Personal health and illness multiple choice



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CHAPTER 5: PERSONAL HEALTH AND ILLNESS
MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. How do gerontologists define the maximum number of years that a member of a species can live?

a.

the maximum life span of the species

b.

the life expectancy of the species

c.

the intrinsic age of the species

d.

the senescence of the species

ANS: A REF: 90 BLM: HO


2. What is the term for the number of years at birth that an average member of society can expect to live?

a.

aging parameters

b.

life span

c.

specific age configuration

d.

life expectancy

ANS: D REF: 90 BLM: REM


3. Scientists believe that the human life span has remained the same for the past 100,000 years. What is this span of time in years?

a.

75 to 95 years

b.

95 to 110 years

c.

110 to 125 years

d.

125 to 140 years

ANS: C REF: 90 BLM: REM


4. What has happened to the human life expectancy in the past 2,000 years?

a.

It has remained the same.

b.

It has increased.

c.

It has decreased.

d.

It has fluctuated widely.

ANS: B REF: 90 BLM: HO


5. Advances in technology and biomedical research have extended life expectancy. Which of the following summarizes what this suggests about the future for humans?

a.

The human life span will rise as more people live past the current maximum human life span.

b.

The physical signs of old age will change.

c.

Progress will need to be made in extending life span to enable further improvements in life expectancy.

d.

More people will live closer to the maximum human life span, and more people will live longer in old age than ever before.

ANS: D REF: 90 BLM: HO


6. What are the two primary goals of the study of biological aging?

a.

to slow senescence, and to cure the diseases of old age

b.

to understand changes in the body that come with age and to apply this knowledge

c.

to identify the environmental causes of super longevity, and to develop models for increasing the maximum human life span

d.

to develop a comprehensive theory of aging and to lobby for more government funding for aging research

ANS: B REF: 90 BLM: REM


7. According to Statistics Canada, by how many years will a girl born in 2008 outlive her male peers?

a

2 years

b.

3 years

c.

4 years

d.

5 years

ANS: D REF: 90 BLM: REM


8. According to Alway, Morissette, and Siu (2011), what process plays a part in sarcopenia in later life?

a.

pleiotropic genes

b.

the Hayflick genes

c.

apoptosis

d.

senescence

ANS: C REF: 92 BLM: REM


9. Which of the following terms describes the process by which cells are controlled and thus produce normal human development?

a. apoptosis

b. sarcopenia

c. the phase III phenomenon

d. the Hayflick limit
ANS: A REF: 92 BLM: REM
10. Jolene is 55 years old. Her pituitary gland has stopped producing hormones to stimulate her ovaries. What is the name for this process that occurs in aging women?

a. the female change

b. peripause

c. menopause

d. menstruation
ANS: C REF: 92 BLM: HO
11. Which of the following scenarios can occur in the body as a result of cross-linking?

a.

poor eyesight

b.

decreased lung capacity

c.

problems with digestive function

d.

stiffened connective tissue

ANS: D REF: 93 BLM: HO


12. Louisa finds that she has difficulty in walking and her doctor recently informed her that she has some “hardening” of the arteries and loss of kidney function. He said that pollutants like smoke and lead have caused this degeneration of her body over time. What is the name for the process of proteins binding together to cause this damage to Louisa’s body?

a. atrophy

b. cross-linking

c. somatic mutation

d. sarcopenia
ANS: B REF: 93 BLM: HO
13. Which of the following is made from oxygen production, and can damage the body’s cells and cellular components?

a. antioxidants

b. lipofuscin

c. free radicals

d. macrophages
ANS: C REF: 93 BLM: REM
14. Lewis has developed brown liver spots on his hands and face. His wife tells him they are “age spots.” What is the name of the fatty molecules in the skin that are responsible for causing these spots?

a.

lipofuscin

b.

T-cells

c.

macrophages

d.

free radicals

ANS: A REF: 93-94 BLM: HO

15. Cora’s doctor advised her to consume more foods such as broccoli, green tea, and cauliflower. He told her that the chemicals in these foods hope to bind and neutralize free radicals. What is the name for these chemicals?

a. carotenoids

b. coenzymes

c. polyphenols

d. antioxidants
ANS: D REF: 94 BLM: HO
16. According to Morton, Schafer, and Ferraro (2011), physical abuse during childhood can lead to which of the following chronic diseases later in life?

a. dementia

b. heart disease

c. diabetes

d. cancer
ANS: D REF: 94-95 BLM: REM

17. Lovell, Cuneo, and Gass (2010) report that after one reaches the age of 70 years, one loses one’s muscle strength by what annual percentage?

