Pie in the sky



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PIE IN THE SKY

Ann Hardman (BYU SFL 110) -- State FACS Conference, 2011



Background Information, Standards and Objectives

STANDARD FN II-7.0

Demonstrate food preparation techniques and nutrition of yeast breads and pastries.
To make pastry that is tender and flakey, you must use correct ingredients, measure them correctly, and follow the written instructions.
1. Stir flour, then lightly spoon into the correct measuring cup(s). Level.

2. Combine the flour and salt.

3. “Cut-in” the shortening until the mixture is about the size of a large pea.

(If your handle it too much here, the dough may become sticky.)

4. Add half the liquid. Gently stir and press the water and flour together, adding small amounts of the remaining liquid until a ball of dough forms.

5. Gather and press dough together with your hands, and flatten it into a disc to make rolling the correct size and shape easier.


Handle the dough as gently as possible. Gluten develops when the flour is moistened and stirred. It provides a structure that traps steam during baking, and helps make the pastry flakey.
Be careful not to over mix when adding the liquid. After adding liquid, just press the ingredients together to moisten the flour rather than mixing and developing gluten.
Using the rolling pin too vigorously will also develop too much gluten. Try pounding your disc with the rolling pin to flatten it a little before beginning to roll it out.
The dough actually needs to stick just slightly to the board when rolling out so the disk can expand. Sprinkle just a little bread flour on the work surface and rolling pin. Bread flour has more protein and less starch and is not as easily absorbed to dry and toughen the dough.
Another way to roll pie crust is to place the ball of dough between two sheets of plastic wrap, flatten it into a disc, and then roll it out. When it is the right size, remove the plastic from one side, pick the crust up and transfer it to the pie plate. Press it into place, and then remove the second sheet of plastic.

Objective 5: Identify and prepare pies/tarts (pie shell, single, double).
One Crust Pie:
Roll the pastry 2 inches bigger than the pie pan. Fold it in half, and transfer the crust.

Cut the excess crust to about one inch beyond the edge. Fold the pastry under. Flute the edge.


Fill and Bake: Pour in filling, and bake as directed in the recipe for the filling. (Custard,

Pecan, French Apple etc.)


Baked crust: Prick the bottom and sides of the crust thoroughly with a fork. Bake 450 for 8 to 10 minutes. If you do not prick the crust, steam will cause the bottom and sides to puff up. Check during baking. If you must, open the oven and re-prick the dough before it bakes in that position.
Two Crust Pie:
Double the recipe, being careful not to add too much water.

Divide in half, with the bottom crust’s ball being slightly larger than the top crust’s ball.

Roll out the bottom crust. It must be large enough to fit the bottom and sides of the pan + 1-2”.

Press the pastry into the pie pan and trim to 1/2 inch beyond the edge.

Fill the crust, and then roll the second round of dough 1 to 2” bigger than the top of the pan.

Place the crust over the filling. Trim the overhanging edge to 1 inch beyond the rim of the pan.

Position the top edge over the edge of the bottom crust and press to seal them together. Next tuck the top crust under the bottom crust and pinch up to create a raised edge.

Flute the edge by pinching or twisting with your fingers, or by pressing the edge with a fork.

Cut slits so steam can escape. Bake as directed in the recipe. (You may cover the edge with a collar made with strips of foil, to prevent burning. Remove it the last 15 minutes.)
Lattice Crust:
Prepare the bottom crust as if making a two crust pie. Fill the crust.

Roll the top crust into a 12” circle. Cut the pastry into 1/2" strips

Weave the strips over the filling to make a lattice.

Press the strip ends into the rim of the bottom crust for an initial seal.

Fold the bottom crust up and over the strips. Pinch to raise the edge.

Flute to seal the edges, and bake as directed on the recipe.


Tart Shell:
A tart is an open-faced European cousin to pie. Tarts are made with “short dough”,

which refers to a shell that has been shortened with fat, and provides a more tender, sweetened product with a higher percentage of tenderizers and stabilizers than pie crust.

Short dough contains 3 parts flour, 2 parts butter, 1 part sugar, and eggs.

It is rolled, and then pressed into a tart pan – usually shallow with fluted sides.



The filling is traditionally not too sweet, such as arranged fruit brushed with a glaze.

