Plymouth University Academic Partnerships cornwall college, Rosewarne Programme Quality Handbook


SECTION B: DETAILS OF TEACHING, LEARNING AND ASSESSMENT



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SECTION B: DETAILS OF TEACHING, LEARNING AND ASSESSMENT


ACADEMIC YEAR: 2016 / 2017

NATIONAL COST CENTRE: 105




MODULE LEADER: Malachy Dunne

OTHER MODULE STAFF: Kevin Kirwan




SUMMARY of MODULE CONTENT

  • Observed and filmed counselling practice

  • The therapeutic relationship - the development of trust intimacy and mutuality

  • The impact of transference and countertransference

  • Extending awareness and use of the core conditions

  • Ways in which personal, social, racial and cultural factors influence client perception and responses

  • Working with intra and inter personality dynamics in the counselling relationship

  • Power dynamics within the counselling relationship

  • Advanced skills and attitudes




SUMMARY OF TEACHING AND LEARNING [Use HESA KIS definitions]

Scheduled Activities

Hours

Comments/Additional Information

Lecture

45

Introducing the main themes and concepts of the module - development as a professional reflective practitioner

Guided Independent Study

155

Students are expected to put in time outside of taught sessions on their own professional development and module content

Total

200

(NB: 1 credit = 10 hours or learning; 10 credits = 100 hours, etc)




Category

Element

Component Name

Component Weighting

Comments include links to learning objectives

Written exam

E_










T_










Coursework

C_

DVD and critique of practice




LO 1, 2, 3 and 4. Operated on a Pass/Fail basis

Practical

P_













Updated by:

Kevin Kirwan



Date:

31/03/16


Approved by:

HE Operations



Date:

31/03/16





Recommended Texts and Sources:

Bozarth & Wilkins, P (2001) Unconditional Positive Regard Ross-on-Wye, PCCS Books

Casement, P. (1990) On Learning from the Patient London: Routledge

Feltham, C. (2010) Critical Thinking in Counselling & Psychotherapy. London: Sage

Mearns, D. & Thorne, B (1994) Developing Person-Centred Counselling London: Sage

Mearns, D. & Cooper, M (2005) Working at Relational Depth London: Sage

Rogers, C. (1951) Client-Centred Therapy London: Constable

Tolan, J (2003) Skills in Person-Centred Counselling & Therapy London, Sage

Wyatt, G (2001) Congruence Ross-on-Wye, PCCS Books

Wyatt, G & Sanders, P. (2002) Contact and Perception Ross-on-Wye Books

Eds. M. Cooper, M. O’Hara, P. Schmid, G. Wyatt (2007) The Handbook of Person-Centred Psychotherapy and Counselling. Basingstoke: Palgrave

Wosket, V (1999) The Therapeutic Use of Self: Counselling Practice, Research and Supervision. Routledge: East Sussex UK




APPENDIX 2
SCHOOL OF EDUCATION AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Academic Guidelines for Students

(Style Guide)
2016-17 Edition

Introduction
This guide is intended to be the definitive reference source for essay and report formatting for all courses offered through Cornwall College School of Education and Training and / or University of Plymouth Colleges (UPC) Faculty. These are:
BSc (Hons) Combined Social Sciences

FdA Health & Community Studies

FdSc Healthcare Practice

Counselling programmes.


You should follow the guidance suggested within this booklet when completing all assignment tasks. If you are unclear on any of the points that follow, please be sure to ask for clarification.
We hope you enjoy studying at Cornwall College and find this guide useful. Thank you!






