Performance of agriculture in orissa: intertemporal and spatial variations importance of agriculture



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Table-4.6































Percentage of GCA under Different Crops in Orissa


(Figures in percentage)




























Sl.

Principal Crop

1970-71

1980-81

1990-91

1995-96

1996-97

1997-98

1998-99

No.

























1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1.

Paddy

66.1

47.9

45.9

71.8

75.7

74.7

74.4

2.

Total Cereals

72.4

59.3

51.7

75.0

79.6

78.0

77.6

3.

Total Pulses

12.5

19.7

22.2

14.2

10.6

12.2

11.8

4.

Total Foodgarins

84.9

79.0

73.9

89.2

90.2

90.2

89.4

5.

Total Oil Seeds

4.9

8.4

12.1

7.3

6.9

7.0

6.4

6.

Total Fibres

1.2

1.1

0.9

1.0

1.2

1.2

1.2

7.

Other Crops

8.1

10.6

12.4

2.5

1.7

1.6

3.0




All Crops

100

100

100

100

100

100

100




TotalArea

(‘000 Hectare)

5601

6130

6304

6309

5897

6022

5980




Source: (1) Government of Orissa, Economic Survey, 1999-2000, Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Bhubaneswar,

(2) Agricultural Statistics of Orissa – At a Glance, 1996, Directorate of Agriculture and Food Production, Bhubaneswar.


quality cane seeds, farm implements and drip irrigation under two schemes, namely, Sugarcane Development Programme under the state plan and Sustainable Development of Sugarcane Based Cropping System under the centrally sponsored plan.

State government is now putting emphasis on development of horticulture. Hill tracts of KBK districts and of Phulbani and Gajapati districts have been identified as suitable regions for cultivation of commercial fruits, use of hybrid vegetable seeds, propagation of off-season vegetable cultivation and the like. Oil palm plantation and use of drip irrigation are being given priority during Ninth plan.


INTER-DISTRICT AND REGIONAL VARIATIONS

It is observed that there are wide variations in agricultural performance in Orissa across zones and districts. There are broadly four agro-climatic zones in Orissa : Northern Plateau, Central Table Land, Eastern Ghat and Coastal Plain. Though Orissa has 30 districts since 1993, we have presented the data for the old undivided 13 districts for the purpose of showing changes in different agricultural indicators over time. Table 4.7 shows that during 1998 yield rate of foodgrains was the highest in Coastal Plain followed by Central Table Land, Eastern Ghat and Northern Plateau in that order. Interdistrict variations in yield rate of foodgrains show that it ranges from the highest 1279 kg/ha in Ganjam to the lowest 590 kg/ha in Kalahandi. Irrigation is the most important determining factor of agricultural productivity. Percentage of gross cropped area irrigated is the highest, 69 per cent, for Cuttack district and the lowest, 25 per cent, for Kalahandi.


To depict the district-wise agricultural development disparity scenario, composite Agricultural Development Index (ADI) have been constructed by ‘Deprivation Method’ by using nine agricultural development indicators, such as (i) % cultivable land to total land area, (ii) % area sown to total cultivatable area, (iii) % irrigated area to GCA, (iv) cropping intensity in %, (v) % GCA under HYV rice, (vi) fertiliser consumption per hectare of GCA, (vii) total road per 100 sq. km of area, (viii) per capita credit to agriculture and, (ix) average yield of rice (Table 4.8).
A careful analysis of the computed ADIs for different districts reveals that the four coastal districts (Balasore, Cuttack, Puri and Ganjam) and two districts of Central Table Land Area (Sambalpur and Bolangir) are agriculturally more advanced than other districts; as they have always occupied the first six positions in the three reference years over three decades (1980-81 to 1998-99). All the above districts have exchanged the first six ranks among themselves during the reference years. The agricultural success of four coastal districts is due to well-developed irrigation facilities and vast tracts of plain and fertile land comprising alluvial soil. Districts of northern plateau zone namely Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar and Sundergarh, and Koraput of eastern ghat area are found to be the most backward districts as they have secured the lowest ranks during the reference years. A significant proportion of gross cropped area in these districts is under rainfed agriculture and, thus, drought prone. Phulbani is the only district having sliding or worsening agricultural development index over the reference time period.

Table – 4.7


Factors Affecting Inter-District and Regional Variations in Yield in Orissa

Sl.

Zone/District

Area Under

Yield Rate

Foodgrain

Cropping

Fertiliser

Annual

% of Gross

Average size

Proportion

No.