Objective 6: Identify main ingredients and their functions.
A. Flour – provides structure to baked products.
General Function: The protein in wheat forms gluten and gives structure to baked goods. It must be activated by adding liquid to the flour, and developed by a mechanical action (kneading). The starch in flour absorbs moisture in the baking process. It swells and gelatinizes as it cooks, and forms the crumbs that fill in the gluten’s honeycomb structure. Flour also adds nutrition in the form of protein, fiber and B vitamins.
Function in Pastry: To create flaky pastry, low protein flour must be used. Pastry flour is made of soft wheat, and makes a more tender pastry. If pastry flour is not available, a combination of 1 part all-purpose flour and 2 parts cake flour gives similar results.

B. Fat : -- A number of fats can be used in pastry. They each have distinct characteristics.
General Function: Fat surrounds the flour molecules and prevents too much water from coming in contact with the flour and forming excess gluten. Fat is called shortening because it “shortens” the strands of gluten.
Function in Pastry: Fats provide a flaky, tender texture, add some flavor, and aid in browning. The fat in pastry should be chilled and in approximately 1/4” pieces when cut into the flour. This keeps the dough from becoming sticky and pasty. (There should be a slightly visible marbled effect when the dough is ready to roll out.)

C. Salt: -- Add salt to the flour to complete the dry ingredients.
Function: Salt adds flavor, and enhances the flavor of other ingredients.

D. Water: -- The liquid used to make pastry should be very cold to prevent softening the fat.
Function: Water (or other liquid) moistens the dry ingredients and binds them together to form dough. The amount will vary because of the absorptive properties of flour. On a humid day, flour will absorb moisture from the air and require less liquid. On a dry day, more liquid might be required. Always add half of the required liquid. Pat or fold the dough together. Add more liquid (1-2 Tablespoons at a time) as needed to achieve the proper consistency.

Objective 7: Storage and Handling of pastries.
A. Cream and custard pies must be refrigerated.
Refrigeration helps establish and set the structure of cream and custard pies.
Cream pies provide an excellent environment for pathogen growth. It is necessary to keep these pies colder than 41 degrees for food safety.
B. . Fruit or Savory pies must be refrigerated.
Fruit and savory pies may also provide an excellent environment for pathogen growth. The acid content of some fillings may inhibit food borne illness to an extent. However, it is still important to keep these pies colder than 41 degrees for food safety.

Long term Storage – Freezing:
Pastry to be Stored Suggested Time to Bake or Serve

  • Pie Shells: Baked = 4 months Heat at 350° for 6 min.

Unbaked = 2 months Bake directly from freezer

  • Fruit pies: Bake first = 4-6 months Thaw, or warm 325° 45 min.

Unbaked = 2-3 months 475° 15 min. then 375° 45 min.

  • Custard, Cream or Meringue Pies = DO NOT Freeze!!! They curdle and separate

  • Chiffon Pies = 1 month Thaw 2-4 hours at rm. temp.




  • Freeze pies first, and then seal in foil or plastic wrap, label, and return to the freezer.


Fun Stuff – Flavored Pastry
Add one of the following to the flour before mixing:

  • 1 t. cinnamon

  • 1 ½ t. citrus peel

  • 2 T. finely chopped nuts

  • 1 t. celery seed


Fun Stuff – Garnishes


  • Place a doily or stencil on top of pie. Sprinkle with powdered sugar, cocoa powder or ground nuts.

  • Drizzle syrup on the plate before placing pie on it, or place pie on the plate, and drizzle over pie and plate.

  • Blend fruit and pour a thin layer of “sauce” on the plate. Drop chocolate syrup or heavy cream at intervals, and drag a knife blade through the dots to “Sauce Paint”.

  • Pastry cut-outs can be placed on, or around the edge of an un-cooked shell. They may also be baked at 450° for up to 10 minutes, and arranged on top of a cooked pastry.

PIE IN THE SKY

Ann Hardman (BYU SFL 110) -- State FACS Conference, 2011


Lesson Plan / Outline

Introduction, Demonstration and Experiment: (1 or 2 Days, depending on schedule)
1. Have students take out a sheet of paper. Ask them to write down the first thing that comes into their mind when you say the word (– pencils ready???) “PIE!”

Go quickly around the class and have every student read what they wrote.