Contents



1Introduction 7

May we begin by warmly welcoming you to the Diploma in Person-Centred Counselling. The College is delighted that you have chosen to study with us. We hope you will be enriched by the programme, and will graduate well equipped to develop your career as a counsellor. 7

Philosophy of the programme 7

2Programme Team 8

3Personal Tutor 8

3.1Plymouth Portal 9

4Programme Details 10

4.1Enhancement Activities 10

4.2Progression through the programme 11

4.3HE Careers Guidance – Cornwall College 11

4.4HE Careers Guidance – Plymouth University 11

5Employment Opportunities 12

6Teaching, Learning and Assessment 12

6.1Referencing Guides 12

7Assessment Schedules and Feedback 13

8Student Feedback 16

8.1Student Representation and Enhancement 16

8.2Student Perception Surveys 16

8.3Closing the Feedback Loop 17

8.4Programme Committee Meetings (PCM) 18

8.5Complaints 18

8.6Extenuating Circumstances 18

9Appendix 20

9.1Programme Specification 20

Programme Title: Diploma in Person Centred Counselling and Therapy 21

Partner Delivering Institution: Plymouth University 21

State Date: September 2016 21

First Award Date: 2018 / 2019 21

Date(s) of Revision(s) to this Document: 31 March 2016/8 September 2016/20 Sept 16 21

Contents 22

PS1. Programme Details 26

Diploma in Person Centred Counselling and Therapy 26

PS2. Brief Description of the Programme 26

PS3. Details of Accreditation by a Professional/Statutory Body (if appropriate) 27

PS4. Exceptions to Plymouth University Regulations 27

PS5. Programme Aims 27

PS6. Programme Intended Learning Outcomes (ILO) 27

PS7 Distinctive features 28

PS8. Student Numbers 29

PS9. Progression Route(s) 29

PS10. Admissions Criteria 30

The following will be assessed through a personal statement and interview: 30

Self-awareness, maturity and stability 30

PS11. Academic Standards and Quality Enhancement 31

PS12. Programme Structure 32

PS13. Explanation and Mapping of Learning Outcomes, Teaching & Learning and Assessment 33

9.2The professional role and responsibility of the therapist 34

9.3Understanding the client (BACP) 39

PS14. Work Based/ Related Learning 53

Appendix 54

Lecture 56

45 56


Guided Independent Study 56

155 56


Lecture 58

45 58


Guided Independent Study 58

155 58


Lecture 60

20 60


Practical sessions and workshops 60

25 60


Guided Independent Study 60

155 60


Lecture 65

Guided Independent Study 65

Bond, T (2014) Confidentiality & Record Keeping in Counselling & Psychotherapy. London: Sage 66

Bond, T (2005) Therapists in Court: Providing Evidence and Supporting Witnesses. London: Sage 66

Bond, T (2015) Standards and Ethics for Counselling in Action. London: Sage 66

Bond,T & Mitchels,B (2010) Essential Law for Counsellors and Psychotherapists. London: Sage 66

Lecture 68

Guided Independent Study 68

2Contents Page 77

Section 3.0: Writing Style 78

Section 4.0: Format of Text 79

iHow should I set out references in my reference list? 84

kAcceptable Abbreviations 87

Section 6.0: Tables and Figures 87

Section 7.0: Reports 88

If you are set a report for an assignment, please check with the tutor responsible for guidance on the desired format 89

Section 8.0: Essays 89

Section 9: Grammatical Mistakes 91

Application for Extenuating Circumstances Affecting Late or Non-Submission or Non-Attendance of Assessment 99

