Pg 88 Κοσμάς Cosmas Indicopleustes, Christian Topography. Preface to the online edition



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EXPLANATION OF PLATE 22-27



Plate 22. ---- A delineation of the circle of the twelve months and the fruits produced in each month. Outside the circle are written the names of the Egyptian months Mhne\j 'Aigupti/oi, and of the four seasons, which he designates respectively, e0arinh& troph& the spring tropic; qerinh& troph& the summer tropic; metopwrinh& troph& the autumn tropic; xeimeri\nh& troph& the winter tropic. The fruit produced in Egypt in Pharmouth (April) is sko&roda, garlic; in Pachôn (May), ki/nna a kind of pulse; in Payni (June), ka&rua 'Arme/nia Armenian nuts; in Epiphi (July), si=toj kopu&mwra. Montfaucon takes the latter |392 word to be a mistake for suko&moroj the fig-mulberry, called also suka&minoj h( 'Aigupti/a; in Mesori (August), su~ka stafu&lia, figs, grapes: but to judge from the picture only one kind of fruit is indicated; in Thôth (September), elaio&dakna an unknown fruit; in Phaophy (October), foi/nikej, palms or palm-leaves; in Athyr (November), a)spara&gia asparagus; in Choiac (December), mala&xai mallows; in Tybi (January), e0utu&bia, endives; in Mechir (February), a)gla&tia: this is unknown; in Phamenôth (March), ki/tra fruit of citron?

The remaining plates are pictures of the animals and plants which Cosmas has described in the earlier portion of the eleventh book.



Cosmas Indicopleustes, Christian Topography (1897) Appendix: further plates.



  • Plate 1 

  • Plate 2 

  • Plate 3 

  • Plate 4 

  • Plate 5 

  • Plate 6 

  • Plate 7 

  • Plate 8 

  • Plate 9

  • Plate 10

  • Plate 11


INDEX. 




This text was transcribed by Roger Pearse, Ipswich, UK, 2003. All material on this page is in the public domain - copy freely. Greek text is rendered using the Scholars Press SPIonic font, free from here.

Aaron, official robes of, 123

Abel, 168-170

Abia, 153, Plate 16

Abraham, 177, 253-4

Abraham of Cascar, 24

Abyssinia, 55, 60

Acesinês, R., 75

Adam, 78, 79, 81, 165-7, 218, 235;

Aden, 63


Adulê, vii, x, 54, 6r, 66, 366, 368, 371

Aeolis, 35

Agamè, 60

Agau, vii, 52

Agriobous (Wild-ox), 360-1

Agrippa (King), 217

Albatrosses, v, 40

Alexander the Great, 18, 36, 69, 72, 74, 75, 119, 366, 375, 382-3

Alexandria in Egypt, viii, xviii, 23, 50, 54, 245, 247

Aloes, 366

Angels, creation of the, 102; their functions, xix, xxiv, 76, 78, 81, 105, 228; 320-7, 345; their place of abode, 280-7, 328, 347; their destiny, 82-3