Most of us have some sort of a relationship with pie. Ask for comments.
2. Give students two or three minutes to make a list of as many types of pie they can.

When the writing slows down say “STOP”, and have students count the items on their lists. The student with the longest list may read theirs to the class, and receive a small reward. (a special recipe, or mini pie?)


3. Ask if anyone has ever made a pie. What advice would they give to the other members of the class?
4. We are beginning our pastry unit. This means that we will be making and sampling different kinds of pie. With some types of food, the chef may make adjustments to use the ingredients on hand or accommodate taste. With pastry, as with most baked products, there is a specific ratio of ingredients. It is important that you, as the chef, follow your recipe exactly, and that you ask any questions you may have during our demonstration, and in your pastry labs BEFORE you make a decision you aren’t sure of.
Demonstrate the techniques required to make pastry. Point out vocabulary as you demo:

(You may also use a video clip showing pastry being correctly made, and add comments.)


1. Use a recipe you have made before and are comfortable with.
2. Use proper measuring techniques:
Flour = Stir the flour, lightly spoon it to just above the top of your dry measuring cup, use a straight edge to level. Put in a large mixing bowl.
Salt = Measure, and stir into the flour.
Fat = Line a dry measuring cup with plastic wrap. Spoon the fat to the rim of the cup, being sure to press it firmly into all corners of the cup. Level. Lift the plastic wrap out of the cup. Invert and press shortening out into the flour.
Liquid = Use a liquid measuring cup. Ask why this particular cup is for liquids (spout, handle, header space at the top, clear glass or plastic). Place the cup on a flat surface, measure the full amount called for in the recipe and have it ready. (Do not add it all at once.) Check the measurement at eye level.

3. Cut shortening into the flour. Explain that you have one piece of shortening, and a pastry blender that has five blades. With the first cut you now have five pieces of fat. They will each be coated with flour, and will never go back together again. With the second cut you have 5 pieces cut by 5 blades, or 25 pieces. Each of these pieces will be coated with flour and stay separate. This continues until the shortening is incorporated, with pieces being about the size of a large pea. Each cut interrupts the protein in the flour, so when liquid is added, the strands of gluten will be “shorter” when they form, and the dough will be more tender.


4. Sprinkle half of the cold water over flour mixture, tossing lightly and pressing together

with a fork or rubber scraper. Add the remaining water 1-2 Tablespoons at a time, tossing and

pressing to the side of the bowl until all dry ingredients are moistened.
5. Gather dough together and form a ball. Flatten slightly
6. Roll the dough out on the counter or between two sheets of plastic wrap. Use the technique you are most comfortable with. Transfer the crust to a pie pan. (Fold the dough in half, then quarters, roll around a rolling pin, etc.) Press into corners. Any air pockets can be pressed out using a small ball of dough. Follow the instructions on the recipe for the type of pie you will be making.
7. Ask pop questions about the demo to reinforce the students’ understanding of the process. “Toss a tootsie roll” to students with the first correct answers.
8. Introduce the pastry experiment. Each kitchen will make the same recipe, but each will be using a different fat. They will cut out enough do-nut hole size pieces for each class member and the teacher. They will prick them, bake them, and distribute them to each kitchen for evaluation.
9. Students will sample each pastry type and complete their evaluation. As a kitchen, they will then select the type of fat they will use in their next pastry lab. (The teacher may choose the fat for any additional labs.)
10. If there is time, ask students for feedback. Keep a tally on the board or have students form a human graph by standing in groups according to their preference. Have groups name 3 to 5 reasons their fat choice was the better than the others.


Pie Days
If possible, use a glass pie plate. Dark metal absorbs heat. Shiny metal reflects heat. Glass allows the heat to penetrate the pan, and cook the bottom crust more thoroughly.
Your schedule will determine what you are able to do with your pastry labs. The state core asks for a one crust pie and a double crust pie. If necessary, you can save time by making a triple batch of dough and form three discs at one time. They may be chilled from one to four days.
***Choose enough recipes that kitchens can share with each other to sample all recipes.

Double Crust Pie Day(s)
Each kitchen will make an apple pie. They may choose whether to make a double crust or lattice crust pie.
The baking time for the apple pie is 55 minutes. Count backwards when making your time plan to determine the amount of preparation time available. This lab might need to be divided

into two lab periods.



