Feltham, C. (2010) Critical Thinking in Counselling & Psychotherapy. London: Sage
Mearns, D. & Thorne, B (1994) Developing Person-Centred Counselling London: Sage
Mearns, D. & Cooper, M (2005) Working at Relational Depth London: Sage
Rogers, C. (1951) Client-Centred Therapy London: Constable
Tolan, J (2003) Skills in Person-Centred Counselling & TherapyLondon, Sage
Wyatt, G (2001) CongruenceRoss-on-Wye, PCCS Books
Wyatt, G & Sanders, P. (2002) Contact and PerceptionRoss-on-Wye Books
Eds. M. Cooper, M. O’Hara, P. Schmid, G. Wyatt (2007) The Handbook of Person-Centred Psychotherapy and Counselling. Basingstoke: Palgrave
Wosket, V (1999) The Therapeutic Use of Self: Counselling Practice, Research and Supervision. Routledge: East Sussex UK
APPENDIX 2 SCHOOL OF EDUCATION AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT Academic Guidelines for Students
(Style Guide) 2016-17 Edition
Introduction This guide is intended to be the definitive reference source for essay and report formatting for all courses offered through Cornwall College School of Education and Training and / or University of Plymouth Colleges (UPC) Faculty. These are:
BSc (Hons) Combined Social Sciences
FdA Health & Community Studies
FdSc Healthcare Practice
You should follow the guidance suggested within this booklet when completing all assignment tasks. If you are unclear on any of the points that follow, please be sure to ask for clarification.
We hope you enjoy studying at Cornwall College and find this guide useful. Thank you!
May we begin by warmly welcoming you to the Diploma in Person-Centred Counselling. The College is delighted that you have chosen to study with us. We hope you will be enriched by the programme, and will graduate well equipped to develop your career as a counsellor. 7
Philosophy of the programme 7
2Programme Team 8
3Personal Tutor 8
3.1Plymouth Portal 9
4Programme Details 10
4.1Enhancement Activities 10
4.2Progression through the programme 11
4.3HE Careers Guidance – Cornwall College 11
4.4HE Careers Guidance – Plymouth University 11
5Employment Opportunities 12
6Teaching, Learning and Assessment 12
6.1Referencing Guides 12
7Assessment Schedules and Feedback 13
8Student Feedback 16
8.1Student Representation and Enhancement 16
8.2Student Perception Surveys 16
8.3Closing the Feedback Loop 17
8.4Programme Committee Meetings (PCM) 18
8.6Extenuating Circumstances 18
9.1Programme Specification 20
Programme Title: Diploma in Person Centred Counselling and Therapy 21
Partner Delivering Institution: Plymouth University 21
State Date: September 2016 21
First Award Date: 2018 / 2019 21
Date(s) of Revision(s) to this Document: 31 March 2016/8 September 2016/20 Sept 16 21
PS1. Programme Details 26
Diploma in Person Centred Counselling and Therapy 26
PS2. Brief Description of the Programme 26
PS3. Details of Accreditation by a Professional/Statutory Body (if appropriate) 27
PS4. Exceptions to Plymouth University Regulations 27
Section 1.0: Preparing an assignment Assignments or essays are a very popular form of assessment within Higher Education. Amongst other things, they assess your ability to form a reasoned argument around a given theme. This requires more than listing information or describing situations. Assignment titles are usually given at the beginning of a module to allow time for reading, reflection, and planning. Make sure you take time to read through the assignment title and fully understand it before you start to write!
Unless the module leader advises otherwise, all assignments should be word-processed, be fully referenced in the text and with an alphabetically ordered reference list at the back. It should also include a front sheet, identify the number of words in the assignment and each page should be numbered. Be sure to follow specific instructions in your module guide regarding your assignment, which may include use of a particular font, writing in the 1st or 3rd person or other module specific points to be included.
Before you hand in your work, be sure to proof-read it for spelling, grammatical and referencing errors. It is best to read out loud following the punctuation you have written to help with your sentence structure. When you are word processing, green, squiggly lines may appear under your writing. Don’t ignore them! This suggests there is something wrong. Admittedly American programmes may not adhere to English grammatical formats, but usually those green lines suggest you’ve not written a sentence (it will say, ‘fragment’) or that your sentence is too long, so break it down.