a. 3%

b. 5%


c. 7%

d. 9%
ANS: A REF: 96 BLM: REM


18. According to Osteoporosis Canada (2011), what is the annual cost to the healthcare system as a result of osteoporosis?

a. $1 billion

b. $1.5 billion

c. $1.9 billion

d. $2.3 billion
ANS: C REF: 96 BLM: REM
19. Margaret is 83 years old. All of her life she loved to cook for her family, but now she has very little interest in food, because it doesn’t “taste the same” as it used to. Which of Margaret’s taste buds is commonly known to decline first?

a. salt


b. sour

c. bitter

d. umami
ANS: A REF: 97 BLM: HO
20. Ginny is 63 years old, and has osteoporosis. Her physician advised her to perform this type of exercise to help increase her bone density. What type of exercise is Ginny performing?

a. archery

b. yoga

c. boxing



d. lifting weights
ANS: D REF: 96 BLM: HO
21. As compared with a 20-year-old, how much do the pupils decrease in size by the time a person reaches 60 years of age?

a. 1/4


b. 1/2

c. 2/3


d. 3/4
ANS: C REF: 97 BLM: REM
22. Lukas’ eye doctor informed him that he suffers from an age-related eye disorder in which there is increased pressure within Lukas’ eyes. What is the name of this condition?

a. macular degeneration

b. glaucoma

c. detached retina

d. cataracts
ANS: B REF: 97 BLM: HO
23. According to Butler-Jones (2010), what proportion of Canadian seniors view their health as excellent or very good?

a. 45%


b. 62%

c. 70%


d. 83%
ANS: B REF: 98 BLM: REM
24. What is the term for a decrease in acute and infectious diseases and an increase in chronic and degenerative diseases?

a.

urbanization

b.

modernization

c.

technologization

d.

epidemiological transition

ANS: D REF: 99 BLM: REM


25. Through improved public health measures, a society manages to decrease its acute and infectious disease burden; however, this leads to an increase in the chronic disease burden. What is this society going through?

a.

a disease burden schism

b.

an epidemiological transition

c.

the rectangularization paradox

d.

pleomorphism

ANS: B REF: 99 BLM: HO


26. What percentage of Canadians aged 65–79 report having four or more chronic diseases?

a.

1/3

b.

1/2

c.

2/3

d.

3/4

ANS: A REF: 99 BLM: REM


27. Which of the following is an explanation that has been proposed to explain higher rates of institutionalization and healthcare expenditures for older women than older men?

a.

a pattern of healthcare use continued from their middle years

b.

women live shorter lives than men

c.

a more proactive approach to health problems by men

d.

physicians’ biases toward finding illnesses in women

ANS: A REF: 100 BLM: HO


28. Which of the following chronic diseases do women report to have, more so than men?

a.

diabetes

b.

rheumatism

c.

Crohn’s disease

d.

emphysema

ANS: B REF: 100 BLM: HO


29 . What percentage of older Canadians say that they have one or more chronic health problems?

a.

more than 10%

b.

more than 40%

c.

more than 90%

d.

more than 100%

ANS: C REF: 99 BLM: REM


30. According to a study in 2009 by Butler-Jones, which of the following statements can be made regarding chronic disease and aging?

a.

Chronic disease decreases with age.

b.

Chronic disease is eliminated with access to proper medication.

c.

Chronic disease does not necessarily increase with aging.

d.

Chronic disease depends upon genetic predisposition.

ANS: C REF: 100 BLM: HO

31. According to Statistics Canada (2007), what trend occurs with self-reported disability rates as one ages?

a.

It increases.

b.

It decreases.

c.

It remains relatively constant.

d.

It has no correlation.

ANS: A REF: 100 BLM: REM


32. Which of the following activities requires agility?

a. standing for a long period of time

b. walking

c. dressing

d. sitting
ANS: C REF: 101 BLM: HO
33. More than 75% of elderly persons have at least one chronic condition, but only about what percentage developed a long term-activity limitation?

a.

10%

b.

20%

c.

50%

d.

60%

ANS: A REF: 101 BLM: REM


34. The National Advisory Council on Aging (2006) found that 7% of older people needed help with ADLs, although which percentage needed help with IADLs?

a.

22.4%

b.

54.3%

c.

63.2%

d.

87.3%

ANS: A REF: 102 BLM: REM


35. According to the text, which of the following is a reason for researchers to study disabilities in later life?

a.