Single Crust Pie Day(s)
You may choose the recipes your classes will make, or offer controlled choices and allow groups to select the pies they want to make.
A “bake and fill” pie can be made in one day, and left to chill overnight.
A “fill and bake pie” needs to be timed carefully. When filling out your time-line, count backwards as you would for a two crust pie to determine if you have time to complete it in one class period. You might choose to make and refrigerate the crust and filling separately, then fill and bake the pie the second day. Do not fill the pie and let it sit overnight in the refrigerator before cooking. The crust will be affected by the moisture.

Possible Time-line: (3 to 5 days -- Adjust according to your class schedule.)
Day 1 Introduction and demonstration (May use a video demonstration)

Pastry experiment and lab planning day

Day 2 Make triple batch of pastry. Form three discs. Wrap and chill two of the discs.

Make the single crust pie, cover and chill

Day 3 Make two crust pie. When it is in the oven, eat and evaluate the single crust pie.

Day 4 Eat and evaluate the apple pie. Complete the unit evaluation and unit quiz.



Name _________________ Class ________ Date ____________ Score ______


PASTRY EVALUATION



FAT

COLOR

FLAVOR

TEXTURE

RATE 1-7

Crisco















Butter –flavor Crisco











Generic Shortening















Margarine















Oil















Butter















Lard
















Use descriptive words such as these:
Color: white, pasty, light golden brown, golden brown, medium, dark,

burned, mottled, or a combination of words.


Flavor: mild, medium, strong, buttery, etc.
Texture: Tender, flakey, greasy, mealy, lumpy, tough, rubbery, soggy
Standard Pastry


Ingredient

Single crust

Double crust

Ingredient

Single crust

Double crust

Flour

1 ¼ C.

2 ½ C.

Shortening

3/8 C.

3/4 C.

Salt

3/8 tsp.

3/4 tsp.

Ice Water

4-5 Tbsp.

8-10 Tbsp.

1. Combine flour and salt in a mixing bowl.

2. Gently cut in shortening with a pastry blender until pea sized.

3. Sprinkle 6 tablespoons of the cold water over flour mixture, tossing lightly with a fork or rubber scraper. Add the remaining water 1 tablespoon at a time, tossing with a fork, and press to the side of the bowl until all is moistened.

4. Divide dough in half, and gently pat into 2 lightly flattened balls. (Don’t over-work your dough at this point. You should just gently gather the dough and form into two slightly flattened pieces, not two tightly compressed dough balls.)
5. For a 1-crust pie: (This recipe makes 2 single shells)
On a lightly floured surface, roll one disc from center to edges, to form a 12” circle. Fold in half or roll the pastry around the rolling pin. Unfold or unroll it over a 9” pie plate. Ease the pastry into the plate, and, using kitchen shears, trim the dough so that there is a 1/2" to 1”overhang of pie dough. Tuck the overhang under, pinch to create a slightly raised edge, and finish by fluting. Prick the bottom and edges before baking an unfilled pie shell. Do not prick the dough if you plan to fill the crust before baking it.
6. For a 2-crust pie:
Bottom - On a lightly floured surface, roll one ball from center to edges, to form a 12” circle. Fold in half or roll the pastry around the rolling pin. Unfold or unroll it over a 9” pie plate. Ease the pastry into the plate, and, using kitchen shears, trim the dough so that there is a one-inch overhang of pie dough. Fill the crust with the desired filling.

Top - On a lightly floured surface, roll the second ball from center to edges, to form a 12” circle. Place the top crust on the filling, and cut slits or shapes to allow steam to escape. Using kitchen shears, trim the pastry one inch beyond the rim. Fold the top edge over the trimmed bottom edge, and flute the edge to seal.

Bake pie as directed.


7. For a lattice top pie:
Bottom – Prepare bottom crust as for a two crust pie. Fill with the desired filling.

Top - On a lightly floured surface, roll the second ball from center edges, to form a 12” circle. Using a pizza cutter, cut the pastry in 1/2” strips. Starting at the center of the pie, weave the strips over the filling to make a lattice. Press the ends of the strips into the rim of the bottom crust. Fold the bottom crust over the strips, and flute the edge to seal.

Bake pie as directed.

