Pensum Høst 2009 Literature and nation-building



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ARA 4303 Modern Arabic Fiction and Dramatic Arts (Stephan Guth)

Pensum Høst 2009

Literature and nation-building –

The formation of ‘national literature’ in the Arab world

Tordsdag kl. 10:15–12, grupperom 8 Georg Sverdrups hus, 20.8.–3.12.

Semesteroppgave: 1. desember, kl. 15:00
!!! (foreløpig liste, 8. Dec. 2018) !!!

 Framed numbers (like this) refer to the respective number in the mastercopy folder



F = available in Fronter

T = Translation

1 Table of Contents / Bibliography
2 Source Texts

Arabic texts to be read in class will be chosen from among the following (according also to students’ preferences) (all available as mastercopies and/or in Fronter): [exc.] = only excerpts will be read

numbered = compulsory reading



    • = recommended additional reading / for presentations and/or semesteroppgave




  1. Jurjī Zaydān: one of historical novels, e.g. al-Mamlūk al-shārid (1891) [exc.] F

  2. Muḥammad al-Muwayliḥī: adīth ʿĪsā b. Hishām (1898ff./1907) [exc., “Maḥkamat al-istiʾf”] F). – T R. Allen, A Period of Time, ch. 7 “The Court of Appeal” F

  3. Maḥmūd Ṭāhir Ḥaqqī: ʿAdhrāʾ Dinshawāy (1906) → T Saad El-Gabalawy, The Maiden of Dinshway F

  4. Ḥāfiẓ Ibrāhīm, marthiya on Muṣṭafā Kāmil (1908) F

  5. Jubrān Khalīl Jubrān, Ṣurākh al-qubūr (1908) F

  6. Muṣṭafā Luṭfī al-Manfalūṭī: selections from al-ʿAbarāt and al-Naẓarāt (collected essays, publ. as book in 1915 and 1910-20 [3 vols.], respectively) F . – T N. Barbour F

  7. Muḥammad Ḥusayn Haykal: Zaynab (1913), chs. I-1 & II,5 F . – T J. M. Grinsted F

  8. Muḥammad Taymūr: Fī ’l-qiār (1917) FT W. Ende, Sollen Fellachen lesen lernen? F

  9. Maḥmūd Ṭāhir Lāshīn: adīth al-qarya (1929) FT S. Hafez, Village Small Talk F

  10. Maḥmūd Taymūr: al-Shaykh Jumʿa (1922/25) F

  11. Abū ’l-Qāsim al-Shābbī: Irādat al-ayāt (1933) F

  12. Tawfīq al-akīm: ʿAwdat al-rū(1934) [exc.] FT W. M. Hutchins F


Literary ‘manifestos’ of adab qawmī

  1. ʿĪsā ʿUbayd: preface to Iḥsān Hānim: majmūʿat qiṣaṣ miṣriyya ʿaṣriyya. Cairo: al-Dār al-qawmiyya, 1964 [11921]) (al-Maktaba al-ʿArabiyya) F

  2. Haykal, Muḥammad Ḥusayn: “al-Adab al-qawmī”, in: id., Thawrat al-adab, Kairo: Mak­tabat an-Nahḍa al-miṣriyya, 1965 [11925]) [unfortunately not available; instead, read:] – Semah, David (1974): “Haykal and ‘National Literature’” = ch. 7 of id., Four Egyptian Literary Critics F , and/or

Maḥmūd Taymūr: ājatunā ilā ’l-fann (1937) F

For comparison:

  1. M. ʿA. Jamālzādeh, preface to Yeki bud yeki nabud (Berlin 1921) → T H. Daragahi, in Critical Perspectives on Modern Persian Literature, ed. Th. M. Ricks, 110-23 F . – And/or

ʿÖmer Seyfeddīn, Yeñi Lisān (first published in 1911 in Genç Ḳalemler), in Seçme Hikâyeler or Dil konsusunda yazılar, 20-33. – And/or

Żiyā Gökalp: Türkçüluğüñ EsāslarıT R. Devereux, The Principles of Turkism (selected passages)