An increase in the number of healthy seniors will decrease the cost of resources that the healthcare system will need to provide.

b.

Older people who cope with their disabilities can help researchers learn how to rehabilitate disabled seniors.

c.

Increased drug use can help prevent or reverse disabilities.

d.

Healthy aging can reverse the process of physical decline.

ANS: B REF: 103 BLM: REM

36. What did Shields and Martel (2006) find in regard to chronic conditions?

a.

They do not always turn into functional disability or the need for assistance.

b.

They always turn into functional disability.

c.

They always receive assistance.

d.

They never require assistance.

ANS: A REF: 102 BLM: REM


37. According to reports, how do older people respond to changing physical problems?

a.

by relying on formal social structures for help

b.

by avoiding difficult situations

c.

by actively training to maintain their functional ability

d.

by adjusting their expectations about their activities

ANS: D REF: 104 BLM: REM

38. Among arthritis sufferers, “replacers” add more passive activities to replace activities they stop doing. Compared to “quitters,” these people tend to be which of the following?

a.

type-A, extroverted personality types

b.

younger, and have fewer mobility problems

c.

unmarried or never-married, and highly goal oriented

d.

more responsive to physiotherapy and retraining programs

ANS: B REF: 104 BLM: HO


39. What is the effect of keeping a positive attitude, cutting down on chores, and relying on others for help for people with activity limitations?

a.

These actions negatively affect their sense of well-being.

b.

These actions do not bring satisfaction.

c.

These actions provide methods to cope with their illness.

d.

These actions reduce their quality of life.

ANS: C REF: 104 BLM: HO


40. What happens to sense thresholds—the point where a person can begin to perceive a stimulus—with age?

a.

They increase.

b.

They decrease.

c.

They stabilize.

d.

They homogenize.

ANS: A REF: 104 BLM: HO


41. Around what age do most people notice changes in their senses?

a.

25

b.

35

c.

60

d.

75

ANS: C REF: 104 BLM: REM


42. Older people tend to use even the simplest assistive devices under which of the following conditions?

a.

if they improve their sense of well-being

b.

when no one else is watching

c.

instead of making changes to their environment

d.

if given the opportunity

ANS: A REF: 105 BLM: HO


43. For what reason will the use of assistive technology by older people increase in the future?

a.

Costs will decline as competition increases.

b.

New cohorts of older people will feel more comfortable using technology.

c.

Older people will want to live fuller and more independent lives than ever before.

d.

The need to process more information, faster, in modern society is increasing the impact of sensory declines on quality of life.

ANS: B REF: 104-106 BLM: HO


44. As a response to the changes of aging, voice-assisted devices, hearing aids, and computers are examples of changes in which of the following?

a.

lifestyle

b.

environment

c.

assistive technology

d.

processes

ANS: C REF: 104-106 BLM: HO


45. In general, how do older people make use of computer technology as compared to young people?

a.

Older people use computer technology more.

b.

Older people use computer technology less.

c.

Older people use computer technology in a more complicated way.

d.

Older people hardly use computer technology.

ANS: B REF: 106 BLM: HO


46. Which of the following best describes computerized solutions designed to meet seniors’ needs?

a.

They are not affordable to most seniors.

b.

They are within 10 years of becoming available to most seniors.

c.

As yet, they have not performed as well as simpler technologies.

d.

They may be more viable in the future when older people are more comfortable with computers.

ANS: D REF: 108 BLM: HO


47. Technological aids can help older people stay active, but for these aids to be useful, they must also be which of the following?

a.

expensive

b.

hand fashioned

c.

advanced

d.

affordable and accessible

ANS: D REF: 108 BLM: HO


48. Which of the following is an important influence on determining whether an older person is likely to use an assistive device?

a.

health status

b.

wealth

c.

peer pressure

d.

ethnicity

ANS: A REF: 108 BLM: HO


49. While assistive devices on the whole have had a positive impact on seniors, which of the following factors has a negative effect upon their usage of assistive devices?

a.

convenience

b.

accessibility

c.

improved mobility

d.

social isolation

ANS: D REF: 109 BLM: HO


50. What is hypokinesia?



a.

a physical problem due to lack of movement

b.

a degenerative neurological disease that afflicts one in twenty seniors

c.

the gradual lowering of the heart rate that occurs with age

d.

improved reflexes that occur as a result of practice and increased motivation

ANS: A REF: 110 BLM: REM


51. According to Shields and Martel (2006), what percentage of seniors who exercised three or more times per week reported good health?

a.

67

b.

33

c.

