Persuad e ower of three motive language hetorical questions



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  • writing
  • skills
  • P E R S U A D E
  • ower of three
  • motive language
  • hetorical questions
  • ay again
  • ndermine opposing views
  • necdote
  • irect address
  • xaggeration
  • Including lists of three items/reasons in your writing.
  • Questions to get your audience thinking – they don’t require an answer.
  • Involve your audience by speaking to them directly using personal pronouns and shared experiences.
  • Including little stories to illustrate a point.
  • Destroy/criticise the opposing argument.
  • Words, phrases and imagery that arouse an emotional response.
  • Being over-the-top to get a point across.
  • Repeating the same word, phrase or idea more than once for emphasis.
  • writing
  • skills
  • Persuasive Techniques
  • Link to Martin Luther King speech
  • writing
  • skills
  • Persuasive Techniques
  • Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity.
  • writing
  • skills
  • Persuasive Techniques
  • When you set out to persuade someone, you want them to accept your opinion on an issue: you want to change that person's mind to your way of thinking.
  • writing
  • skills
  • Persuasive Techniques
  • This means that you need to be very aware of your audience; you want to be forging a link with them by establishing a common goal, not irritating them by completely ignoring their needs.
  • writing
  • skills
  • Persuasive Techniques
  • There are three areas we should attempt to appeal to when trying to get our audience on side:
  • APPEAL TO REASON Most people believe themselves to be reasonable, so appealing to a person's sense of reason is the most effective means of convincing them to change their way of thinking ('If we don't do this... then... ).
  • APPEAL TO CHARACTER We all share certain common ideas of what is just and fair! Appealing your audience’s sense of what is right and fair can be a powerful persuasive device, e.g. 'Like you, I share a sense of horror and repulsion at what is happening...'.
  • APPEAL TO EMOTIONS Persuasion often succeeds by the careful and considered use of emotion - especially showing how passionate you feel for
  • your point of view.
  • writing
  • skills
  • Persuasive Techniques
  • Appeal to Reason
  • Recognise that your audience feel they hold a reasonable view already, but try to dissuade that view by showing how much more reasonable your own position is. Provide evidence to support your ideas to suggest that they are reasonable and logical.
  • Because you are being persuasive, and not writing to argue, you do not have to provide entirely ‘neutral’ facts.
  • However ...
  • writing
  • skills
  • Persuasive Techniques
  • Appeal to Reason
  • Every year, hundreds of
  • thousands of calves
  • like this one are
  • separated from their
  • mothers within days of birth.
  • This is a factit can be tested.
  • However, it is also still very emotive, why?
  • writing
  • skills
  • Persuasive Techniques
  • Appeal to Reason
  • So an effective way of appealing to your audience’s sense of reason, while still presenting your view as the only correct view, is to use emotive facts rather than objective ones.
  • (However, do not overuse this as it can make you seem untrustworthy/insincere.)
  • How can we make facts emotive?
  • writing
  • skills
  • Persuasive Techniques
  • Appeal to Reason
  • You work for The Vegetarian Society, you are trying to persuade people that turkey farming is cruel. See if you can improve the following facts by making them more emotive.
  • Approximately 10 million turkeys are killed in November/December. In the wild turkeys could live up to 10 years; farmed turkeys are usually killed between the ages of 12 and 26 weeks.
  • writing
  • skills
  • Persuasive Techniques
  • You need to try to convince your audience that you and they are very similar, sharing parallel ideas and views.
  • One way to do this is to create a sense of a shared personal or cultural experience.
  • writing
  • skills
  • Persuasive Techniques
  • Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity.
  • Why wouldn’t this speech have been as effective at an equal right’s rally in France?
  • writing
  • skills
  • Persuasive Techniques
  • Appeal to Character
  • One way to make your audience feel as though they have shared experiences with you, is to include anecdotes. These illustrative ‘real’ stories add a human and personal dimension that can be irresistible and fascinating.
  • writing
  • skills
  • Persuasive Techniques
  • Appeal to Character
  • Be respectful... Use an appropriate tone to suit your audience and purpose.
  • Be generous... people often put their own interests first. What can you offer your readers to help them change their mind?
  • Be modest... no one will listen to an arrogant, impolite big-head.
  • writing
  • skills
  • Persuasive Techniques
  • Appeal to Character
  • Be personal... Persuasion works best when you know your audience well so consider your reader, think about what their current views are and what has brought them to think that way - think about addressing them as a 'friend using the pronoun 'You'.
  • Be concerned... and show that you share your reader's concerns - even if your view is different.
  • writing
  • skills
  • Persuasive Techniques
  • Appeal to Emotions
  • The most important persuasive technique is to sound authentic and passionate (as if you really mean what you say!) and this requires a confident tone: sound like you are sincere and believable.
  • What tends to happen to our vocabulary
  • choices when we talk about something we are
  • passionate about?
  • writing
  • skills
  • Persuasive Techniques
  • Appeal to Emotions
  • Some words have connotations that evoke an emotional response.