  1. Background: articles in newspapers and periodicals

  • “Muqaddima”, al-Muqtaṭaf 1876 F

  • Index of topics, Muntakhabāt al-Muʾayyad 1890 F

  • “al-Iʿlān fī ’l-jarāʾid wa’l-majallāt”, al-Hilāl 1895 F

  • “al-Qarn al-ʿishrūn”, al-Jāmiʿa 1900 F


Turkish & Persian texts in translation (for comparison)

  1. Mīrzā Fetḥ-ʿAlī Ākhundzādeh (Mirzə Fətəli Axundov/ Mirza Fatali Akhundov): Setāregān-e ferib-khordeh (1859). – T The Stars were deceived [from the Internet] F

  2. Moḥammad ʿA. Jamālzādeh: Fārsi sheker ast (1921). – T Persian is Sugar, in: Once Upon a Time, 31-43 F

  • Halide Edib (Adıvar): Yeñi Tūrān (1913), Āteşden Gömlek (1923)

Halide Edib: Eldskjortan: roman från världskriget / auktoriserad översättning från osman-turkiskan av Hjalmar Lindquist; med förord av författerinnan. Stockholm : Norstedt, 1928. – UHS, Mes, ALT 894.35 Adi:Ate+

Halide Edib: Rabia, koransångerskan [= Sinekli Bakkal] [Stockholm] : Hökerberg, 1947.



  • short stories by ʿÖmer Seyfeddīn, Refīḳ Ḫālid (Karay), Ṣādeq Hedāyat, ...

  • [ʿAynī, Ṣadruddīn]: “Aḥmad dīwband”, in: The Sands of Oxus: Boyhood Reminiscences of Sadriddin Aini, Costa Mesa (Calif.): Mazda Publishers, 1998 (Bibliotheca Iranica, Literature series; 6).



3 Secondary literature / reference works

numbered = compulsory reading



    • = recommended additional reading / for presentations and/or semesteroppgaven


3.1 General

  1. Brugman, Jan (1984): An Introduction to the History of Modern Arabic Lite­rature in Egypt. Brill, Leiden. (Studies in Arabic Literature; 10). – Ch. 7 “The Modern Novel” (1. al-Garîdah and al-Sufûr, 2. Haykal, 3. Muḥammad Taymûr, 4. Other Writers of the Sufûr Group), ch. 8 “al-Madrasah al-Ḥadîthah” (1. Introduction, 2. Maḥmûd Ṭâhir Lâshîn, 3. Maḥmûd Taymûr, 4. Yaḥyâ Ḥaqqî) F

  • EALB = Essays in Arabic Literary Biography, vol. 4: 1850-1950, ed. Roger Allen. About to appear [in 2009, at latest] with Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, in the mîzân series.

  • EI2 = Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd ed.

  • GAL S III = Brockelmann, Carl: Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur, Suppl. III.

  • CHALMAL = Cambridge History of Modern Arabic Literature: Modern Arabic Literature / ed. M. M. Badawi. – Cambridge University Press 1992.

  • EAL = Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature, ed. Paul Starkey & Julie S. Meisami.

  • Gumbrecht, Hans Ulrich (1997): In 1926: Living at the Edge of Time. Harvard UP, Cambridge Mass. & London.

  1. Hourani, Albert (1962): Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age, 1798-1939. London etc.

  • Hourani, Albert (1991): A History of the Arab Peoples. London.

  • Rebhan, Helga (1986): Geschichte und Funktion einiger politischer Termini im Arabischen des 19. Jahrhunderts (1798-1882). Steiner, Wiesbaden.

  • Wielandt, Rotraud (1980): Das Bild der Europäer in der modernen arabischen Erzähl- und Theaterliteratur. Steiner, Beirut/Wiesbaden. (= BTS; 23).

  1. articles Waṭaniyya (J. Couland) & Ḳawmiyya (esp. I, “In the Arab world”, P.J. Vatikiotis), in EI2. F(link)


3.2 The Press and Modernism

  • Ayalon, Ami (1995): The Press in the Arab Middle East. A History. New York u. Oxford.