Anastasius, 246

Angabe, 61

Anna the Prophetess, 210

Annine, 62

Antigonus, 69

Antioch, 18, 25, 120, 246

Antioch of Pisidia, 201, 279

Antiochus I, 18, 72

Antiochus II, 72

Antiochus IV (Epiphanes, Theos), 69, 207, 375

Antipodes, xx, 5, 14, 17, 86, 136-7

A pion, 378

Apocalypse of Paul, 290

Apollinarians, ix

Apollinarius, 213

Apollonius Molon, 377

Amethyst, 364, 365

Amos, 198-9

Amphilochius (of Iconium), 290

Apostles, teaching of the, 212

Arabah, the, 203

Arabia Felix (Sabaea, Yemen), 35, 37, 38, 64, 66, 120

Arabitae, 64, 66

Ararat, Mt., 33

Archangels, functions of, 88

Archimedes, 125 

Argellia (cocoa-nuts), 362

Arians, ix, 258

Aries (Zodiac sign), 13, 139

Arius, 213

Aristotle, 4, 11, 18, 117, 121, 125, 360,376

Ark (Noah's), 33, 44, 46, 91, 171-2, 376 

Armenia, 375 

Arsaces, 72 

Arsinoê, Queen, 57 

Arsinoê, city of, 120 

Aromatics, country of, see Barbaria 

Artaxerxes Mnêmôn, 360 

Arts, invention of the, 122-5 

Asia (Minor), 120 

Asôka, inscription of, 363 

Assyrians, 37

Astronomy, the Ptolemaic, 6-8 

Atalmô, 62 

Atbara R., 60, 61, 62 

Athagdus, 61 

Athanasius (B. of Alexandria), festal letters of, 290, 332 

Athanasius (friend of Cosmas), xxiii, Book VII addressed to him, 263 

Athenians, the, 229, 381 

Atlantis, island of, 376, 380 

Aua, 61


Augusti, line of the, 71 

Augustine, St., 17, 258 

Axum, Axomis, vi, 39, 50, 54, 59, 61, 120, 245, 249, 359

Babel, Tower of, 91-93, 225, 377-9 

Babylon, Babylonians, 36, 58, 68, 91, 313, 315. 316, 375 

Bactrians, 37, 49, 120 

Balaam, 182 

Balkh, 37

Baptism, 183-4, 220; for the dead, 273 

Barbaria (frankincense country), vii, 34,38, 39, 48, 51, 65, 66, 67, 252 

Barygaza (Bharoch), 369, 371 

Basil, St., 290, 332 

Beazley, Mr. Raymond, quoted, xiii,xxiv

Bega, 62


Bells, the golden, 156, 158 

Berenice, Queen, 57 

Berenice, hair of, 58-59 

Berenice, or Ptolemais Thérôn, 58 

Berenice, city of, 126 

Bêrosus, 312, 375 

Bigot, Emeric, i 

Blemmyes, 64, 371

Borysthenes, R., 247 

Brachmans, 48 

Bulgarians, 121 

Byron, quoted, 301 

Byzantium, see Constantinople

Caber, 367


Cadmus, 381
Caesar, Julius, 378
Cain, 123, 126
Calliana, 119, 366
Cambyses, 58, 59
Canaan, 36, 173
Canopus, Synod of, 58
Cappadocia, 120
Captivity, the Babylonian, 208
Carbuncle, 373
Carrhae, 178
Caria, 57
Caspian Sea, 39, 50, 131, 370
Cassaniti, 37
Castor-oil, 366
Cataracts of the Nile, 24, 50
Catholic Epistles, 290-2
Ceylon, vi, viii, xx, xxiv, 48-9, 118-9; its different names, 363; its size, 364; its kings, 364-5; its trade, 365-7
Chaeremon, 377
Chair with Greek inscriptions, 54-68
Chaldaeans., 24, 91; their kings, 375
Charton, M., xiii
Cherubim, in, 146, 329, 330

Chosroes, 18, 73

Christ, His conception, 139, 142; birth, 143, 221, 236, 242; earthly life, 219; temptation, 220; miracles, 98, 115, 116; transfiguration, 192-3; passion, 81, 140-1, 205, 253; resurrection, 196-201, 229; ascension, 219, 220-1, 356-7; second coming, 237-8, 256; two natures, 84, 258, 359

Christianity, nations converted to, ix, 384 

Chrysostom, St., 17, 291, 333, 349;quoted, 345-8 

Ciborium, 75


Cicero, quoted, 11, 17, 378 
Cilicia, 58, 120 
Cimmerii, 35 
Cinaedocolpitae, 64, 66 
Circumcision, 27, 119 
Cleopatra, 70 
Climates, 247 
Cloves, 366 
Clysma, xx, 142 
Cocoa-nuts, see Argellia 
Colchos, 120 
Colossians, the, 229 
Comana, 346 
Comorin, C., 39 
Cone, shadow cast by a, 250 
Constantinople, x, xi, xviii, 24, 150, 239, 246; Council of, 213, 291 
Constantinus, 2 
Corinth, 18 
Corinthians, the, 229, 230