Be sure to note too that a paragraph can be defined as, ‘a group of sentences arranged around a theme’. There’s a clue there; ‘a group of sentences’ it says. Do not write short, one sentence paragraphs. Even this paragraph, though it is shorter than the rest on this page, has more than one sentence and as you can see is gathered around the theme of ‘writing paragraphs’.
You should fasten the pages together, with a paper clip rather than a staple to allow for photocopying later. Do not place individual pages of an assignment into separate plastic sleeves; one plastic sleeve for the whole assignment is sufficient.
It is essential that you keep a separate copy of your work electronically. This is because you may be asked to submit your essay in this format in order for us to subject it to our plagiarism software. You should also keep the receipt from the office for work handed in as it is possible for work to be mislaid.
Please note that by submitting work to be assessed, you are agreeing to the statement below: “Students agree that by taking this course all required papers may be subject to submission for textual similarity review to iParadigms for the detection of plagiarism. All submitted papers will be included as source documents in the iParadigms reference database solely for the purpose of detecting plagiarism of such papers. Use of the Turnitin UK service shall be subject to such Terms and Conditions of Use as may be agreed by iParadigms and the Institution from time to time and posted on the Turnitin UK site.”
Section 2.0: Presenting work Assignments are usually the product of many hours of hard work: poor presentation can spoil an otherwise excellent piece of work and you will lose marks if your work is not neatly presented or is unintelligible.
Normally, when presenting work for submission and marking, you should include the following:
Your work should include your name and your student number.
The front sheet of your essay or report should be at the back of the module handbook. Please use this sheet or a copy.
In the case of an essay, a contents page is not required. You should merely write out the title of the essay in full. However, if the assignment is a report, you should prepare it using a number of headings. Each heading and its corresponding page number should be listed below the title - Contents. Where appropriate this should be followed by a list of tables under the heading - Tables and a list of figures under the heading - Figures.
Table 1: Population below Average Income…...……………..… 2
Table 2: Distribution of Earnings..………………...………….……… 7
Figure 1: Chart of Income Distribution..……………………………4
Figure 1: Model of Population Change..………………………… 12
Microsoft Word has a built in feature that will construct these automatically and save you time. (Check with an I.T. tutor if you are unsure how to use it).
Section 3.0: Writing Style Academic essays should take the form of a reasoned argument. You should attempt to persuade the reader that the line of argument adopted is justified. It is therefore vital to support your argument with referenced evidence. Remember that the success of a piece of work usually depends on the persuasiveness of the argument.
A clear argument requires an initial statement of the stance that is to be adopted. In practice, this may involve some comment on how the question is to be interpreted, what kind of information is pertinent and why it is pertinent. An introductory paragraph to an essay which addresses the key issues in the question and guides the reader to where the argument is leading, provides a clearer answer than one that immediately launches into the subject matter.
Essay plans are essential in developing themes and ensuring that all points made in an argument are clarified and have significance. Plans also ensure that all relevant points are covered and prevent the argument from appearing disjointed, confused or incomplete. Use Appendix 2 to make sure you know what is required.
It is generally unacceptable to identify gender. This can be avoided in several ways, but if it is felt necessary it is possible to write, ‘(s)he…’ The only exceptions to these rules may be if you are asked to write a personal diary or a piece of reflective writing.
In all cases the point you are making should be supported by legitimate academic references (see section 6.0).
Section 4.0: Format of Text Module leaders may make specific requests for the way your assignment should be formatted, including the use of a particular font or line spacing – please be sure to check your module guide or assignment brief for these instructions.
In most instances, the following points of style are accepted:
Font Style - Times New Roman, Arial or close equivalent
Font Size - 12 point for main text, 10 point for footnotes, no less than 10 point for tables
Line Spacing - single or 1.5 except for dissertations which should be double-spaced
Indentation - no greater than 2.6 top and bottom 3.2 left and right margins
Justification - Main text justified left and right
Page Numbers - Bottom centre of every page
Footers – along with the page numbers, students should put their student number in the footer so that it appears on every page should it become detached during photocopying/marking.
Print on one side of the page only and use black ink Section 5.0: Referencing and how to avoid plagiarism Much of the following is extracted from:
Pears, R. & Shields, G. (2009) Cite Them Right: The Essential Referencing Guide. Durham: Pear Tree Books).
This is available in the Learning Centre.