  1. Cachia, Pierre (1990): “The Assumptions and Aspirations of Egyptian Modernists”. In: P.C., An Overview of Modern Arabic Literature, Edinburgh Univ. Pr., 1-28 F

  2. Cachia, Pierre (1990): “The Development of a Modern Prose Style”. In: P.C., An Overview of Modern Arabic Literature, Edinburgh Univ. Pr., 43-58 F

  3. Cachia, Pierre (1992): “The Prose Stylists”. CHALMAL, 404-442.

  4. Kelidar, Abbas (1993): “The political press in Egypt 1882-1914”. In: Contemporary Egypt: through Egyptian eyes. Essays in honour of Prof. P.J. Vatikiotis, ed. by Charles Tripp, London etc., 1-21 F

    • Kenny, L.M. (1976): “East versus West in al-Muqtaṭaf, 1875-1900. Image and Self-Image”. In: Essays on Islamic Civilization, presented to Niyazi Berkes, ed. by Donald P. Little, Leiden, 140-154 F

    • Kudsi-Zadeh, A. Albert (1980): “The Emergence of Political Journalism in Egypt”. MW 70: 47-55.

    • McFadden, Tom J.: Daily Journalism in the Arab States. Columubus 1953. => ch. I+II = “Origins of Arab Journalism” + “Traditions of A.J.”, 1-18 F

    • Unbehaun, H. (ed., 2004): The Middle Eastern Press as a Forum for Literature. Peter Lang, Frankfurt/Main (etc.). (Heidelberger Studien zur Geschichte und Kultur des modernen Vorderen Orients; vol. 30).

  1. “press” [P. C. Sadgrove] & “printing and publishing” [G. Roper], in EAL F

  2. djarīda” [coll. eds.], in EI2 F(link)

  3. nahḍa” [N. Tomiche] & “iṣ”, esp. section i., “The Arab World” [A. Merad], in EI2 F(link)


3.3 Nation-building, Nationalism, and Literature

  1. Anderson, Benedict (1991): Imagined Communities. Verso, London. F

  • Bhabha, Homi K. (ed., 1990): Nation and Narration. Routledge, New York.

  • Chatterjee, Partha (1993): The Nation and its Fragments. New Jersey: Princeton UP.

  • Cole, Juan (1996): “Marking Boundaries, Marking Time: The Iranian Past and the Construction of the Self by Qajar Thinkers.” Iranian Studies 29: 35-56. F

  • Gershoni, Israel / Jankowski, James (1986): Egypt, Islam und the Arabs: The Search for Egyptian Nationhood. New York: Oxford UP.

  • Gershoni, Israel / Jankowski, James (1997): Rethinking Nationalism in the Arab Middle East. New York.

  1. Jameson, Frederic (1986): “Third World Literature in the Era of Multinational Capital”. Social Text 15: 65-88.

  2. Kadhim, Hussein N. (2004): The Poetics of Anti-Colonialism in the Arabic Qaṣīdah.  Brill, Leiden (Brill Studies in Middle Eastern Literatures; 29). F

  3. Khouri, Mounah A. (1971): Poetry and the Making of Modern Egypt (1882-1922). Brill, Leiden (Studies in Arabic Literature, Suppl.s to the JAL; 1) [reviewed by R. Ostle in BSOAS 35,1 (1972): 154-156].

  4. Löfgren, Orvar (1989): “The Nationalization of Culture”. Ethnologia Europaea 19: 5-23 F

  • Salem, Elise (2003): Constructing Lebanon. A Century of Literary Narratives. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

  1. Selim, Samah (2004): The Novel and the Rural Imaginary in Egypt, 1880-1995. RoutledgeCurzon, New York & London. (RoutledgeCurzon Studies in Arabic and Middle Eastern Literature), esp. “Introduction” (pp. 1-24), and ch. 2, “Novels and Nations” (pp. 60-90). F

  2. [text on the Norwegian and/or other European movement(s) of ‘national literature’, still to be selected]. First approach: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norwegian_literature and/or http://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norges_litteratur F(link)


3.4 Literary theory. The short story genre (general features)

  • Bonheim, H. (1982): The Narrative Modes: Techniques of the Short Story. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer.