Introduction 102

Extenuating circumstances policy 102

What is an extenuating circumstance? 103

What is NOT an Extenuating Circumstance? 103

Procedure (see flow chart and form) 104

Corroborating evidence 104

Consideration of extenuating circumstances claims 105



Student Extenuating Circumstances Claim Procedure - Flowchart 106

Section 1.0: Preparing an assignment
Assignments or essays are a very popular form of assessment within Higher Education. Amongst other things, they assess your ability to form a reasoned argument around a given theme. This requires more than listing information or describing situations. Assignment titles are usually given at the beginning of a module to allow time for reading, reflection, and planning. Make sure you take time to read through the assignment title and fully understand it before you start to write!
Unless the module leader advises otherwise, all assignments should be word-processed, be fully referenced in the text and with an alphabetically ordered reference list at the back. It should also include a front sheet, identify the number of words in the assignment and each page should be numbered. Be sure to follow specific instructions in your module guide regarding your assignment, which may include use of a particular font, writing in the 1st or 3rd person or other module specific points to be included.
Before you hand in your work, be sure to proof-read it for spelling, grammatical and referencing errors. It is best to read out loud following the punctuation you have written to help with your sentence structure. When you are word processing, green, squiggly lines may appear under your writing. Don’t ignore them! This suggests there is something wrong. Admittedly American programmes may not adhere to English grammatical formats, but usually those green lines suggest you’ve not written a sentence (it will say, ‘fragment’) or that your sentence is too long, so break it down.
Be sure to note too that a paragraph can be defined as, ‘a group of sentences arranged around a theme’. There’s a clue there; ‘a group of sentences’ it says. Do not write short, one sentence paragraphs. Even this paragraph, though it is shorter than the rest on this page, has more than one sentence and as you can see is gathered around the theme of ‘writing paragraphs’.
You should fasten the pages together, with a paper clip rather than a staple to allow for photocopying later. Do not place individual pages of an assignment into separate plastic sleeves; one plastic sleeve for the whole assignment is sufficient.
It is essential that you keep a separate copy of your work electronically. This is because you may be asked to submit your essay in this format in order for us to subject it to our plagiarism software. You should also keep the receipt from the office for work handed in as it is possible for work to be mislaid.

Please note that by submitting work to be assessed, you are agreeing to the statement below:
“Students agree that by taking this course all required papers may be subject to submission for textual similarity review to iParadigms for the detection of plagiarism. All submitted papers will be included as source documents in the iParadigms reference database solely for the purpose of detecting plagiarism of such papers. Use of the Turnitin UK service shall be subject to such Terms and Conditions of Use as may be agreed by iParadigms and the Institution from time to time and posted on the Turnitin UK site.”
Section 2.0: Presenting work
Assignments are usually the product of many hours of hard work: poor presentation can spoil an otherwise excellent piece of work and you will lose marks if your work is not neatly presented or is unintelligible.
Normally, when presenting work for submission and marking, you should include the following:


  1. Front sheet

Your work should include your name and your student number.

The front sheet of your essay or report should be at the back of the module handbook. Please use this sheet or a copy.



  1. Contents Page

In the case of an essay, a contents page is not required. You should merely write out the title of the essay in full. However, if the assignment is a report, you should prepare it using a number of headings. Each heading and its corresponding page number should be listed below the title - Contents. Where appropriate this should be followed by a list of tables under the heading - Tables and a list of figures under the heading - Figures.