94

d.

6

ANS: A REF: 110 BLM: REM


52. Which of the following behaviours shows “strong evidence” of a positive association with obesity?

a.

using a wheelchair

b.

playing on the computer

c.

reading

d.

watching television

ANS: D REF: 113 BLM: REM


53. According to Langlois and colleagues (2009), what dietary factor accounted for higher obesity rates among men?

a.

a low water intake

b.

a low fibre intake

c.

a high sugar intake

d.

a high protein intake

ANS: B REF: 114 BLM: REM


54. According to Fontana and Klein (2007), which of the following conditions is considered a negative effect of calorie restriction (CR) among humans?

a.

low muscle mass

b.

dementia

c.

prolonged menstruation in women

d.

digestive problems

ANS: A REF: 115 BLM: REM


55. Which of the following practices can reduce stress and promote mental and physical health and well-being?

a.

watching TV

b.

reading self-help books

c.

looking after a pet

d.

chiropractic treatment

ANS: D REF: 116 BLM: HO


56. Which of the following measures the number of years that a person will be in a state of independence?

a.

disability-free life expectancy

b.

dependence-free life expectancy

c.

compression of morbidity

d.

rectangularization of the survival curve

ANS: B REF: 117 BLM: HO


57. What does Fries (2006) conclude based on a “squaring” or “rectangularization” of the survival curve?

a.

Modern populations can surpass their predicted life expectancy.

b.

The near elimination of chronic diseases such as smallpox and polio has doubled the life span of humans.

c.

By 2020 there will be more than twice the number of seniors predicted by most demographers.

d.

Morbidity is postponed and compressed into fewer years in those with good health habits.

ANS: D REF: 117-118 BLM: REM


58. What does Fries (2006) state in response to studies done criticizing the compression of morbidity hypothesis?

a.

Healthier habits and health policies can compress morbidity.

b.

More recent trends show there will be fewer older people with chronic activity limitations than ever before.

c.

Variability between individuals makes predicting who will become disabled in old age extremely difficult.

d.

Modern society has reached its maximum potential for life expectancy.

ANS: A REF: 118 BLM: REM


59. Rowe and Kahn (1995) emphasize the importance of lifestyle and environmental influences. What do they believe research should now look at for further guidance?

a.

treatment of functional decline

b.

physiological aging

c.

successful aging

d.

extrinsic (determinative) aging

ANS: C REF: 119 BLM: REM

60. Why might the concept of “successful aging” be of little use to the biologist?

a.

If the functional decline can be avoided by the organism, it is not true aging.

b.

It is a qualitative, not a quantitative, measure.

c.

Its main focus is on the clinical application of gerontology.

d.

Ancillary processes of aging often cannot be disentangled from intrinsic processes.

ANS: A REF: 119 BLM: HO


61. Which of the following in general leads to poor health?

a.

low income

b.

financial planning

c.

an apathetic attitude

d.

a strong sense of coherence

ANS: A REF: 120-121 BLM: HO


62. According to Kaplan and Ross (2008), which of the following groups of people are likely to report poor health?

a.

those with three or more children

b.

those with low education

c.

those who are recent immigrants

d.

those who are sedentary

ANS: B REF: 121 BLM: REM


63. Which of the following factors is inconclusive in terms of having an impact on health in later life?

a.

exercise

b.

chronic childhood illness

c.

fetal health

d.

diet and nutrition

ANS: C REF: 121 BLM: HO


64. Having which of the following in one’s lifestyle is pivotal to healthy aging?

a.

stress

b.

relaxation

c.

balance

d.

activity

ANS: C REF: 122 BLM: HO




SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS
1. What is “intrinsic aging?” Define the term, and then explain Strehler’s four criteria for intrinsic aging.
ANS:

Student answers should include the following:

Intrinsic aging is one of the two types of aging that occur in humans. Intrinsic aging includes changes such as a decrease in lung capacity, hardening of the arteries, and arthritis.
Strehler lists four criteria for intrinsic (also known as true) aging:

1. It takes place in all members of a species.

2. It is basic to the organism: i.e., a decrease in lung capacity.

3. It is progressive: i.e., the accumulation of debris in cells leads cells to stop functioning.

4. It leads to decline in physical function. This increases the risk of illness and death.
REF: 90-91
2. Describe the three models of interaction between the environment and genetic processes as presented by Shanahan and Hofer (2011).
ANS:

Student answers should include the following:

Shanahan and Hofer describe three models of interaction between the environment and genetic processes: the sensitive period model, the accumulation model, and the pathway model.