3.5 History of modern Arabic literature

General

  1. Abdel-Meguid, Abdel-Aziz (1956?): The Modern Arabic Short Story. Its Emergence, Development, and Form. Dār al-Ma‛ārif, Cairo. F

    • Allen, Roger (comp. & ed., 1987): Modern Arabic Literature. Ungar Publ. Co., New York.

  1. Allen, Roger [2009]: “Introduction”, in: EALB F

    • Badawi, M. M. (1993): A Short History of Modern Arabic Literature. Clarendon Press, Oxford [etc.].

  1. Badawi, M.M. (1992): “The Background”, in: id. (ed.), Modern Arabic Literature, Cambridge UP (Cambridge History of Arabic Literature / CHAL), pp. 1-23 F

    • Brugman, Jan (1984): An Introduction to the History of Modern Arabic Literature in Egypt. Brill, Leiden. (Studies in Arabic Literature; vol. x).

    • Cachia, Pierre (1990): An Overview of Modern Arabic Literature. Edinburgh Univ. Press.

    • Camera d’Afflitto, Isabella (1998): Letteratura araba contemporanea: dalla nahḍah a oggi. Carocci editore, Roma.

    • Guth, Stephan (2003): Brückenschläge: eine integrierte ‘turko-arabische’ Romangeschichte (Mitte 19. - Mitte 20. Jhdt.). Reichert, Wiesbaden. (= Literaturen im Kontext; 14).

  1. Hafez, Sabry (1992): “The modern Arabic short story”. In: M. M. Badawi (ed., 1992), Modern Arabic Literature [CHALMAL], 270-328, esp. till 290.

  2. Hafez, Sabry (1993): The Genesis of Arabic Narrative Discourse. A Study in the Sociology of Modern Arabic Literature. Saqi Books, London.

    • Hafez, Sabry (2007): The Quest for Identities. The Development of the Modern Arabic Short Story. Saqi Books, London [etc.]. 

  1. Hamarneh, Walid: “fiction, modern”, in: EAL F

    • Jad, Ali B. (1983): Form and Technique in the Egyptian Novel, 1912-1971. Ithaca Press, London, for St Antony’s College, Oxford. (St Antony’s Middle East Monographs; no. 13)

    • Moosa, Matti (1997): The Origins of Modern Arabic Fiction. Lynne Rienner, Boulder [etc.]. (1st ed. Washington, D.C., 1983).

  1. Ostle, Robin (ed., 1991): Modern Literature in the Near and Middle East, 1850-1970. Routledge, London. [esp. chs. 1, 3, 6, 8, 11, 13 = on Arabic literature and its contexts]

    • Starkey, Paul (2006): Modern Arabic Literature. Edinburgh UP (The New Edinburgh Islamic Surveys).

    • Tomiche, Nada (1993): La littérature arabe contemporaine: roman, nouvelle, théâtre. Maisonneuve et Larose, Paris. 


3.6 Individual authors

ʿAbd Allāh Nadīm


    • Delanoue, Gilbert: “ʿAbd Allāh Nadīm (1845-1896). Les idées politiques et morales d'un journaliste Egyptien”. In: BEO XVII (1961-62), 75-115.

Yaʿqūb annūʿ “Abū Naḍḍāra (zarqāʾ)” & satire in 19th c. theater


    • Fahmy, Ziad (2008): “Francophone Egyptian Nationalists, Anti-British Discourse, and European Public Opinion, 1885-1910: The Case of Mustafa Kamil and Ya'qub Sannu'”. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East [Duke University] 28,1: 170-183.

    • Gendzier, Irene L. (1966): The Practical Visions of Yaʿqub Sanuʿ. Cambridge, MA, (Harvard Middle East Monographs; 15).

    • Al-Sayyid Marsot, Afaf Lutfi (1971): “The Cartoon in Egypt”. Comparative Studies in Society and History 13,1: 2-15.