Double Crust Pie Recipe
Homemade Apple Pie

One recipe Standard Pastry

Filling

6 C. prepared baking apples (peeled, cored, and sliced)

3/4 C. packed brown sugar

2 Tbsp. flour

1/4 tsp. ground nutmeg

1/2 tsp. cinnamon

1/8 tsp. salt
To use on completed crust 2-3 Tbsp. milk

sugar
1. Preheat your oven to 425.


2. In a mixing bowl, combine brown sugar, flour, nutmeg, cinnamon and salt.
3. Peel, core and thinly slice (1/8”) apples and set them aside. It is okay if the apples brown a little. The cinnamon and baking process will adapt the color. When the crust is ready, add apples to cinnamon mixture and toss to coat. (If you do this early the apples will juice and the bottom crust will become soggy.)
4. Pour filling into the prepared bottom crust. Press to compact the apples.
5. Place top crust over filling as directed above. Brush the crust with milk, and sprinkle with sugar.
6. Fold a 12” square of aluminum foil into quarters. Cut out the center section, making a

7 ½” circle. Unfold the foil and place the square section over the pie. You may also use a long strip of foil, 5 inches wide, to wrap around the edge of the pie. When placing the foil on the pie, place the shiny side out to reflect the heat away from the crust. Loosely mold the foil over the edges to protect them from burning.


7. Bake for 35 minutes. Remove foil, and bake for 15 to 20 minutes more until the crust is golden and the filling is bubbly.
NOTE: You may want to place the pie on a baking sheet to protect the bottom of your oven from the molten syrup in case it spills out of the pie during baking.

Single Crust Pie Recipes

Lemon Meringue Pie
One 9” pie crust 1 ½ C. water

1 C. sugar 4 egg yolks

1/3 C. corn starch ½ C. lemon juice

1/8 tsp. salt 1 Tbsp. lemon zest 2 Tbsp. margarine 1/4 tsp. cream of tartar


1. Prepare and bake one 9” pie crust.

2. In a saucepan, combine 1 cup sugar, cornstarch and salt. Stir in water.

3. Cook and stir over medium heat until mixture thickens and boils.

4. Boil 1 minute, then remove from heat.

5. Whisk egg yolks in a bowl.

6. Stir in a small amount of the hot sugar mixture to warm the eggs.

7. Slowly stir the egg yolk mixture back into the sugar mixture.

8. Stir in lemon juice. Cook and stir until mixture is very thick.

9. Stir in margarine and lemon zest. Pour into prepared crust. Cool
Soft Meringue
4 egg whites 1/2 C. sugar

1/4 tsp. cream of tartar


1. Beat egg whites and cream of tartar at high speed until soft peaks form.

2. Gradually beat in sugar until stiff.

3. Spread over warm filling to the edge of the crust.

4. Bake at 400° for 7 to 9 minutes until meringue is golden.

5. Cool on a rack, away from any draft.

6. Chill until serving time.



Key Lime Pie
4 large egg yolks 1 or 2 drops green food coloring

1 can sweetened condensed milk 1 ½ C. sweetened whipped cream

1/2 C. fresh or bottled key lime juice
1. Pre-heat oven to 375°. (425° if making a pastry crust, then turn temperature down)

2. Prepare the crust = For a graham cracker crust – Prepare but Do Not bake.

For pastry = Line pan with pastry. Bake at 425° until it barely starts to brown (5-10 min.)

3. Beat egg yolks, milk, lime juice and food coloring 1 minute with an electric mixer.

4. Pour into unbaked pie crust. Bake14 to 16 minutes, until crust is done and center is set.

5. Cool, the cover and refrigerate 2 hours or up to 3 days.

6. Serve with whipped cream

Vanilla Cream Pie

Basic Recipe


Pastry for a 9” pie

4 large egg yolks 3 C. milk

2/3 C. sugar 2 Tbsp. butter or margarine

1/4 C. cornstarch 2 tsp. vanilla

1/2 tsp. salt 1 C. sweetened whipped cream
1. Prepare and bake a single crust pie shell.

2. In a medium bowl, beat egg yolks with a fork and set aside.

3. Mix sugar, cornstarch and salt in a medium sauce pan. Gradually add milk.

4. Cook and stir over medium heat until mixture thickens. Boil 1 minute.

5. Gradually stir half the hot mixture into the egg yolks, then stir back into the saucepan.

6. Boil and stir for one more minute. Remove from heat.

7. Stir in butter and vanilla. Cover with plastic wrap to prevent formation of a tough skin,

and cool slightly.