Cosmas, name of, iv; his biography, iv-viii; sect, ix; veracity, xii; cosmology, xv-xvii; maps and sketches, xxv; place in history, xxv; work on geography, 2

Cretans, 230, 381

Crimea, 35

Ctesias of Cnidus, 360

Cupping-glass, 19

Cush, 36, passim

Cyclades, 57

Cyprus, 35, 36, 37

Cyrano, 120

Cyrus, 68, 314-5

Dalmatians, 121

Daniel, 204, 207, 308, 317, 379; interpretation of his vision and ihe image, 68, 73

Darius the Mede, 68

David, 184

Day and Night, vicissitudes of, 132


Death, why inflicted on man, 162-3; how introduced, 219

De La Croze, ix, xiv


Denarii, 370
Devil, see Satan
Diapsalma (Selah), 185
Dillmann, 61, 64, 65
Diodorus Siculus, quoted, 75
Diodorus (of Tarsus), ix
Diodorus, Island of, 60
Dionysus, King of Egypt, 70
Dioscorides, see Socotra
Dolphin, 363

Dumb barter, 51-54

Earth, one here and one beyond the ocean, 33; the one here divided between the sons of Noah, 34-37; its length and breadth, 49-51; its shape, 132; its position, 136; its flatness, 252

Earth beyond the Ocean, 376

Earthquakes, 17-18, 86
Easter, 122, 353
Ebionites, 308
Eclipses, 4, 9, 116-7, 121, 133, 238, 246, 322-31, 385

Eden, see Paradise


Edessa, 25, 72
Edfu, 245
Egypt, 2, 18; passim
Elamites, 37, 120
Elanitic Gulf, 154
Elbe R., 75
Elements, the four, 10-12, 15, 20, 85-6; fire and water, 338

Elephants, 57, 58, 370, 371; fight of,372 


Elesboas, King of Axum, vii, x, 52, 54,55, 359
Elijah, 115, 194-5, 200, 206, 255 
Elim, 56, 143 
Elis, 35
Elisa (Elishah), 35 
Elisabeth (John Baptist's Mother), 210
Embryons dying in the womb, destiny of, 296-7 
Emeralds, 371 
Enoch, 167, 171, 254-5 
Entelecheia, meaning of, 11 
Epicycles, 8, 13

Ephesians, the, 229; Epistle to the, 346 

Ephesus, 222, 230; council of, 239 

Ephorus quoted, 73-75 

Epiphanius (B. of Cyprus), 349; quoted, 344-5

Epiphany, 143 


Erythraean Sea, 38 
Esau, 179
Ethiopia, vi, 20, 34, passim 
Eunuch, the Ethiopian, 199 
Eunuchs, 317 
Euphrates, R., 41, 58, 76 
Eusebius Pamphili, 72, 111, 142, 290-1,375
Eutychês, 213 
Eutychians, ix 
Euxine Sea, 35 
Eve, 167, 235
Exodus, the, from Egypt, 141, 142, 254 
Ezekiel, 203

Festus, 279


Firmament, the, 231, 336-9, passim 
Flood, the Noachian, i 14, 136, 375; 
Floyer, Mr., quoted, 245 
Franks, the, 121

Gabala, 62, 66


Gadeira (Cadiz), 34, 35, 36, 38, 50, 75, 120, 121, 376
Galatians, the, 229
Galaxy, the, 14
Galilee, 203
Gallandi, xiii
Gambela, 61
Ganges K., 48
Garamantes. 120
Gaudia, 364
Gazê, 60
Gellius, Aulus, 378
Gêon R., 41
Gibbon quoted, xiii, 25, 120, 121, 239,
354. 365. 370
Giraffe, 359
Glaser, Dr. E., 60, 61, 64, 65
Gog and Magog, 198
Gold mines; q2, 53
Gollas, 370-1