  • Consider the difference between the words building, house and home.
  • writing
  • skills
  • Persuasive Techniques
  • Appeal to Emotions
  • The words all come from the same semantic field, with similar denotations, however, the connotations of words are very different.
  • Because we often have an emotional association to words, our choice of vocabulary can be a powerful tool for persuasion. We can use words to make our audience feel guilty about a situation, angry and even hopeful.
  • writing
  • skills
  • Persuasive Techniques
  • Appeal to Emotions
  • Old man hit by robbers
  • A hundred peasants killed by troops
  • Train seats cut by teenagers
  • House prices fall throughout the country
  • Shortage of money creates problems in schools
  • Trouble on roads after snow fall
  • Player hits referee
  • ‘Improve’ at least 4 of these headlines by making them more emotive.
  • writing
  • skills
  • Persuasive Techniques
  • You have to persuade the overworked customer services assistant at your local department store to refund/exchange your unwanted Christmas present.
  • How will you start your conversation in order to get her ‘on side’?
  • What tone will you use?
  • What persuasive techniques would it be most appropriate to employ?
  • writing
  • skills
  • Persuasive Techniques
  • Which three areas should you attempt to appeal to when trying to get our audience on side?
  • writing
  • skills
  • Persuasive Techniques
  • Making Your Point
  • The distinction between writing to persuade and writing to argue is incredibly subtle.
  • In both cases you need to present a supported written argument. What is the difference when writing to persuade?
  • writing
  • skills
  • Persuasive Techniques
  • In any form of argumentative writing you need to make sure that your points are clearly stated and well-developed.
  • I think that animals should have the same rights as human beings.
  • The point is clearly stated, but it lacks details. Without these details the writer will fail to convince their audience.
  • writing
  • skills
  • Persuasive Techniques
  • How do you make an
  • effective point?
  • Introduce it.
  • Explain it.
  • Justify it.
  • Drive it home.
  • writing
  • skills
  • Persuasive Techniques
  • Introduce Your Point.
  • You can afford to be general, rather than specific at this stage.
  • I’m sure you all agree that supermarkets need to start taking responsibility for the environment, and stop over packaging goods.
  • Note the use of direct address.
  • writing
  • skills
  • Persuasive Techniques
  • Explain Your Point.
  • Restate your point in more detail.
  • Be more specific.
  • This is the ‘in other words’ stage of your point.
  • Recycling and the conservation of our planet’s natural resources is a key concern to many responsible citizens, yet the supermarkets ignore this. They need to stop wrapping goods in multiple layers of unnecessary polythene, plastic and card board.
  • Note the use of direct address (inclusive pronouns), power of three, ‘say again’ and emotive language.
  • writing
  • skills
  • Persuasive Techniques
  • Justify Your Point.
  • Give reasons.
  • Remind people how they might behave in similar situations.
  • Provide evidence.
  • Make a moral argument.
  • Show that alternatives are worse (undermine the opposition).
  • writing
  • skills
  • Persuasive Techniques
  • What ?
  • Statistics
  • Facts
  • Witness testimony
  • Expert opinion
  • A quotation
  • An example (an anecdote)
  • Logic
  • How many of you, like me, have done your bit for the environment diligently, but found yourself in the situation where you are forced to throw recyclable products into the non-recyclable bin, because you have simply run out of space in your recycling bin?
  • More than 77% of consumers questioned said that they were irritated by the amount of wasteful packaging they had to dispose of, while 52% of shoppers try to avoid buying over-packaged goods.
  • Why then do supermarkets insist on continuing this pointless practice?
  • Since when has an apple pie been such a perishable product that it requires four layers of packaging to protect it? Last night, fancying one such sweet pie, I made the mistake of popping to the shops and buying a box of pastries by a well-known brand. By the time I had helped my poor apple pie from its foil, plastic, polythene and card board prison, I had lost all appetite for the thing. Furthermore, two of the offending ‘protective’ elements weren’t even recyclable.
  • writing
  • skills
  • Persuasive Techniques
  • writing
  • skills
  • Persuasive Techniques
  • Drive Your Point Home.
  • Sound confident
  • Certainly
  • The fact is that
  • There is no doubt that
  • Clearly
  • writing
  • skills
  • Persuasive Techniques
  • Drive Your Point Home.
  • Use poetic and descriptive techniques such as alliteration.
  • The good news is that
  • greed is good.
  • writing
  • skills
  • Persuasive Techniques
  • Drive Your Point Home.
  • Generalise – focus away from specific details onto general truths.
  • After all, surely we all want to be accepted.
  • writing
  • skills
  • Persuasive Techniques
  • Drive Your Point Home.
  • End on a question to make the reader think.
  • Think for a moment. Wouldn’t you be happier if everything in life was this simple?
  • writing
  • skills
  • Persuasive Techniques
  • You are chairman of the school student council. It has been suggested, by the student body, that students should be allowed to not wear ties in the summer.
  • As chairman, it is your job to put this proposal forward to the school governors and persuade them that this is a justified and beneficial suggestion.


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