Britain: Pakistan has inherited many problems and issues from the British, who were, up to 1947, the rulers of Pakistan, Indja and rest of the South Asian sub continent One of the most important was the unprincipled manner they partitioned the sub-continent between Pakistan and India. In this partition, the British rulers so favoured India as to enable her to launch successive aggressions against Pakistan, first on Manavar and Junagarh, then on mo’re
162 CIVICS OF PAKISTAN massive scale against Jammu and Kashmir, which led to dispute that has continued since then They also demarcated the boundaries of former East Pakistan in such a manner as to enable India to send its infiltrators and agents who incited the Bengali secessionists into open revolt with lot of British sympathies for such secession, because of the British interests in tea and other industries as well as in trade and commerce of India In spite of it, Pakistan has friendly relations and co-operation with Great Britain in many ways Pakistan and the Great Britain, along with USA, Turkey and Iran, were the members of the CENTO It was defence pact between these countries But it is now dead Britain is also member of the Aid-to-Pakistan Consortium It granted funds for the electrification of the Lahore-Khanewal section of Pakistan railways, and for the construction of the Terbela Dam under Indus Basin Development Treaty It has also contributed about $20 million for harbour equipment of the new port Qasim In 1976 it pledged about $15 million for the Terbela Dam Lastly, about 2 lakh Pakistanis live and work in Great Britain Moreover, Pakistan has again joined the Commonwealth, which it quitted in. 1971 due to the hostile British attitude on the Bangladesh issue In 1989 when the Pakistani Prime Minster, Benazir Bhutto, visited Great Britain, relations between Pakistan and Britain have improved Pakistan’s application to rejoin the Commonwealth was also supported by the British Government Although some British Members of Parliament condemned atrocities by Indian troops against defenceless Kashmiris, but the British Government, like the Russian Government, supported Indian occupation of Jammu and Kashmir In late 1994, British Foreign Secretary (i e foreign minister) Douglas Hurd declared in Islamabad that Kashmir was an integral part of India Britain thus ditto Indian propaganda that Kashmir is an integral part (atoot ana) of India In October 1999 General Pervaiz Musharraf toppled the Nawaz Sharif’s government The British’Commonwealth suspended Pakistan’s membership as it was an undemocratic step After September 11 Britain once again sought closeness to Pakistan when it became a frontline state in curbing international terrorism President Musharraf’s visited to Britain in June 2003 brought the two countries more close than before PAKISTAN AND THE WORLD163 Pakistan and the U.N.O Pakistan is a member of the U.N.O.: Soon after Independence Pakistan sought the membership of the United Nations Organisation and became its member on the 30th of September, 1947 All members of the UNO supported its candidacy, except Afghanistan, whose representative cast his solitary vote against Pakistan joining this august body As a member, Pakistan has always consistently followed the aims and principles of U N O It has always served the cause of world peace in the comity of nations It has upheld the principles of the U N Charter It has always striven to maintain and promote international peace and security It has developed friendly relations with all nations, based on the respect for equal rights and selfdetermination of peoples It has cooperated with other countries in furthering human progress and welfare The chief aim of the U N O is to save mankind from the recurring scourge of war to maintain world peace and security, to prevent war and remove threats to peace, to bring about adjustment and settlement of international disputes, to foster friendly relations among nations, and to achieve international cooperation in all international problems Pakistan being a peace-loving nation, believes in these ideals and aims for which the U N O came into being Pakistan as a member of U.N.O.:Pakistan has always played an important role in the work and decisions of the U N O and in its various organs We shall now describe the role of Pakistan in the U N O ’s activities and operations 1. U.N. Peace-keeping operations:Like other smaller countries, Pakistan needs the United Nations It has, accordingly, contributed its share in fulfilling the peace aims and goals of its Charter Pakistan’s representatives contributed their share in resolving the controversy about the UNO’s peace-keeping operations A Social Committee of 33 member-states was set up Pakistan helped this committee in its difficult task Pakistan has also provided military contingents in Somalia, Bosnia and other places for UN peace-keeping purposes Recently it has sent its troops to East Timor 2. Disarmament: The responsibility of the United Nations in the field of disarmament is laid down in the Charter In