8. Pour into pie shell, cover so the plastic wrap touches the top of the filling.

9. Refrigerate at least 2 hours, until set. Top with whipped cream and serve.



Variations:
Chocolate Cream Pie: 4 egg yolks 3 C. milk

1 ½ C. sugar 2 oz. unsweetened chocolate

1/3 C. cornstarch 1/2 tsp. salt

***Chop chocolate and stir in with milk in step 3.

Garnish with cream and chocolate curls.

Banana Cream Pie 2 large bananas

*** Follow the vanilla recipe. Slice bananas into the cooked pie shell. Pour warm pudding over the bananas. Cover and chill. Garnish with cream and bananas.

Coconut Cream Pie: 3/4 C. flaked coconut

***Add coconut with butter and vanilla. Garnish with whipped cream and 1/4 C. additional coconut. (Toast coconut if desired.)
Savory one crust pies
PIZZA QUICHE
Prep Time: 25 minutes Cook Time: 45 minutes
Ingredients:
1 9" pie crust 1 Tbsp. olive oil

2 cups shredded mozzarella cheese 1 finely chopped onion

1 cup shredded Cheddar cheese 2 cloves garlic, minced

1 cup shredded Monterey Jack cheese 1 cup whole milk

3/4 cup sliced pepperoni pieces 3 eggs

4 oz. jar sliced mushrooms, well drained 1 tsp. dried Italian seasoning

2 Tbsp. grated Parmesan cheese

Preparation:
1. Preheat oven to 400°.

2. Sprinkle cheeses in bottom of pie crust. Top with pepperoni and mushrooms.

3. In heavy skillet, cook onion and garlic in olive oil until crisp tender. Spoon over

mushrooms in pie crust.

4. Beat together milk, eggs, and Italian seasoning in medium bowl until well blended. Next

pour over mushrooms and sprinkle with Parmesan cheese.

5. Bake pie at 400° for 40-45 minutes or until knife inserted near center of pie comes

out clean. Let stand for 15 minutes before cutting.



Taco Pie
Prep Time: 25 minutes Cook Time: 20 minute

Ingredients:

1 9" pie shell 1/2 tsp. ground cumin

1 lb. ground beef 1 cup shredded Cheddar cheese

1 onion, chopped 1 cup shredded Colby-jack cheese

2 cloves garlic, minced 1/4 cup grated Cotija or Parmesan cheese

16 oz. can re-fried beans sour cream

1/3 cup taco sauce salsa

1 cup crushed taco chips diced tomatoes

1 Tbsp. chili powder cubed avocado
Preparation:

1. Preheat oven to 350°.

2. Prepare pie shell and set aside.

3. In heavy skillet, cook ground beef, onions, and garlic until beef is browned and

vegetables are tender. Drain well.

4. Stir in refried beans, taco sauce, crushed taco chips, seasonings, and Cheddar cheese.

5. Spoon filling into pie shell. Sprinkle top with Colby-jack and cotija cheeses.

6. Bake pie at 350°for 35-40 minutes or until crust is golden brown and filling is hot and

bubbly.

7. Top with sour cream, salsa, diced tomatoes and cubed avocado as desired.


Specialty pie shells

Meringue Shell
Makes one 9” pie shell, or 8 individual tart shells
2 large egg whites (at room temperature if possible)

1/8 tsp. cream of tartar

1/2 C. sugar

1/2 tsp. vanilla


1. Heat oven to 325° F. Line a cookie sheet with parchment or heavy brown paper for tart shells, or grease the bottom, sides, and top of a 9” pie pan for a pie shell.
2. In a medium bowl, beat egg whites and cream of tartar for 1-2 minutes at low speed to begin stretching the egg protein. Increase speed to high, and beat until foamy.
3. Add sugar 1 Tablespoon at a time, and continue beating until stiff peaks form and mixture is glossy. Do not under-beat. Stir in vanilla.
4. For pie: Pour meringue into the prepared pan. Use the back of a spoon to spread mixture evenly across the bottom, and up the sides of the pan.