    • Moosa, Matti (21997): “Yaqub Sanu and the Rise of the Arab Drama in Egypt”. = ch. 3 of his Origins... [see above, 3.1], pp. 41-66. Appeared earlier in International Journal of Middle East Studies 5,4 (Sept. 1974): 401-433.  

Jurjī Zaydān


    • Hamarneh, Walid [2009]: “Jurjī Zaydān”, in: EALB [see above, 3.1] F . With bibliography.

    • Philipp, Thomas (1979): Ǧurǧī Zaidān. His Life and Thought. Orient-Institut, Beirut/Steiner, Wiesbaden.

  1. [For al-Mamlūk al-shārid:] Guth, Stephan (1997): “Fa-ġrawraqat ʿuyūnuhum bi-d-dumūʿ... – Some notes on the flood of tears in early modern Arabic prose literature”.In: Encounters of Words and Texts: Intercultural Studies in Honor of Stefan Wild..., ed. by L. Edzard and Chr. Szyska, Hildesheim [etc.]: Olms, pp. 111-123 F

Faraḥ Anṭūn


    • Reid, Donald M. (1975): The Odyssey of Faraḥ Anṭūn. A Syrian Christian’s Quest for Secularism. Minneapolis, Chicago.

Aḥmad Shawqī


    • Boudot-Lamotte, Antoine (1977): Ahmad Šawqī: L’homme et l’œuvre. Damascus. Introduction: pp. xx-xlv.

    • Boudot-Lamotte, Antoine (1996): “Shawḳī, Aḥmad”, in EI2, ix, 379-80.

    • Kadhim, Hussein N. (2004): “The Lord and the Bard. Colonial Discourse and Counter-Discourse”. ch. 1, in: Kadhim (2004) [see above, 3.3], 1-34 F

    • Shahid, Irfan [2009]: “Ahmad Shawqī”, in: EALB [see above, 3.1]. With bibliography.

Muḥammad al-Muwayliḥī


  1. Allen, Roger (1992): [part one of] A Period of Time: a study and translation of Hadith ‘Isa ibn Hisham by Muhammad al-Muwaylihi. Ithaca Press, Reading (St. Antony’s Middle East monographs; no. 27), pp. 1-97. (mastercopy)

    • Allen, Roger [2009]: “Muhammad al-Muwaylihī”, in: EALB [see above, 3.1]. With bibliography.

    • Brugman (1984), Introduction [see above, 3.1], ch. iii.3., pp. 69-73.

    • Moosa, Matti (21997): “The Revival of the Maqama”, = ch. 6 of his Origins... [see above, 3.1], pp. 121-55. (mastercopy)

Muṣṭafā Lufī al-Manfalūī & Jubrān Khalīl Jubrān


    • Bushrui, Suheil [2009]: “Jubrān Khalīl Jubrān”, in: EALB [see above, 3.1]. With bibliography.

    • Guth, Stephan (1997): “Fa-ġrawraqat...” (see above, no. 43, s.v. Jurjī Zaydān) F

    • Najīb, Nājī (1983): Kitāb al-aḥzān: fuṣūl fī ’l-tārīkh al-nafsī wa’l-wijdānī wa’l-ijtimāʾī lil-fiʾāt al-mutawassiṭa al-ʿarabiyya. Beirut, Dār al-Tanwīr.

    • Starkey, Paul [2009]: “Mustafā Lutfī al-Manfalūtī”, in: EALB [see above, 3.1]. With bibliography.

Maḥmūd āhir aqqī


    • El-Gabalawy, Saad (1986): Three pioneering Egyptian novels / transl. with a crit. introd. by S. El-G. York Pr., Fredericton, NB.

    • Selim, Semah (2004): The Novel and the Rural Imagery...[see above, 3.3], ch. 3: “Foundations: pastoral and anti-pastoral,” pp. 91-126.