For example-



Contents

1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………1

2. Definition of Poverty………………………………………..…………….3

3. Rural and Urban Difference……………………………………………8

4. Conclusions……………………………………………………..…………… 12
Tables

Table 1: Population below Average Income…...……………..… 2

Table 2: Distribution of Earnings..………………...………….……… 7
Figures

Figure 1: Chart of Income Distribution..……………………………4

Figure 1: Model of Population Change..………………………… 12
Microsoft Word has a built in feature that will construct these automatically and save you time. (Check with an I.T. tutor if you are unsure how to use it).
Section 3.0: Writing Style
Academic essays should take the form of a reasoned argument. You should attempt to persuade the reader that the line of argument adopted is justified. It is therefore vital to support your argument with referenced evidence. Remember that the success of a piece of work usually depends on the persuasiveness of the argument.
A clear argument requires an initial statement of the stance that is to be adopted. In practice, this may involve some comment on how the question is to be interpreted, what kind of information is pertinent and why it is pertinent. An introductory paragraph to an essay which addresses the key issues in the question and guides the reader to where the argument is leading, provides a clearer answer than one that immediately launches into the subject matter.
Essay plans are essential in developing themes and ensuring that all points made in an argument are clarified and have significance. Plans also ensure that all relevant points are covered and prevent the argument from appearing disjointed, confused or incomplete. Use Appendix 2 to make sure you know what is required.
It is generally unacceptable to identify gender. This can be avoided in several ways, but if it is felt necessary it is possible to write, ‘(s)he…’ The only exceptions to these rules may be if you are asked to write a personal diary or a piece of reflective writing.
In all cases the point you are making should be supported by legitimate academic references (see section 6.0).
Section 4.0: Format of Text
Module leaders may make specific requests for the way your assignment should be formatted, including the use of a particular font or line spacing – please be sure to check your module guide or assignment brief for these instructions.
In most instances, the following points of style are accepted:
Font Style - Times New Roman, Arial or close equivalent
Font Size - 12 point for main text, 10 point for footnotes, no less than 10 point for tables
Line Spacing - single or 1.5 except for dissertations which should be double-spaced
Indentation - no greater than 2.6 top and bottom 3.2 left and right margins
Justification - Main text justified left and right
Page Numbers - Bottom centre of every page
Footers – along with the page numbers, students should put their student number in the footer so that it appears on every page should it become detached during photocopying/marking.
Print on one side of the page only and use black ink
Section 5.0: Referencing and how to avoid plagiarism
Much of the following is extracted from:

Pears, R. & Shields, G. (2009) Cite Them Right: The Essential Referencing Guide. Durham: Pear Tree Books).

This is available in the Learning Centre.
The ability to present your ideas to other people is a key lifelong skill. It calls for time and practice to gather information, assess its relevance to your task, read and form your opinions and then share your contribution, verbally or in writing, with others. Within the process of researching and presenting your own work is another key skill: how to represent what you have learned from earlier authors.
When writing a piece of work, whether essay, seminar paper, dissertation, project or article, it is essential that detailed and precise information on all sources consulted is included in your text and in the reference list at the end of your work. This allows the reader to locate the information used and to check, if necessary, the evidence on which your discussion or argument is based.
References should, therefore, enable the user to find the source of documents as quickly and easily as possible. You need to identify these documents by citing them in the text of your assignment (called citations or in-text citations) and referencing them at the end of your assignment (called the reference list or end-text citations). The reference list only includes sources cited in the text of your assignment as in-text citations. It is not the same thing as a bibliography, which uses the dame format or reference system as a reference list, but also includes all material used in the preparation of your work.


  1. Why should I cite and reference sources?

Besides the reasons given above, there are a number of other important reasons why you should cite and reference your sources. In addition to adding weight to your discussion and arguments, references also show that you have read widely on the subject and considered and analysed the writings of others. Appropriately used, references can strengthen your writing and can help you attain a better mark or grade.


They can also:


  • Show your tutor/reader what you have read and allow them to appreciate your contribution to the subject

  • Establish the credibility and authority of your ideas and arguments

  • Demonstrate that you have spent time in locating, reading and analyzing material and formed your own views and opinions

  1. What is plagiarism?

Plagiarism is a specific form of cheating and is generally defined as presenting someone else’s work or ideas as your own. These works or ideas may be in printed or electronic format and, in all cases, giving credit to the original authors by citing and referencing your sources is the only way to use other people’s work without plagiarising.


All of the following are considered forms of plagiarism:


  • Using another person’s work or ideas (for example, copying and pasting text or images from the Internet) without crediting (citing) the original source)

  • Passing off someone else’s work as your own

  • Failing to put a quotation in quotation marks

  • Quoting, summarising or paraphrasing material in your work without citing the original source

  • Changing words or phrases but copying the sentence structure of a source and not crediting the original author

  • Citing sources you did not use

It is even possible to plagiarise yourself if you paraphrase or copy from work you submitted elsewhere without acknowledging the fact through citation and referencing!