Gomer, 35

Goths, 121

Gravitation, law of, illustrated, 28-29

Greeks, invective against the, 382; relapse of the, into infidelity, 385-6

Gregory, St., 332

Gregory (B. of Nazianzus), 332-3

Guardafui, C., v, vii, 36, 60

Gulfs, the four, 101, 131

Guzerat, 48

Habakkuk, 201

Haggai, 204

Ham, 34, 36, 373

Harrar, 60

Havilah (Euilat), 372

Heavenly bodies, 76, 101; motions of the, 84-85; course of the, 321-330

Heavens, the, indissolubility of, xxiii, 268; fixity of, 16; number of, 114, 134, 267; sphericity of, denied, 239, 347-8; duration of, 263-296

Hebrews, the, 230

Hedjaz, 60, 64

Hellespont, 58, 247

Hercules, pillars of, 36

Herod, 200


Heruli, 121
Hezekiah, song of, 305-311; sun dial of, 311-313

Hieroglyphics, 94


Himyari, see Homerites
Hiouen Thsiang, 365
Hipparchus, 244
Hobia, or Obbia, 64
Hog-deer, 361-2
Homer, 380-1
Homerites, vii, x, 37, 39, 52, 55, 251-2, 366, 372

Homologus, 3


Horatae, 367
Horeb, Mt., 144
Horses, Persian, 372
Hosea, 195-6
Huns, 37, 120, 370-1
Hunter, Sir W., 370-1
Hyacinth-stone, 364, 365, 368
Hydaspes, R., 75
Hyperidès, 147

Hypostasis, 233

Hyrcanian Sea, see Caspian Sea

Hyrcanians, 72

Iberia (Spain), 50

Illyrians, 121

Image, man the, of God, 235

India, 36, 37, 49, passim; Further India, 39; India tertia, 39 
Indiction 246, 354 
Indus, R., 48; identified with the Phison, 372
Inscriptions at Adulê, ii, vii, 54-68 
Ionia, 58
Iouuia (Iounnia?), 49 
Irenaeus, 290 
Isaac, 177-9, 254 
Isaiah, 199, 200, 307-8 
Ishmaelites, 158 
Israelites; how fed and clothed in the Wilderness, 158

Jacob. 179-181; ladder of, 282 


Japhet, 35, 173 
Jasper-stone, 372 
Jeremiah 202 
Joel, 196-7
John St., Gospel of, 222-4
John the Baptist, 142, 206,200-10, 219-220
Jonah, 98, 198-9, 379 
Joseph, 254
Joshua (son of Nun), 115, 117, 160-1 

Josephus. 111, 311, 375 


Judah,181 
Judas Iscariot, 223 
Judgment, the last, 278; oracular plate of, 155-6

Jupiter, the planet, 11, 13 


Justinian, 18, 48, 55 
Justinus I, x, 55

Kalaa, 61


Karinoi, 178
Kasu, 64
Katoptrisomenoi, 232
Kavéra, 367
Kâvêripattam, see: Cahor
Kelts, 73
Kêtioi (Cyprians), 36
Khartum, vii
Klima. meanings of, 244

Kidaris (turban), 156

Laccadive Islands, 364

Lacedemonians, 381

Lactantius, quoted 17


Laodicea, 213
Lazarus, 109, 223
Lazica, 120
Laxinê, 62, 66
Letters, knowledge of, given to Moses, 110, 112
Leuce Cômê, 64
Libya, 36, 37, 40, 57, 120
Lotus, the, 75
Ludolf, Job, 56
Luke, St., 221-2
Luxor, 245
Lycia, 57
Lysimachus, a grammarian, 377-8

Maccabees, 69

Macedonia, 68, 69, 70
Maeotic Lake. 247
Magi, the, 72
Magog, 35
Malachi, 205-6
Malala, John, 55
Male (Malabar), 48, 119, 366, 367

Man, God's image, 104; creation of, 104-5; how constituted, 104-6; upright figure of, 108-9