The ability to present your ideas to other people is a key lifelong skill. It calls for time and practice to gather information, assess its relevance to your task, read and form your opinions and then share your contribution, verbally or in writing, with others. Within the process of researching and presenting your own work is another key skill: how to represent what you have learned from earlier authors.
When writing a piece of work, whether essay, seminar paper, dissertation, project or article, it is essential that detailed and precise information on all sources consulted is included in your text and in the reference list at the end of your work. This allows the reader to locate the information used and to check, if necessary, the evidence on which your discussion or argument is based.
References should, therefore, enable the user to find the source of documents as quickly and easily as possible. You need to identify these documents by citing them in the text of your assignment (called citations or in-text citations) and referencing them at the end of your assignment (called the reference list or end-text citations). The reference list only includes sources cited in the text of your assignment as in-text citations. It is not the same thing as a bibliography, which uses the dame format or reference system as a reference list, but also includes all material used in the preparation of your work.
Why should I cite and reference sources?
Besides the reasons given above, there are a number of other important reasons why you should cite and reference your sources. In addition to adding weight to your discussion and arguments, references also show that you have read widely on the subject and considered and analysed the writings of others. Appropriately used, references can strengthen your writing and can help you attain a better mark or grade.
They can also:
Show your tutor/reader what you have read and allow them to appreciate your contribution to the subject
Establish the credibility and authority of your ideas and arguments
Demonstrate that you have spent time in locating, reading and analyzing material and formed your own views and opinions
What is plagiarism?
Plagiarism is a specific form of cheating and is generally defined as presenting someone else’s work or ideas as your own. These works or ideas may be in printed or electronic format and, in all cases, giving credit to the original authors by citing and referencing your sources is the only way to use other people’s work without plagiarising.
All of the following are considered forms of plagiarism:
Using another person’s work or ideas (for example, copying and pasting text or images from the Internet) without crediting (citing) the original source)
Quoting, summarising or paraphrasing material in your work without citing the original source
Changing words or phrases but copying the sentence structure of a source and not crediting the original author
Citing sources you did not use
It is even possible to plagiarise yourself if you paraphrase or copy from work you submitted elsewhere without acknowledging the fact through citation and referencing!
How to avoid plagiarism
The fundamental principle is to acknowledge the work of others by providing citations to your references so that the reader can refer to these and other works if they want. It is also helpful to note the following points:
Manage your time and plan your work – ensure you have time to prepare, read and write
Use your own ideas and words
Use the ideas of others sparingly and only to support or reinforce your own argument
When taking notes, include complete reference information for each item you use
When using material on the Internet make a note of the source (author, title, URL etc.) and the date that you accessed the page
Use quotation marks when directly stating another person’s words and include the source in your list of references. Doing none or only one of these is not acceptable
Avoid using someone else’s work with only minor cosmetic changes, e.g. using “strong” for “robust” or changing a sentence around
When paraphrasing, use words or a sentence structure different from the original work and acknowledge the source through in-text citation immediately following the paraphrase
Save all your notes, printouts, etc. until you receive your final mark or grade for the assignment
Remember that your list of references (sources you have cited) at the end of your assignment is not the same as a bibliography which also includes items (books, articles, web pages etc.) that you used for your research but did not cite directly. Remember, ultimate responsibility for avoiding plagiarism rests with you!
Cornwall College uses the Harvard convention for referencing. Even this system has different variants, so you should make careful note of how we have interpreted it here. Any item cited or quoted in the body of your assignment should be listed in the alphabetical reference list at the end of your assignment. Any item you have read for the purpose of completing the assignment, but not quoted from or cited in your assignment should be listed in the alphabetical bibliography but please note, most assignments will NOT require a bibliography.
Credibility of references
It is important that you think about the credibility your sources in a critical way. Refereed journals are considered the most credible for up-to-date research and debate. Governmental sources such as the Office of National Statistics provide reliable data, but could have an ideological bias. Certain key texts are always worth including (e.g. Marx, Durkheim or Weber in Sociology, Porter in Business, etc.) often regardless of age due to their influence on the subject. However, if you are talking about the current situation then you need current data.
Be very careful with websites. The internet is a valuable resource, but the status of the material offered is often dubious to say the least. Try to check out the origins of websites, i.e. government departments, other academic institutions (these will have .ac. in the address, but ask yourself, have you heard of it!) etc. Note too, Wikipedia is NOT an acceptable source. Finally think about levels. Why are you quoting from an A Level text on a degree? Look for guidance on the sleeve notes of books as these will often indicate the target audience, e.g. undergraduate, A level etc.