  1. How to avoid plagiarism

The fundamental principle is to acknowledge the work of others by providing citations to your references so that the reader can refer to these and other works if they want. It is also helpful to note the following points:




  • Manage your time and plan your work – ensure you have time to prepare, read and write

  • Use your own ideas and words

  • Use the ideas of others sparingly and only to support or reinforce your own argument

  • When taking notes, include complete reference information for each item you use

  • When using material on the Internet make a note of the source (author, title, URL etc.) and the date that you accessed the page

  • Use quotation marks when directly stating another person’s words and include the source in your list of references. Doing none or only one of these is not acceptable

  • Avoid using someone else’s work with only minor cosmetic changes, e.g. using “strong” for “robust” or changing a sentence around

  • When paraphrasing, use words or a sentence structure different from the original work and acknowledge the source through in-text citation immediately following the paraphrase

  • Save all your notes, printouts, etc. until you receive your final mark or grade for the assignment

  • Remember that your list of references (sources you have cited) at the end of your assignment is not the same as a bibliography which also includes items (books, articles, web pages etc.) that you used for your research but did not cite directly. Remember, ultimate responsibility for avoiding plagiarism rests with you!

Cornwall College uses the Harvard convention for referencing. Even this system has different variants, so you should make careful note of how we have interpreted it here. Any item cited or quoted in the body of your assignment should be listed in the alphabetical reference list at the end of your assignment. Any item you have read for the purpose of completing the assignment, but not quoted from or cited in your assignment should be listed in the alphabetical bibliography but please note, most assignments will NOT require a bibliography.

.


  1. Credibility of references

It is important that you think about the credibility your sources in a critical way. Refereed journals are considered the most credible for up-to-date research and debate. Governmental sources such as the Office of National Statistics provide reliable data, but could have an ideological bias. Certain key texts are always worth including (e.g. Marx, Durkheim or Weber in Sociology, Porter in Business, etc.) often regardless of age due to their influence on the subject. However, if you are talking about the current situation then you need current data.


Be very careful with websites. The internet is a valuable resource, but the status of the material offered is often dubious to say the least. Try to check out the origins of websites, i.e. government departments, other academic institutions (these will have .ac. in the address, but ask yourself, have you heard of it!) etc. Note too, Wikipedia is NOT an acceptable source. Finally think about levels. Why are you quoting from an A Level text on a degree? Look for guidance on the sleeve notes of books as these will often indicate the target audience, e.g. undergraduate, A level etc.

  1. How referencing works

It might help you with your referencing to understand how it works. If somebody is reading your work and comes across a statement of ‘so called’ fact, such as – ‘boys do less well at school than girls’, they may quite rightly ask, ‘how do you know?’. By referencing for e.g. ‘Willis (1977) suggests that boys do less well at school than girls,‘ you will have already responded to that question. Also, they might then respond in their reading in a critical fashion, as I am sure all fine students will and say, ‘hang on, I didn’t think Willis said that; where exactly did they get that information from?’ They can then go straight to your alphabetical list and see your source no problem. If it is a quote or a statistic then the page number provided will allow them to immediately check your assertion.




  1. How many references?

There is no universal answer to the question of how many references but ask yourself – if each paragraph is making a separate point, and each point needs evidence, and evidence is most reliable when it comes from a range of sources – then you could suggest per 2,000 words:

Level 4: 8+

Level 5: 12+

Level 6: 15+
Bear in mind that you should not make statements of so called ‘fact’, without referenced evidence.


  1. How should I set out citations and quotations in my text?

There are 3 main ways of referencing in the body of the text of the report/essay. The following are based on the extract in Example 3 –please read the extract and consider the way the information has been used: 




  1. Using the name or names of the researcher(s). This is always followed by the date of publication of the research. For example:

Miller (2004) is convinced that essay writing is a worthwhile skill that cannot easily be taught.

 


  1. Quoting (sometimes called a citation) as in this example:

Feedback on students’ work is essential to the learning process, as Miller (2004:495) states:

“Practicing writing, and receiving constructive criticism on

these attempts, is an integral part of the learning process”
Points to note: direct quotes always require a page number (495 above) and long ones such as the one above, should be indented. Remember too, statistics as well as words are citations and also require page numbers.