1959, the UN General Assembly unanimously declared that its goal is a general and complete disarmament under effective international control Consequently, an 18-Nation Disarmament Committee was set up m 1962 with its headquarters at Geneva Its disarmament work is however, rather slow
164 CIVICS OF PAKISTAN 3. Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty of 1963: in 1963, the foreign ministers of the United States the Soviet Union and Great Britain met at Moscow and signed nuclear test ban treaty of a partial nature The Treaty’prohibits nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water, but not underground In the case of the underground tests, no agreement could be arrived at between the three Nuclear Powers which signed this Treaty So is the case even today Pakistan fully subscribes to the aims and objectives of this Treaty, but has not signed it Its reasons are, firstly it wants it to be extended to all nuclear tests, including those undergrounds, secondly, it supports the demand for a treaty of nondissemination of nuclear weapons, so that new state may develop its own nuclear weapons by testing them underground Pakistan’s fears have been justified when, in 1974 India carried out its nuclear device test and thus joined the so-called club of nuclear powers, thirdly Pakistan seeks to conclude such a treaty which would guarantee security of non-nuclear states from any threat of using .nuclear weapons by anyone of the Nuclear Powers and lastly, it seeks guarantees that all nuclear power will be used exclusively for peaceful purposes Pakistan introduced a resolution based on these objectives in the UN General Assembly in 1968, which was accepted by all members except one, namely, India, whose delegations voted against it Again India tested its nuclear devices in early 1998 which forced Pakistan to do so Anyhow Pakistan is carrying on its nuclear activities for peaceful purposes 4. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development:The UNO has organised a conference on international trade and development, known as United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, the UNCTAD Progress in the UNCTAD has been slow due to the difficulty in arriving at a consensus with the developed countries on the question of preferences, commodity agreement and such other questions Pakistan is, however, playing a prominent part in the UN Conference on Trade and Development and is trying to secure better terms of trade for the developing Third World countries from the developed industrial countries Without such improved facilities of trade and development, for finding fair markets for their war materials and manufactures in the developed countries, the economies of the developing countries cannot properly develop Without such a development, the gap between the rich and poor nations will continue to widen and the poor will remain in a condition of indebtedness, because they have to import most of their capital goods from the developed countries of the West 5. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP):The United Nations has, however adopted a programme PAKISTAN AND THE WORLD 165 for the development of the backward countries of the Third world, called the UN Development Programme or UNDP Under this programme, the United Nations is assisting Pakistan in several schemes and projects They are (i) Curriculum Development and Production of Teaching Aids and Equipment, (n) Introduction of AgroTechnical subjects in general school system, and (in) In service training of their teachers The UNDP contribution for these projects is dollars 306 000, 400 000 and 225 000 respectively The UNDP is also helping Pakistan in weather surveillance schemes, by financing the surveillance radar station and meteorological read-out stations and development of river flow and forecasting techniques It has provided Rs 5 million for the equipment and expertise for these schemes It has also provided money for installing the ground station for receiving information from satellite at Karachi, shown by our TV every day in its weather report During 1977-80 the UNDP provided