How referencing works
It might help you with your referencing to understand how it works. If somebody is reading your work and comes across a statement of ‘so called’ fact, such as – ‘boys do less well at school than girls’, they may quite rightly ask, ‘how do you know?’. By referencing for e.g. ‘Willis (1977) suggests that boys do less well at school than girls,‘ you will have already responded to that question. Also, they might then respond in their reading in a critical fashion, as I am sure all fine students will and say, ‘hang on, I didn’t think Willis said that; where exactly did they get that information from?’ They can then go straight to your alphabetical list and see your source no problem. If it is a quote or a statistic then the page number provided will allow them to immediately check your assertion.
How many references?
There is no universal answer to the question of how many references but ask yourself – if each paragraph is making a separate point, and each point needs evidence, and evidence is most reliable when it comes from a range of sources – then you could suggest per 2,000 words:
Level 4: 8+
Level 5: 12+
Level 6: 15+
Bear in mind that you should not make statements of so called ‘fact’, without referenced evidence.
How should I set out citations and quotations in my text?
There are 3 main ways of referencing in the body of the text of the report/essay. The following are based on the extract in Example 3 –please read the extract and consider the way the information has been used:
Using the name or names of the researcher(s). This is always followed by the date of publication of the research. For example:
Miller (2004) is convinced that essay writing is a worthwhile skill that cannot easily be taught.
Quoting (sometimes called a citation) as in this example:
Feedback on students’ work is essential to the learning process, as Miller (2004:495) states:
“Practicing writing, and receiving constructive criticism on
these attempts, is an integral part of the learning process”
Points to note: direct quotes always require a page number (495 above) and long ones such as the one above, should be indented. Remember too, statistics as well as words are citations and also require page numbers.
NOTE: quotes should be used sparingly, never more than a sentence or two long and never more than one or two per page (as a rule of thumb!) - otherwise it really does not represent your work.
Acknowledging. This is where we make a point which may be supported by evidence in brackets, for example:
Essays provide good evidence of an author’s knowledge (Miller 2004).
Be careful of this one though; it will only refer to the statement immediately before the reference. It is not appropriate to write a whole paragraph, making several important points and believing it is sufficient to stick the reference at the end of the paragraph.
Note: Where more than two authors are being referred to for the second time it is acceptable to use Conti et al. (1995) instead of Conti, Malecki and Oinas (1995), which must be used for the first time you use this source.
Referencing Websites, Reports and Newspapers where no author is available:
Be sure to try hard to find the author's name. Alternatively use the name of the organisation as the author's name: e.g. The Guardian (2001), ONS (2002), JRF (2000)
(Where ONS = Office of National Statistics, JRF = Joseph Rowntree Foundation).
(Note: not www.ons.org.uk but ONS (2002) where the date refers to either the date the piece was written or, if this is not known, the date downloaded from the internet)
No other alternative is acceptable. This is why you should avoid referencing dubious websites whose origin cannot be tracked.
How should I set out references in my reference list?
ALL WORK must contain at the end (before appendices) an alphabetical list of the references actually used in the text as evidence for your argument.
This is entitled References and is not included in the word count.
Note that a name should never appear in the body of the text without appearing at the end as a full reference.
Your list of references should be detailed in alphabetical order using the author’s surname first.
This is a list of texts that you have read and used to inform your study, but you have not needed to reference in your assignment. It is not necessary to include a Bibliography in your assignments.
How to write your reference list
The format to follow for a book is:
Surname, Initial (Date) Title in Bold or Italics. (Edition if applicable),
Location of publisher: publisher
Alcock, P. (2003) Social Policy in Britain(2nd Ed). Basingstoke:
Writing a reference for a journal / magazine article:
The format to follow is:
Surname, Initial (Date) Title of article, Journal name in Bold or
in italics,Volume number; Issue number, Pages
and Teachers doing their jobs?’ Social Caring, 27; 3, 12-13
Writing a reference for a Web Page:
When referencing a web page you include the same details as you would for a book. Further, ensure that you give the full address and date downloaded
Also include the author if known:
Burrows, R. (2000) ‘Home-ownership and poverty in Britain’, www.jrf.org.uk (01/08/10)
Note: in the body of the text it will have said, Burrows (2000). If you didn’t know the author, it would say in the text, JRF (2000) and here, in the alphabetical list it would start, JRF (2000) and then the rest of the reference. Or from an on-line journal:
Mills, B. K. (1999) ‘Why the Search for a Definition of Rurality
may be a Fool'sErrand,’ POPFESTOnline Journal,
'www.cometo/popfest, Vol. 1, No. 2
If the author is unknown -
HMT (2006) ‘Investing for our future: Fairness and opportunity
for Britain's hard-working families,’ HM Treasury,
When you are referencing a text that appears in and is cited by another text:
PREFERABLY OBTAIN, READ AND REFERENCE THE ORIGINAL TEXT. Failing that, if you are using a reference indirectly (e.g. your reference to Fox comes from Baggott - i.e. you have read Baggott but not Fox) make this clear.