NOTE: quotes should be used sparingly, never more than a sentence or two long and never more than one or two per page (as a rule of thumb!) - otherwise it really does not represent your work.

 


  1. Acknowledging. This is where we make a point which may be supported by evidence in brackets, for example:

Essays provide good evidence of an author’s knowledge (Miller 2004).
Be careful of this one though; it will only refer to the statement immediately before the reference. It is not appropriate to write a whole paragraph, making several important points and believing it is sufficient to stick the reference at the end of the paragraph.

  

Note: Where more than two authors are being referred to for the second time it is acceptable to use Conti et al. (1995) instead of Conti, Malecki and Oinas (1995), which must be used for the first time you use this source.




  1. Referencing Websites, Reports and Newspapers where no author is available:

Be sure to try hard to find the author's name. Alternatively use the name of the organisation as the author's name: e.g. The Guardian (2001), ONS (2002), JRF (2000)

(Where ONS = Office of National Statistics, JRF = Joseph Rowntree Foundation).
(Note: not www.ons.org.uk but ONS (2002) where the date refers to either the date the piece was written or, if this is not known, the date downloaded from the internet)
No other alternative is acceptable. This is why you should avoid referencing dubious websites whose origin cannot be tracked.


  1. How should I set out references in my reference list?


ALL WORK must contain at the end (before appendices) an alphabetical list of the references actually used in the text as evidence for your argument.
This is entitled References and is not included in the word count.
Note that a name should never appear in the body of the text without appearing at the end as a full reference.
Your list of references should be detailed in alphabetical order using the author’s surname first.


Bibliography

This is a list of texts that you have read and used to inform your study, but you have not needed to reference in your assignment. It is not necessary to include a Bibliography in your assignments.




  1. How to write your reference list


The format to follow for a book is:

Surname, Initial (Date) Title in Bold or Italics. (Edition if applicable),

Location of publisher: publisher
Example:

Alcock, P. (2003) Social Policy in Britain (2nd Ed). Basingstoke:

Palgrave Macmillan


  1. Writing a reference for a journal / magazine article:


The format to follow is:

Surname, Initial (Date) Title of article, Journal name in Bold or



in italics, Volume number; Issue number, Pages
Example:

Maginn,C. & Cameron,S. (2006) ‘Are Child Care Professionals

and Teachers doing their jobs?’ Social Caring, 27; 3, 12-13



  1. Writing a reference for a Web Page:

When referencing a web page you include the same details as you would for a book. Further, ensure that you give the full address and date downloaded

Also include the author if known:
Burrows, R. (2000) ‘Home-ownership and poverty in Britain’, www.jrf.org.uk (01/08/10)
Note: in the body of the text it will have said, Burrows (2000). If you didn’t know the author, it would say in the text, JRF (2000) and here, in the alphabetical list it would start, JRF (2000) and then the rest of the reference.
Or from an on-line journal:
Mills, B. K. (1999) ‘Why the Search for a Definition of Rurality

may be a Fool'sErrand,’ POPFEST Online Journal,

'www.cometo/popfest, Vol. 1, No. 2
If the author is unknown -
HMT (2006) ‘Investing for our future: Fairness and opportunity

for Britain's hard-working families,’ HM Treasury,

http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk (20/7/2010)


  1. When you are referencing a text that appears in and is cited by another text:


PREFERABLY OBTAIN, READ AND REFERENCE THE ORIGINAL TEXT.
Failing that, if you are using a reference indirectly (e.g. your reference to Fox comes from Baggott - i.e. you have read Baggott but not Fox) make this clear.
State clearly in the text "as cited by".

For example:

Fox (1989), as cited by Baggott (2000), suggests that…..

This will appear in the reference list as:


Fox, J. (1989) Health Inequalities in European Countries.