Manetho, 377

Mangarouth (Mangalor), 367


Manichaeans, ix, xxi, 212, 242, 258, 259
Manna., 144
Marah, or Merrha, 144
Marallo, 367
Mareb, R., 60
Marcionites, ix, 213, 273
Marco Polo, 305
Mark, St., 220-1
Marmora, Sea of, 54
Mars, the planet, 11, 13
Martin, V. de Saint, 59-60, 63, 65
Mary, the Virgin, 69, 71, 210, 354;

Mother of God, x, 25, 239 

Masius, Mt., 50 

Massâwa, 60 

Mauretania, 120 

Media, 35, 58, 68, 120 

Megasthenês, 363, 371 


Melchisedec, 175-7 
Menander, 147 
Menas, vii, 50 
Mercy-seat, the, 111, 146 
Merodach, 312
Meroè, vii, 36, 37, 38, 64, 247 
Meshech, 35 
Mesopotamia, 58, 120 
Mesraim (Egyptians and Ethiopians),36, 373
Metalepsis (H. Communion), 140,231-3 
Metaxa (silk), 366 
Metine, 62 
Micah, 200-1 
Midianites, 158 
Migdol, 141 Miliarision, 369 
Millennium, the, 241 
Mingrelians, 120 
Mithras, xx, i 15 
Mithridates I, 72 
Money, the Roman, 73, 369 
Montanists, 241-2 
Montfaucon, Father, ii, passim  
Moon, circle of the, 321-2; created at full illumination, 342-3 

Moses, 94-7, 181-4, passim  


Mountain, the conical, xviii, xxiii, 132,134
Music, instruments of, 184 
Musk, 366 
Musk-deer, 360

Nablus, 241


Nahuni, 201
Nalopatana, 367
Nebuchadnezzar (Nabuchodonosor ), 68, 70, 115, 207, 117

Neo-Platonists, Pantheism of, xxi 


Nestorius, 232
Nile, 41, 52, 245; sources of the, vii, viii 
Nisibis, 24, 48, 49 
Noah, 44-5, 172-6, 253 
Nomisma, 369 
Nubia. 36, 62, 120. 371

Oasis, the Greater, 25 

Obadiah, 198 

Origen, 301 


Origenists, 333 
Orrhotha, 307 
Oryx, 361 
Ouraniskos, 338 
Ousia, 233 
Oxus, R., 370, 371

Palestine, 35, 36, 58, 120


Palibothra (Patna), 58
Pamphilus (of Jerusalem), 3, 4, 23, 90,128, 313
Pamphilus (B. of Caesarea), 290 
Pamphylia, 58 

Paradise, xx, 33, 47, 76, 81, 89, 123,131, 152, 174, 253, 329, 342, 347, 349,372



Paralipomena (Chronicles), 208 

Paran, 144 


Parthia, 72 
Parti, 367
Passover, the, 138-9, 182, 241, 333-4 
Patana, 367 

Patricius, ix, 24, 316 

Paul, St., 227-230; rapture of, into heaven, xxv, 116-7, 227-8, 256, 267, 326-8

Pentapolis, 120 

Pepper, 119, 366, 367 
Pepper-tree, 362 
Perdiccas, 69 
Persarmenia, 41, 76, 120 
Persia, 48, 49, passim 
Persian Christians, Church of, 365 
Peter (friend of Cosmas), xxiii, 304, 317-8
Peter, St., 224-6 
Petra, 64 
Pharaoh, 94, 141 
Phasis. R., 120 
Phazinia (Fezzan), 120 
Philemon, 230 
Philippians, the, 229 
Philometor, 70
Philon (13. of Carpathus), 349-51 
Phison, R., 366, 372 
Phoenicia, 35, 57, 120, 381 
Phœnicôn, 143 

Photius, iii, xi 

Phut (Libyans), 36, 373 
Physcon, 384 
Pisces (Zodiac sign), 13 
Plagues of Egypt, 95-8 
Planets, the, 35, 300, 324; motions of the, 8, 13, 14