āfi Ibrāhīm


    • Hartman, Michelle [2009]: “Muhammad Hāfiz Ibrāhīm”, in: EALB [see above, 3.1]. With bibliography F

Muḥammad Ḥusayn Haykal


    • Hartman, Michelle [2009]: “Muhammad Husayn Haykal”, in: EALB [see above, 3.1]. With bibliography F

    • Johansen, Baber (1967): Muḥammad Ḥusain Haikal: Europa und der Orient im Weltbild eines ägyptischen Liberalen. Orient-Institut, Beirut / Steiner, Wiesbaden. (Beiruter Texte und Studien; 5).

    • Selim, Semah (2004): The Novel and the Rural Imagery... [see above, 3.3], ch. 3: “Foundations: pastoral and anti-pastoral,” pp. 91-126.

    • Semah, David (1974): “Haykal and ‘National Literature’” = ch. 7 of id., Four Egyptian Literary Critics. Brill, Leiden. F

    • Smith, Charles D. (1983): Islam and the Search for Social Order in Modern Egypt: A Biography of Muḥammad Ḥusayn Haykal. SUNY Press, Albany NY.

Muḥammad Taymūr


    • de Moor, E. (1990): “Le discours narratif dans les contes de Muḥammad Taymūr”. Arabica, no. 37, pp. 1-46. Revised version contained in id. (1991), Un oiseau en cage: le discours littéraire de Muḥammad Taymūr (1892-1921). Rodopi, Amsterdam [etc.].

    • Brugman (1984), Introduction [see above, 3.1], ch. vii.3.: 244-6.

    • Ende, Werner (1988): “Sollen Fellachen lesen lernen? Muḥammad Taymūrs Kurzgeschichte Fī ’l-qiār”. Die Welt des Islams, 28: 112-125 F

Maḥmūd āhir Lāshīn


    • Brugman (1984), Introduction [see above, 3.1], ch. viii.2., pp. 252-4.

  1. Hafez, Sabry (1984): “The maturation of a new literary genre”. International Journal of Middle East Studies, 16: 367-389 F , and/or [2009]: “Mahmūd Tāhir Lāshīn”, in: EALB [see above, 3.1] F

Maḥmūd Taymūr


    • GAL S III [see above, 3.1], pp. 218 ff. F

    • Brugman (1984), Introduction [see above, 3.1], ch. viii.3., pp. 254-63.

    • Guth, Stephan [2009]: “Mahmūd Taymūr”, in: EALB [see above, 3.1] F. With bibliography.

    • Hafez (1993), Genesis [see above, 3.1], chs. 5, pp. 199-214.

    • Wielandt, Rotraud (1983): Das erzählerische Frühwerk Maḥmūd Taymūrs: ein Beitrag zu einem Archiv der modernen arabischen Literatur. Orient-Institut, Beirut / Steiner, Wiesbaden. (Beiruter Texte und Studien; 26).

Abū ’l-Qāsim al-Shābbī


    • M. M. Badawi (1975): A Critical Introduction to Modern Arabic Poetry, Cambridge UP, ch. “The Romantics”, esp. 157-168 F

    • Omri, Mohamed-Salah [2009]: “Abū ’l-Qāsim al-Shābbī”, in: EALB [see above, 3.1]. With bibliography F

    • Speight, R. Marston (1973): “A Modern Tunisian Poet: Abū ’l-Qāsim al-Shābbī (1909-1934)”, International Journal of Middle East Studies 4/2 (April 1973): 176-189.

Tawfīq al-akīm


    • Amin, Dina [2009]: “Tawfīq al-Hakīm”, in: EALB [see above, 3.1] F . With bibliography.

    • Hutchins, William Maynard (2003): Tawfīq al-Ḥakīm: A Reader’s Guide. Lynne Rienner, Boulder & London.

    • Starkey, Paul (1987): From the Ivory Tower: A Critical Study of Tawfīq al-akīm. Ithaca Press, London.

    • Starkey, Paul (1995): “The Four Ages of Ḥusayn Tawfīq: Love and Sexuality in the Novels of Tawfīq al-Ḥakīm”, in: Roger Allen et al. (eds.), Love and Sexuality in Modern Arabic Literature, London: Saqī Books, 56-64, notes 231-2.


4 Further recommended background reading & reference works

Additional reading for oral presentations and semesteroppgavene are given individually.


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