Aldershot: Gower

In: Baggott, R. (2000) Public health: Policy and Politics,

Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan




  1. Listing an article or a chapter in an edited book:

Hughes, M. (1997) "Interviewing", In: Greenfield, T. (1997) (Ed)



Research Methods: Guidance for Post Graduates. London:

Arnold



  1. Books with more than one author:

McLaughlin,E., Muncie, J., Hughes, G. (2002) Criminological



Perspectives: Essential Readings, 2nd Edition, London:

Sage/OU


  1. Acceptable Abbreviations

Here are some acceptable abbreviations you can use when referencing:





app. appendix

ed. edition; edited by; editor (plural, eds.)

et al. et alii : Latin for 'and others'

ibid. ibidem : Latin for 'in the same place'. This word can only be used in the next consecutive reference in a list after an earlier reference to the same work. This is particularly useful when using several references cited from the same source.

n.d. no date (of publication known)

n.p. no place (of publication known)

no. number (plural nos.) In America the symbol # is often used

op. cit. opere citato : Latin for 'in the work cited' Again, as with ibid. above, useful when you are using several references cited from the same source. It saves you from writing the whole title out again.

p. page (plural pp. if you have more than one page referred to)

para. paragraph

supp. supplement (plural, supps.)

Trans. translator ; translated by

vol. volume (plural, vols.)

This table was adapted from the following web site -

http://www.stir.ac.uk/infoserv/library/about/general/online/refer.htm (22/3/01)


Section 6.0: Tables and Figures

If your work contains figures (charts, graphs, diagrams, maps, etc.) or tables there are style procedures to follow. All tables and figures should be headed either Table or Figure and numbered sequentially. If the table or figure is from an external source then a reference should be provided at the bottom of the figure. e.g.



Figure 1 - Deductive/Inductive Process


Table 1 - Questionnaire Response Rates

Town

Response to First Mailing

Cumulative Response after Second Mailing

Helston

10%

11%

Truro

8%


9%

Section 7.0: Reports

Reports differ from essays in that they are laid out in a formal numbered structure and are often more descriptive than discursive. Their aim is usually to inform / explain / provide a record / recommend / enable decision making and/or set out procedures.
The contents of a report will vary depending upon the tutor/module/purpose and guidelines will be given to you, but a report will usually include:
Title Page

Executive Summary (a brief statement of who commissioned the report, its aims (terms of reference) and summary of findings - one page only)

List of Contents

List of Tables, List of Figures

Acknowledgements

Terms of Reference (optional - Aims, Objectives and Remit of report clearly stated)

Introduction (What is the aim of the report, why is it important - keep it brief)

Main Body (May include methods of data collection if appropriate)

Conclusions (sum up main findings)

Recommendations (What should the company/manager/staff do next - 'where do we go from here')

Appendices

References
The numbering system begins with each new main heading (e.g. 1.0 Terms of Reference, 2.0 Introduction, etc.). Within each of these sections there can be sub sections (x.1, x.2, etc.) and numbered paragraphs (x.x.1, x.x.2, etc.).
For example:
2.0 Introduction


    1. History of the Situation

      1. The background to this report is grounded in the on going debate surrounding the style and content of reports. This debate has yet to be settled and so the following report aims to bring some clarity to this area of confusion.

      2. Part of the problem stems from the variety of purposes that reports are written to achieve….

If you are set a report for an assignment, please check with the tutor responsible for guidance on the desired format

Section 8.0: Essays
Unlike reports, essays do not have headings and numbering of points. Essays are basically a collection of linked paragraphs and it is important to remember that paragraphs are at the very least two sentences long.
When asked to write an essay, first develop a plan:


  1. Start by thinking about the theme of the essay - what main points do you want to make?

  2. How best can you get to that point/s (it is a bit like an argument)?

  3. You could try - introduction  evidence  summary!

It is important to note that your evidence will come from credible reference sources.




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