251 training fellowships in the fields of agriculture, industry, mineralogy, education, telecommunications, etc Moreover the UNDP also enables Pakistani experts working abroad to visit Pakistan on short-term assignments in the fields of natural and biological sciences 37 experts came to Pakistan in 1981 The fourth country programme for Pakistan (1987-91) had allocated about 77 million dollars It will be spent on agriculture, forestry and fishery 6 7 million dollars About 76 projects will be undertaken Some of the successful projects are vocational training, cotton clearing, sericulture, training of engineers for Pakistan Steel, etc 6. Support for anti-racialist and anti-apartheid movements:Pakistan has checked racialism and colonialism in all forms and manifestations Accordingly, it has fully supported the rights of the Namibian people, and put to an end apartheid of the South Africa for independence Pakistan had also supported the rights of the people of Zimbabwe, formerly called Rhodesia, in their struggle for national independence and to become a sovereign State, based on Black majority rule Pakistan has always condemned racialist discrimination in Africa and in other parts of the world, and has supported the efforts and resolutions of the United Nations against racialism, apartheid and colonialism in Africa, Israel and other countries of the world 7. Support for the Afro-Asian and Third World causes:Pakistan has supported the co-operation between the AfroAsian and Third World countries for securing their rights and defending their interests in the UNO and in their relations with the industrially developed countries That is why Pakistan has taken a very firm stand on issues confronting these countries, even if it is not directly affected by them These issues were the war in Vietnam the admission of China to the UNO and at present the struggle of the
1 66 CIVICS OF PAKISTAN PAKISTAN AND THE WORLD167 black and coloured peoples of South Africa against the apartheid policy of the South African Government, the Palestine question and the Arab struggle for the defence of their rights for national security and survival against Zionist aggression and expansionism, the question of nuclear disarmament and the question of the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons and nuclear devices It also supports UNO’s efforts to create nuclear free zones in various parts of the world, for example in the South Asian sub-continent Pakistan and UNO’s Specialised Agencies The United Nations has established a number of Specialised Agencies to assist its member-countries, especially the developing countries, in various technical, scientific, educational, health and other fields This kind of assistance began in 1948 under a programme of international technical assistance In 1950, it was supplemented by the Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance, which involved agencies like UNESCO, ILO, WHO, FAO, andUNICEF 1. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation:The UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation, the UNESCO, was founded in 1948 and Pakistan is its member from the very beginning Its aims are to help the developing countries in fighting illiteracy and in promoting their educational, scientific and cultural activities and needs In Pakistan the UNESCO has played an important role since
1950 in the fields of education, scientific and cultural development In
1957, a book publication centre was set up at Karachi to help in promoting the publication and distribution of books, etc It has organised seminars and conferences on various subjects such as mathematics It assists in the training of teachers and other experts It provides scholarships for higher studies, and in the adult literacy campaigns In cooperation with the UNDP, a UNESCO team has provided money to the Islamabad University for the purchase of the equipments, books and journals, etc The UNESCO is rendering great assistance in helping Pakistan to preserve its archaeological sites The remains at Mohenjodaro in Sindh are under constant threat of deterioration due ’to water logging and the effects of salinity in the area The Government of Pakistan approached UNESCO to advise and help to save these relics In 1968, a UNESCO team carried out a study of the site and devised means and measures to cope with the situation In 1973, an International Symposium on Mohenjodaro was held on the actual site A 10 million dollar Master Plan was drawn by UNESCO and a world-wide appeal has been made for raising the funds for ”Save Mohenjodaro Funds”, to which the UNESCO aided with Rs 7 5 million in 1988-89 2. International Labour Office:the ILO was first set up by the League of Nations in 1920, but was taken over by the United Nations in 1945 Pakistan is its member from 1947 Its aims are to help improving the living conditions of workers, of women workers and children, to assist in better relations between the employers and employees, and in raising the standard of living, wages, health, etc , of the labouring classes in various countries of the world In Pakistan, the ILO, in co-operation with the FAO, has set up the FAO/ILO Pak Joint Employment Project with the technical assistance of the FAO/ILO ILO has carried out a survey in the country of the hazards caused by the used of chemicals and petrochemicals It has assisted Pakistan in establishing a