number of protons,

neutrons, and electrons.

3. Please fill in the following table:

Electrical Charge

Mass (a.m.u.)

Located in the nucleus(yes or no)




4. A helium atom has two electrons in its first and only energy level (electron shell). Would you predict that helium easily forms compounds with other elements? Why or why not?

5. What type of chemical bond, if any, forms between the following types of elements: Metals & Nonmetals, Metals & Metals, and Nonmetals & Nonmetals?
6. Name the families of the Periodic Table and give the name of an element in each family.
Mineral and Rock
7. Name three reasons why color is not a reliable clue to the identity of a mineral. What simple test can be used to determine whether a mineral is gold or pyrite? Explain.
8. Name the six types of nonsilicate minerals and identify the elements that define each type.
9. Explain how a metamorphic rock can change into the other two types of rock through the rock cycle.
10. Explain the difference between an intrusive and extrusive rock. How can you identify each?
11. Name and explain the cause of the two types of metamorphism.
12. Name and describe the two types of igneous, three types of sedimentary, and two types of metamorphic rocks.
Fossils and Geologic Time
13. Explain how three types of mechanical weathering can break down rock material.
14. Explain how three types of chemical weathering can break down rock material.
15. How is erosion different than weathering? Explain the relationship between the two processes.
16. Provide two reasons why seashells are more often preserved than other organisms.
17. Explain three different ways that an entire organism can be preserved.
18. Name the Eras of the Geologic Time Scale and the major life forms for each era.
Last (Water/Atmosphere/Environment) Unit – potential…
19. Explain two reasons why the groundwater of Door County is susceptible to contamination.
20. Explain the difference between a renewable and a nonrenewable resource and give an example of each.
21. Explain two reasons why the use of alternative energy sources is better than fossil fuel use
22. Draw a diagram and explain how water moves throughout the water cycle.
23. Explain how pressure / temperature systems in the earth’s atmosphere cause surface winds.
24. List the three most abundant gases in the modern atmosphere and their percentages. How does the modern atmosphere differ

from the primitive atmosphere?

Chapter 8 Chapter 9


anion cation | cleavage

atom element | hardness

molecule compound | inorganic

atomic number mass number | luster

chemical property physical property | mineral

covalent bond ionic bond | mineralogist

electron neutron proton | nonsilicate mineral silicate mineral

electron cloud nucleus | pyrite quartz

gas liquid solid | rock-forming mineral

ion isotope | streak


Chapter 10


cementation compaction

contact metamorphism regional metamorphism

limestone obsidian

extrusive igneous rock intrusive igneous rock

felsic mafic


igneous rock metamorphic rock sedimentary rock


organic sedimentary rock chemical sedimentary rock clastic sedimentary rock



Chapter 11 Chapter 12

nonrenewable resource | mechanical weathering

ore placer deposit vein | abrasion

fossil fuel | exfoliation

anthracite bituminous coal lignite | ice wedging

crude oil | organic activity

peat | chemical weathering

renewable resource | acid precipitation

hydroelectric energy | carbonation

solar collector | hydrolysis

geothermal energy | oxidation

nuclear fission nuclear fusion | plant acids

petrochemical hydrocarbon | erosion

Chapter 17/18

absolute age relative age

amber freezing mummification tar beds

anthropology paleontology

bedding plane

coprolite gastroliths

evolution theory of evolution

geologic column


invertebrate vertebrate

index fossil

law of crosscutting law of superposition principle of uniformitarianism



trace fossil


angular unconformity disconformity nonconformity

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