For tarts: Pipe or scoop 1/3 cup of meringue onto the parchment-lined baking sheet. Use the back of a spoon to spread into even 9” circles with sides built up to form a shell.
5. Bake at 325° for 18 to 25 minutes, or until the shell is light golden brown, and looks slightly dry.
6. Cool, then fill, refrigerate if called for, and enjoy. Refrigerate leftovers.

Meringue Trivia:

Fine-grained sugar (such as dessert sugar or extra fine sugar) is recommended over course-grained sugar.


When baking meringue to make a shell, use a lower temperature and longer cooking time.
When using meringue to top a pie, be sure the filling is completely cool before putting the topping on. If the filling is warm, moisture will build up under the meringue causing it to leak. This makes it look as if the meringue has leaked.

Easy Meringue Tart Filling Recipes:


Lemon Cream Meringue Tart
One recipe meringue tart shells (8) or one 9” meringue pie shell
Lemon Cream Filling
3 egg yolks, beaten 1 Tbsp lemon zest

1/3 C. sugar 2 ½ Tbsp lemon juice (1 large)


1 -- 8 oz. container of non-dairy whipped topping
1. Combine yolks, sugar, lemon zest and juice in the top of a double boiler. Cook and stir until it is thick. Let sit until just warm.
2. Fold in whipped topping. Fill shells and refrigerate 2 to 3 hours or overnight.
3. Garnish with whipped cream and serve.
Chocolate Almond Meringue Tart
One recipe makes 8 meringue tart shells or one 9” meringue pie shell
Chocolate Almond Cream Filling
8 oz. Hershey with almond bars, chopped

8 oz. non-dairy whipped topping, thawed


1. Thaw the whipped topping in the refrigerator to maintain its fluffy texture. One hour before making the pie filling, set it out on your counter to lose its temperature. It should register no temperature when you touch it.
2. Chop the Hershey with Almond bars. Melt in the microwave (20 seconds and stir, 10 seconds and stir, 10 seconds and stir, etc.) until smooth. Let it sit on the counter until it is no longer warm to the touch.
3. Fold the chocolate and non-dairy whipped topping together. Fill the shells, and chill.
4. Garnish with whipped cream and chocolate curls.

Graham Cracker Crust

1 ½ C. finely crushed cinnamon or regular graham crackers (about 20 squares)

1/4 C. sugar

1/4 tsp. cinnamon (nice flavor, but optional)

1/3 C. butter or margarine, melted
1. Preheat oven to 350°

2. Combine ingredients in a large container. Stir to combine them.

3. Press crumbs firmly against the sides and bottom or your pie plate.

4. Bake at 350° for 8 to 10 minutes. Cool completely.

5. Fill and refrigerate as indicated on the recipe.

Peanut Butter Pie
1/2 C. peanut butter 8 oz. not-dairy whipped topping

1/2 C. sugar 1 tub chocolate fudge icing


1. Combine peanut butter and sugar. Stir until smooth.

2. Gently fold non-dairy whipped topping into the peanut butter mixture.

3. Spoon filling into prepared graham cracker crust.

4. Top with prepared chocolate frosting. Chill.

5. Serve with a dollop of whipped topping and ¼ of a mini peanut butter cup candy.

No Bake Cherry Cream Cheese Pie
1 envelope Dream Whip
1 pkg. cream cheese (8 oz.) 3Tbsp. milk

1C. powdered sugar 1 tsp. vanilla


1. Prepare Dream Whip as directed on the package

2. Beat cream cheese to soften.

3. Add powdered sugar, milk and vanilla, and beat until smooth.

4. Fold Dream Whip into cream cheese mixture.

5. Pour filling into prepared graham cracker crust.

6. Top with one can of cherry pie filling – or filling of your choice.

7. Chill 2 to 3 hours or overnight.


Tart Pastry
1 ¼ C. all purpose flour 2 Tbsp. packed brown sugar

1/2 C. butter or margarine, softened 1 large egg


1. Heat oven to 400°.

2. In a medium bowl, stir all ingredients until dough forms.

3. Press firmly and evenly against the bottom and sides of an un-greased tart pan.

4. Bake 10 to 12 minutes or until light brown.

5. Cool and fill as directed in the recipe.


Orange Glazed Strawberry Tart
1 C. sour cream 1 C. milk

1 pkg. vanilla instant pudding and pie filling (4 serving size)


4 cups mixed fruit (strawberries, peaches, kiwi, mandarin oranges, etc.)
1/3 C. orange marmalade 2 Tbsp. water
1. Prepare and bake pastry.

