Part I: key terms. Define/Identify each of the following terms



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Chapter 2: Neuroscience

AP Review


Part I: KEY TERMS. Define/Identify each of the following terms.
Neuron

Sensory neurons

Motor neurons

Interneurons

Dendrite

Axon


Myelin sheath

Action potential

Threshold

Synapse


Neurotransmitter

Reuptake


Endorphins

Nervous system

Central nervous system (CNS)

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

Nerves

Somatic nervous system



Autonomic nervous system

Parasympathetic nervous system

Reflex

Lesion


Electroencephalogram (EEG)

CT scan


PET scan

MRI


Brainstem

Medulla


Reticular formation

Thalamus


Cerebellum

Limbic system

Amygdala

Hypothalamus

Cerebral cortex

Glial cells

Frontal lobes

Parietal lobes

Occipital lobes

Temporal lobes

Motor cortex

Sensory cortex

Association areas

Aphasia


Broca’s area

Wernicke’s area

Plasticity

Neurogenesis

Corpus callosum

Split brain

Endocrine system

Hormones


Adrenal glands

Pituitary gland

Part II: SHORT ANSWER. Answer each of the following questions in a few sentences. You may use charts or bullets when appropriate.


  1. Describe the structure of a neuron and the process by which an action potential is triggered.




  1. Describe how nerve cells communicate, and discuss the importance of neurotransmitters for human behavior.




  1. Discuss the significance of endorphins, and explain how drugs influence neurotransmitters.




  1. Identify the major divisions of the nervous system and their primary functions, and describe the neurons that carry information throughout the system.




  1. Describe the operation of reflexes in the spinal cord and neural networks in the brain.




  1. Identify and explain the methods used in studying the brain.




  1. Describe the functions of the structures within the brainstem, as well as those of the thalamus and the cerebellum




  1. Describe the functions of the structures in the limbic system.




  1. Describe the structure and functions of the cerebral cortex.




  1. Discuss brain plasticity and what it reveals about brain reorganization.




  1. Describe research on divided and undivided brains, and discuss what it reveals regarding normal brain functioning.

Part III: APPLICATION ESSAY. Use complete sentences to answer the question. Use correct psychological terminology when necessary. An introduction and conclusion are not required, but your essay should be organized and clear.




  1. Discuss how the endocrine and nervous systems become involved when a student feels stress – such as that associated with an upcoming final exam.


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