centre for the improvement of the working conditions and working environment in Lahore 3. World Health Organisation (WHO):This organisation was founded in 1948 Its aims are to improve the standards of human health, to undertake research in public health and to check the outbreak of epidemics and contagious diseases The WHO has helped Pakistan in eradication of such diseases as malaria, small-pox, enterogastnc diseases, and tuberculosis and to improve the nutrition standards The WHO also grants scholarships and fellowships It has helped in projects for the supply of pure drinking water, preparation of standard drugs and medicines, and in establishing National Health Laboratories and the teaching of Sanitary Engineering Project WHO assistance to Pakistan raised from 5 lakh in 1971 to 6 lakh dollars in 1974 4. Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO):FAO assists Pakistan in food productions, agriculture fisheries, wild life protection, afforestation, etc It has greatly assisted Pakistan under the World Food Programme of the UNO 5. United Nations’ International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF):The UNICED was founded in 1946 and Pakistan became its member in 1948, when a great influx of refugees, or Mohajareen, was taking place The UNICEF rendered help in looking after the refugee children Later, its activities were extended to protecting the children from diseases and for the care of the nursing mothers and infants Later on, its activities were further extended to provide training and education, food and nutrition of the children Now the UNICEF offers assistance in equipment for schools, paper for textbooks, pre-service and post-service training of teachers, curriculum development, including overseas fellowship,
168 CIVICS OF PAKISTAN etc. A child Welfare Training Centre is functioning at Lahore in collaboration with the UNICEF. This Centre also provides training to the employees of other agencies, such as those of the Social Security department. During 1980-81, the UNICEF provided Rs.
42.680 million for the Expanded Immunisation Programme for children against several diseases, e.g., whooping cough, tetanus, measles, T.B., etc. UNICEF’s assistance to Pakistan increased from 38 million dollars in 1971 As we said already in 1988, the UNICEF carried out a survey on the state of the world’s children costing 50 million dollars which were spent on the programmes benefiting the children due to diarrhoeal diseases, measles, and of other diseases. PAKISTAN AND THE WORLD •) 69 Objectives (A) Fill in the blanks: 1. Pakistan came into being on 2. India launched a war on Pakistan on (B) Select the correct answer from the following and fill in the blanks: 1. The Simla Accord was signed in (1970, 1971, 1972) 2. First general elections in Pakistan were held in (1964, 1966, 1970) (C) Tick the Right or Wrong: 1. Awami League put forth its Six Points in 1966. Right / Wrong 2. Monarchy was overthrown in Iran in 1979. Right / Wrong (D) Answer briefly: ’’Oi’ 1. Give the names of the member countries of the SAARC. -p.-. 2. Write a note of UNESCO. (E) Compare column A with column B: .”<- Pakistan follows a policy of China recognizes the right of Siachen is a bitterly cold WHO aims to improve the B self determination of the Kashmiris. and barren area, standard of human healths. peace and friendship with all nations.
170 CIVICS OF PAKIS TAN Answers (A) 1. August 14, 1947. 2. Septembers, 1965. (B) 1. 1972.
2. 1970. (C) (D) (E) 1. Right /Wrong -- 2. Right /Wrong 1 . The SAARC consists of seven states of south-Asian Sub-Continent, viz., Pakistan, Bangladesh, India. Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan and the Maldives. It was set up in 1985 on the initiative of Bangladesh to promote cooperation between its member-countries.
2. UNESCO standards for United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation. It was founded in 1948. Its aims are to help the developing countries in fighting illiteracy and promote their educational, scientific and cultural activities A B Pakistan follows a policy of China recognizes the right o Siachen is a bitterly col WHO aims to improve the self-determination of the Kashmiris. nd barren area, .standard of human health. peace and friendship with all nations. Model Questions 1. Discuss the major objectives of Pakistan’s foreign policy. 2. Write an essay on Pakistan and India relations. 3. Discuss the relations between Pakistan and Afghanistan. 4 Write an essay on the SAARC highlighting its aims. 5 Explain Pakistan’s relation with China or U S A. 6. What is ”Islamic Summit Conference”? What is its history and present importance?
7 Write an essay on ECO highlighting its aims.
8. Critically discuss Pakistan’s relations with Bangladesh and Iran 9 Write a detailed note on O.I.C. 10 Discuss in detail Pakistan’s role as a member of the U.N.O.