Plato, 91, 117, 121, 125, 376 


Pliny, 367, 370 
Phoca (the seal), 363 
Point de Galle, 365 
Polycarp, 290
Pomegranates, the golden, 156, 158 
Pontus, 120 
Poudopatana, 367 
Priests, garments of, 154-8 
Proclus, 376
Proconnesus, Island of, 54 
Procopius, 366
Prophecies, how written, 207-8 
Propitiation. Ark of, 153 
Psalms, contents of the, and how composed, 184-194 
Ptolemais. 120 
Ptolemy Sôtêr, 57, 69. 70 
Ptolemy Philadelphia. 57, 383
Ptolemy Euergetés, 54, 57, 58, 70, 252 
Ptolemy, the astronomer, 117, 125, 249, 364
Punishments, the future, 216-7, 238 
Pythagoras, 91, 121 
Pytheas, 74, 75

Quadrature of the circle, 125

Rae, Dr. Milne, xiv
Rain, how produced, 18-20, 86
Red Sea, or Arabian Gulf, passim
Resurrection, the, 220, 240, 260, 272-7,382 

Rewards, nature of the future, 216-7, 231, 241

Rhaithu, vii, 56, 143 
Rhapsii, 63 
Rhaptum, 39 
Rhinoceros, 358-9, 360 
Rhodes, xviii, 36, 246, 247 
Rhongcosura, 362 

Rome, 50, 220 


Roman Empire, 70-3 

Ruby (the Ceylonese), 365 

Ruth, Book of, 298

Saba, see Arabia Felix

Sacrament (the Holy), 241-2
Salopatana, 367
Salt, Mr., 54, 60, 359
Samaritans, 241-2, 257-260
Sandal-wood, 366
Sassanidae, 72
Sasu, 51-2, 64, 66
Satan, 76, 78, 83, 102, 105, 215, 219, 228, 352
Scamander R., 371 
Scete, desert of, 24 
Scythia, 35, 40, 370 
Scythians, 121, 198 
Seleucia, 49, 50 
Seleucus Nicator, 18, 58, 69 

Seleucus, Iambic verses addressed to, 290-1


Self-identity, retention of our, 276 
Semenoi, the, 61, 62, 67 
Senaar, 49 
Sennacherib, 300-7 
Septuagint, the, 361, 383 
Seraphim, 199
Seres (Northern Chinese), 367 
Sesame, 366 
Sesea, 63, 65  
Seth. 167, 182-3 
Severianus (B. of Gabala), 17, 291; quoted, 334-343 

Shadows, 244-252; various lengths of, 262; retrogression of, on Hezekiah's sun-dial, 311 

Sheba (Sabaea, or Yemen), Queen of, 52

Shem, 34, 173 


Shew-bread, 318. 324 
Sibor (Chaul), 367 
Sidonians, 37
Sielediba, see Ceylon
Sigye, 60
Silk, 48, 49, 366
Simeon, 197, 211
Sinae (Southern Chinese), 367
Sinai, desert of, viii; inscriptions on rocks of, xx, 159-60 
Sindh, 366 

Sindu, 366

Socotra, island of, xx, 119 
Socrates, 121 
Sôlate, 63 
Solomon, 208 
Solon, 380 
Somalis, 60
Song of songs, xxii, 305 
Sopatrus, 368 

Souls, pre-existence of, 301; nature of, 103; circumscription of, 21, 22, 87; transmigration of, 260, 301 

Spartel C., 120 

Spermologos, 9, 279 
Spheres, the crystalline, 8; the nine, 300; revolution of, 135 
Stephanas (an abbot) , 245 
Stephen (first martyr), 218, 226-7 
Substantia, 233 
Suez, 142 

Sun, size of, xviii, xxiii, 244-252; circle of, 321-2; daily course of, 41, 43, 132-4, 340 

Sun-dials, 245; degrees how marked on, 311
Sur, or Shur, 143 
Surat, 367 
Susiana, 37, 58, 59 
Syria, 57, 68, 120 