2. Mix sour cream, milk and pudding mix with a hand or electric beater on low for 1 to 2

minutes or until blended. Spread on cooled tart shell

3. Arrange fruit on pudding mixture.

4. Heat marmalade and water over low heat until melted. Cool slightly and spoon over fruit.

5. Cover and chill.

Name ___________________________ Class _________ Date __________ Score _________
PASTRY QUIZ
Ingredients: Standard Pastry has four ingredients.

What is the function of each ingredient in the recipe?
1. Circle the type of flour that makes the best pie crust.

a. all purpose c. high protein

b. cake flour d. pastry flour
2. What characteristics make it the best flour?

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________
3. Another name for fat is ___________________________________. It’s job in pastry is to s____________________ the strands of g___________________, to produce a tender and flakey product.
4. T or F Salt adds an acidic quality that is necessary for successful pastry.
5. If True, what will happen if you leave the salt out of the recipe? ______________

________________________________________________________________


If False, what is the real function of salt in pastry? ________________________

________________________________________________________________


6. The temperature of water is important in a pastry recipe.

Circle the correct temperature, and complete the following statement:


The water used in pastry should be ( hot, warm, cool, cold ) because ________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________



Handling:

Match the correct measuring technique with each ingredient.

1. __________ Flour A. Scoop & level

2. __________ Fat B. Spoon lightly & level

3. __________ Salt C. Measure at eye level

4. __________ Water D. Pack & level


5. T / F The more you handle pastry, the better it will be?
Storage: Correct storage is important to prevent food borne illness.

Choose the best method for each pie. Choices may be used more than once. Some pies may have more than one answer.


1. __________ Unbaked Pie shell A. Bake directly from freezer

2. __________ Banana Cream Pie B. Never Freeze

4. __________ Apple Pie D. Thaw or warm slowly

5. __________ Chicken Pot Pie E. Thaw 2 to 4 hours, rm. temp.

6. __________ Pecan Pie F. Bake first, then freeze

7. __________ Quiche G. Refrigerate / Chill

8. __________ Peach Chiffon Pie H. Best left at room temperature


PASTRY QUIZ KEY
Ingredients: Standard Pastry has four ingredients.

What is the function of each ingredient in the recipe?
1. Circle the type of flour that makes the best pie crust.

a. all purpose c. high protein

b. cake flour d. pastry flour
2. What characteristics make it the best flour?

Pastry flour is made from soft wheat and is a low protein flour. Less gluten will be produced, making a more flakey product.
3. Another name for fat is Shortening. It’s job in pastry is to shorten the strands of gluten to produce a tender and flakey product.
4. T or False Salt adds an acidic quality that is necessary for successful pastry.
5. If True, what will happen if you leave the salt out of the recipe?

______________X______________X______________X______________


**If False, what is the real function of salt in pastry?

Salt adds flavor, and enhances the flavor of other ingredients
6. The temperature of water is important in a pastry recipe.

Circle the correct temperature, and complete the following statement:


The water used in pastry should be ( hot, warm, cool, cold ) because:

Cold water will prevent softening the fat and producing a sticky product.


Handling:

Match the correct measuring technique with each ingredient.

1. ____B___ Flour A. Scoop & level

2. ____D____ Fat B. Spoon lightly & level

3. ____A____ Salt C. Measure at eye level

4. ____C____ Water D. Pack & level


5. T / False The more you handle pastry, the better it will be?
Storage: Correct storage is important to prevent food borne illness.

Choose the best method for each pie. Choices may be used more than once. Some pies may have more than one answer.


1. ___A____ Unbaked Pie shell A. Bake directly from freezer

2. __B&G___ Banana Cream Pie B. Refrigerate / Chill

4. __F&D___ Apple Pie D. Thaw or warm slowly

5. ___B____ Chicken Pot Pie E. Thaw 2 to 4 hours, rm. temp.

6. __B&G__ Cherry Cheesecake Pie F. Bake first, then freeze

7. ___G____ Quiche G. Never Freeze



8. ___E____ Peach Chiffon Pie H. Best left at room temperature

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