Foodgrain

of Foodgrains

Production

Intensity

Consumption

Rainfall

Cropped

of Operational

of literate
















in %

per Hectare




Area

Holdings

Population



















of Gross




Irrigated




in Rural



















Cropped Area










Area







('000 Ha)

(kg/Ha)

('000 tonnes)




(kg/Ha)

(in mm)




(Hectares)










(1998-99)

(1998-99)

(1998-99)

(1998-99)

(1998-99)

(1998-99)

(1998-99)

(1991)

(1991)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

I

NORTHERN PLATEAU

1018.7

645.0

657.0

126.0

20.5

1024.4

29.4

1.38




1

Mayurbhanj

410.0

798.0

327.0

127.0

24.0

1029.6

32.5

1.25

28.8

2

Kendujhar

302.9

623.0

116.9

134.0

20.0

1006.9

30.8

1.28

34.5

3

Sundargarh

305.8

697.0

213.1

120.0

16.0

1090.5

24.0

1.73

34.4

II

CENTRAL TABLE LAND

1508.3

1006.0

1518.2

132.0

40.5

1003.9

38.5

1.53




4

Bolangir

455.1

933.5

365.4

133.0

24.5

862.0

35.2

1.61

30.5

5

Sambalpur

659.2

1109.3

844.6

128.0

60.8

1059.6

41.0

1.71

38.3

6

Dhenkanal

394.1

773.0

308.3

143.5

18.5

1090.1

32.0

1.22

42.3

III

EASTERN GHAT

1507.5

881.0

1327.6

133.0

22.4

1081.9

29.1

1.71




7

Koraput

753.6

1111.3

837.7

131.5

20.5

1151.0

30.9

1.70

14.3

8

Kalahandi

564.4

590.0

326.9

138.5

18.5

1051.0

25.3

1.89

23.5

9

Phulbani

189.1

866.0

163.0

135.0

11.5

1043.9

32.5

1.38

29.5

IV

COASTAL PLAIN

2481.1

1151.0

2785.4

157.0

50.1

1192.2

57.4

1.07




10

Baleswar

453.7

1044.5

461.2

127.5

89.5

1203.5

49.9

1.19

48.0

11

Cuttack

781.3

1202.5

939.0

162.8

44.3

1371.9

69.1

1.05

51.5

12

Puri

589.9

1156.0

674.9

167.3

37.0

1043.9

58.6

1.01

50.9

13

Ganjam

593.2

1278.5

710.4

153.0

36.5

1149.5

46.1

1.03

32.7




Orissa

6515.7

965.1

6288.3

139.0

36.0

1151.0

41.6

1.34

34.5

Source:

1. Agricultural Statistics of Orissa- At a Glance, 1996, Orissa Agricultural Statistics, 1998-99, Directorate of Agriculture & Food Production, Orissa, Bhubansewar.




2. Report on Agricultural Censuse in Orissa, (Various Issues), Agricultural Census Commissioner, Board of Revenue, Orissa, Cuttack.











Table- 4.8





District-wise Agricultural Development Indices in Orissa




Sl.

Zone/Districts

Agricultural

Rank

Agricultural

Rank

Agricultural

Rank




No.




Development




Development




Development













Index




Index




Index













1980 - 81

1990 - 91

1998 - 99




I

NORTHERN PLATEAU



















1

Mayurbhanj

0.2868

8

0.2222

12

0.3267

10




2

Kendujhar

0.1135

13

0.2452

8

0.2546

11




3

Sundargarh

0.1326

12

0.2290

11

0.2286

12




II

CENTRAL TABLE LAND



















4

Bolangir

0.4133

6

0.4645

6

0.4127

6




5

Sambalpur

0.5452

4

0.6618

2

0.6192

3




6

Dhenkanal

0.2101

10

0.2895

7

0.4022

7




III

EASTERN GHAT






















7

Koraput

0.1712

11

0.2142

13

0.3569

9




8

Kalahandi

0.2605

9

0.2305

10

0.3581

8




9

Phulbani

0.3477

7

0.2429

9

0.1672

13




IV

COASTAL PLAIN



















10

Baleswar

0.5049

5

0.6136

3

0.5878

4




11

Cuttack

0.6963

1

0.4986

5

0.6946

2




12

Puri

0.5656

3

0.5785

4

0.7503

1




13

Ganjam

0.6961

2

0.7208

1

0.4860

5




14

C.V (%)

54.06




48.19




41.99







Source: Computed from : 1.Orissa Agricultural Statistics 1980-81, 1990-91, 1998-99, Department of Agriculture and










Food Productions, Orissa, Bhubaneswar.



















2.Profile of Districts, CMIE, Oct.2000.













1
. The component indices are constructed by using the following formula:









where Iij = component index for the jth district with respect to the ith variable.






Xij = actual value of the jth district in the ith variable.







min Xij and max Xij are the minimum and maximum value of the ith variable.




2. After calculating the component indices the agricultural development index is constructed by using the following formula:








where Ij = the index of the jth district. Here, equal weights are given to all the indicators
However, it is heartening to note that the co-efficient of variation (C.V) in ADI values of districts is gradually declining over time. In 1980-81, C.V was 54.06 %, which decreased to 48.19% during 1990-91 and to 41.99% during 1998-99. From this it may be inferred that with passage of time the inter-district agricultural disparity in Orissa has declined.
The next logical step is to probe into the causes for inter-district variations in agricultural performance in Orissa. To identify such factors responsible for variations in agricultural productivity across districts we have estimated a regression equation as mentioned below.


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