Syêné, 245, 249

Tabernacle prepared by Moses, xv, 6, 24, 26, 43, 97, no, 114, 122, 254; description of, 138-161; outer and inner, 150-1; door of, 151; curtains of, 147; court of, 154; veil of, 153; pillars of, 147-9; table of, 31, 46, 152; a pattern of the world, 145, 149

Tablet of Basanite with Greek inscription, 57-9

Takazze R., 60-62

Tamieion, 351
Tana, lake, 52, 60, 61
Tangaitae, 62
Taprobane, sec Ceylon
Tartarus, 260
Taurelaphus, or bull-stag, 359
Temple (of Jerusalem), 99, 100, 117-8, 383
Tennent, Sir E, quoted, 364, 368, 370 
Testimony, Ark of the, 111, 146 
Teucer (the Locrian), 380 
Thaddaeus, 72

Tharseis (Tarshish, Tartessus), 30 

Thebaïd, 20
Theodoras (of Mopsuestia), ix, 25 
Theodosius(B. of Alexandria), x, quoted
Theophilus, St. Luke's disciple, 221-2
Theophilus (B. of Alexandria), 333-4
Thêres (Thracians), 35, 36
Thessalonians, the, 229
Thibet, 48
Thomas of Edessa, 24
Thevenot, ii, 364, 368
Thulè, 49
Tiama, 61
Tiamo, 61
Tibareni, the, 35
Tigré, 60, 61, 62, 65
Tigris, R., 41, 49
Timaeus, 379, 380
Timotheus the younger, x, 353; quoted 354-7

Timothy, 230 


Titus, 230
Tongues, the gift of, 225 
Toupha, 360
Tower of Babel, see Babel 
Trebizond, 120 
Tree of Knowledge, 329, 341; of Life, 166
Trinity (the divine), 233, 258 
Trinquemala, 365 
Troglodytes, 36, 54, 57, 69 
Tropics, the, 43 
Tubal, 35 
Turtle, the, 363 
Twelve months, circle of the, 318-9,322-3, 325
Tyrians, antiquities of the, 380 
Tzinitza (China), 48, 49, 366

Unicorn, the, 360-1


Urim and Thummim, 155

Virgins, parable of the ten, 210

Walls, the, joining earth and heaven. 30 

Wise Men of the East, the, 197 


Woman, creation of, 109-110 

World, creation of the, 83; figure of the, 129-137, 261-2

Xenophanes, 75 
Xisuthrus, 375

Year, length of the, 321-2 


Yemen, see Arabia Felix 
Yule, Sir H., xiii, xvii, xx, xxi, 119, 120, 367

Zaa, 62, 66


Zachariah, 153. 210
Zechariah, 205
Zephaniah (Sophonias), 202
Zerubbabel, 204, 205
Zingabene, 61
Zingium or Zingion, 38. 39, 52
Zodiac, the, 324
Zone, the torrid, 249
Zoroaster, 72
Zôskales, 65
Zulla, see Adulê


1 The numerals in the margin indicate the pages in Montfaucon's edition of Cosmas in the Nova Collectio Patrum.  [Online edition: placed in square brackets.  Material in red is not in the printed text.  The summary of contents is found in the manuscripts so has been added from a Greek critical edition, although its exact position is doubtful]

2 This work on Cosmography is one of the lost treasures of antiquity. Its loss appeared to Montfaucon one to be deplored even with tears.

3 Katagrafai\. The Latin version erroneously renders this by paragraphi.

4 Gr. ska&rifon. See Sketch No. 6 in the Appendix, and for the stars, Sketch No. 9.

5 Tw~n e1cwqen, lit. of those without the Church.

6 9Ellhnikw~n. The Greek-speaking Jews used #Ellhn, Graecus, and some of its derivatives, in the sense of pagan, gentile, idolater, apparently because the Greeks were the most prominent Gentile people with which they were acquainted. This signification passed into the works of Christian authors, the Greeks, properly so-called, being designated by the term #Elladikoi/ or Graikoi/.





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