State clearly in the text "as cited by".
Fox (1989), as cited by Baggott (2000), suggests that…..
This will appear in the reference list as:
Fox, J. (1989) Health Inequalities in European Countries.
In: Baggott, R. (2000) Public health: Policy and Politics,
Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan
Listing an article or a chapter in an edited book:
Hughes, M. (1997) "Interviewing", In: Greenfield, T. (1997) (Ed)
ResearchMethods: Guidance for Post Graduates. London:
Books with more than one author:
McLaughlin,E., Muncie, J., Hughes, G. (2002) Criminological
Here are some acceptable abbreviations you can use when referencing:
ed. edition; edited by; editor (plural, eds.)
et al. et alii : Latin for 'and others'
ibid. ibidem : Latin for 'in the same place'. This word can only be used in the next consecutive reference in a list after an earlier reference to the same work. This is particularly useful when using several references cited from the same source.
n.d. no date (of publication known)
n.p. no place (of publication known)
no. number (plural nos.) In America the symbol # is often used
op. cit. opere citato : Latin for 'in the work cited' Again, as with ibid. above, useful when you are using several references cited from the same source. It saves you from writing the whole title out again.
p. page (plural pp. if you have more than one page referred to)
supp. supplement (plural, supps.)
Trans. translator ; translated by
vol. volume (plural, vols.)
This table was adapted from the following web site -
If your work contains figures (charts, graphs, diagrams, maps, etc.) or tables there are style procedures to follow. All tables and figures should be headed either Table or Figure and numbered sequentially. If the table or figure is from an external source then a reference should be provided at the bottom of the figure. e.g.
Figure 1 - Deductive/Inductive Process
Table 1 - Questionnaire Response Rates
Response to First Mailing
Cumulative Response after Second Mailing
Section 7.0: Reports
Reports differ from essays in that they are laid out in a formal numbered structure and are often more descriptive than discursive. Their aim is usually to inform / explain / provide a record / recommend / enable decision making and/or set out procedures.
The contents of a report will vary depending upon the tutor/module/purpose and guidelines will be given to you, but a report will usually include:
Executive Summary (a brief statement of who commissioned the report, its aims (terms of reference) and summary of findings - one page only)
List of Contents
List of Tables, List of Figures
Terms of Reference (optional - Aims, Objectives and Remit of report clearly stated)
Introduction (What is the aim of the report, why is it important - keep it brief)
Main Body (May include methods of data collection if appropriate)
Conclusions (sum up main findings)
Recommendations (What should the company/manager/staff do next - 'where do we go from here')
References The numbering system begins with each new main heading (e.g. 1.0 Terms of Reference, 2.0 Introduction, etc.). Within each of these sections there can be sub sections (x.1, x.2, etc.) and numbered paragraphs (x.x.1, x.x.2, etc.).
History of the Situation
The background to this report is grounded in the on going debate surrounding the style and content of reports. This debate has yet to be settled and so the following report aims to bring some clarity to this area of confusion.
Part of the problem stems from the variety of purposes that reports are written to achieve….
If you are set a report for an assignment, please check with the tutor responsible for guidance on the desired format
Section 8.0: Essays Unlike reports, essays do not have headings and numbering of points. Essays are basically a collection of linked paragraphs and it is important to remember that paragraphs are at the very least two sentences long.
When asked to write an essay, first develop a plan:
Start by thinking about the theme of the essay - what main points do you want to make?
How best can you get to that point/s (it is a bit like an argument)?
You could try - introduction evidence summary!
It is important to note that your evidence will come from credible reference sources.