1. The sensitive period model highlights the effect of the environment on the individual at all critical points of development. While a person’s basic genetic makeup doesn’t change throughout life, “Different genes may be expressed or ‘switched on’ at different developmental periods” (Kremer and Lyons 2011). So poor nutrition in childhood can lead to poor bone development. And this can lead to frailty in old age.

2. The accumulation model says that deficits early in life can lead to “cumulative disadvantage.” Kremen and Lyons (2011) say that a person’s “genetic endowment” determines a person’s exposure to the environment. Genetic conditions determine to some degree a person’s achievement in school and their social skills. This will influence a person’s socio-economic status throughout life. Likewise, the environment influences genetic expression. For example, poverty in childhood often leads to poor nutrition, and this leads to poor performance in school, low pay at work, and poverty in old age.

3. The pathway model points to complex patterns of challenges, insults, and advantages. This model allows for creative response to stressful life events. Shanahan and Hofer say that “many people who experience early adversity and possess genetic risk do not show symptoms of specific psychopathologies in later life.” This model says that biology is not destiny.


REF: 94-95
3. What is the greatest cause for injury among older Canadians? Describe what measures are currently being taken to prevent this injury.
ANS:

Student answers should include the following:


Falls rank as the most common cause of injuries among seniors. One in three seniors will fall at least once each year. Illness, poor balance, medications, and cognitive impairment all increase the risk of a fall. Most falls that lead to hospitalization take place in the home. And falls can quickly and negatively impact the health status of seniors and their families.
What can seniors and their families do to prevent falls?

  • Seniors can keep their floors clear of slippery rugs and electrical cords.

  • Exercise can help a person maintain good balance and strength.

  • Fall prevention programs can help a person assess risk and take steps to prevent a fall.

  • Seniors can purchase footwear that is comfortable and has good “grip.”

REF: 101


ESSAY QUESTIONS
1. How do improvements in technology benefit today’s seniors? Provide and discuss some examples.
ANS:

Student answers should include the following:


Today, technology assists older people to cope with aging in numerous ways.

  • Some people wear electric pacemakers to regulate their hearts.

  • People with severe arthritis can have joint replacement surgery.

  • Small utensils have rubber mounted on them for easier grip.

  • There are battery-powered tub seats to lift and lower a person into a bathtub.

  • There are living room chairs that lift the person to a standing position.

  • A bathroom grab bar can prevent slips and falls.

  • There are talking books and computerized reading aids.

  • Many people wear hearing aids that adjust to the environment.

Such devices allow older people the dignity and independence to age in place.


REF: 105-106
2. Interview a senior about his or her usage of computers and the Internet. How often does he/she use

the computer? For what purpose does he/she use the computer?


ANS:

Student answers should include the following:


Older people still lag behind the general population in computer and Internet usage; however, many

seniors use their computers for a variety of reasons.



  • older people often use computers to research health-related information

  • some older people use the computer to connect with their friends, grandchildren or family in other cities and towns (they may use Skype or Facebook)

  • some older people like to play games on the computer

  • depending upon how comfortable one is, he/she may use the computer to shop or to do his/her banking online

REF: 106-108


3. Discuss the concept of dietary and calorie restriction among older adults. What are the advantages

and disadvantages of this practice?


ANS:

Student answers should include the following:


Research studies have shown that calorie restriction (CR) “is the only environmental intervention that

consistently and strongly increases maximum life span and retards a broad array of indicators of bio-

logical aging in many of the laboratory rodents studied so far.” Also, research has shown that “CR

conferred a decreased risk of dying from an age-related disease.”


Humans are not rodents, however. And long-term studies of CR in humans pose problems of cost

and compliance. Few Westerners, however, have put themselves on the CR diet, because it is found

to be too restrictive. Long-term results for humans are not known. And CR without sound

nutrition could lead to bone fractures, infections, low muscle mass, weakness, and anemia. To date, there

has not been a study that has determined an optimum calorie intake to achieve the best effects from CR.
Some relatively current studies have shown that there has been a decrease in fat mass, a reduced

concentration of a marker for inflammation, reduced damage to DNA and RNA, and better heart

function. A study that combined CR with exercise showed the best results. Other studies have

shown that subjects obtain better fasting blood sugar and insulin levels.


Furthermore, a group called the Calorie Restriction Society showed a decrease in body fat and a

“profound reduction” in the major risk factors for heart disease, including lower cholesterol and a



“remarkable lowering effect on systolic diastolic blood pressure.”
REF: 115

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