1 The Strange Ride of Rudyard Kipling (New York: Viking, 1977), P. I ‑
2 Edmund Wilson, 'The Kipling that Nobody Read', in Andrew Rutherford (ed.), Kipling's Mind and Art: Selected Critical Essays (Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1964), PP‑ 17‑69. See p. 18.
3 Edmund Wilson, 'The Kipling that Nobody Read'; Angus Wilson, The Strange Ride, P. 3‑
4 Angus Wilson, The Strange Ride, P. 4.
5 Something of Myself For My Friends, Known and Unknown (New York: Doubled and Doran, 1937), P‑ 5‑
6 Angus Wilson, The Strange Ride, p. i i.
7 Ibid., P. 32.
8Some Childhood Memories of Rudyard Kipling', Chambers Journal, Eighth Series, VIII (1939), P. 171, quoted in Edmund Wilson,'The Kipling that Nobody Read', p. 2o.
9 Edmund Wilson, 'The Kipling that Nobody Read', p. 2o. could write about England as captivatingly as about India.10
10 See on this K. Bhaskara Rao, Rudyard Kipling's India (Norman: University of Oklahama, j967), PP. 23‑4‑
11 Edmund Wilson, 'The Kipling that Nobody Read'.
12 The concept of negative identity is of course borrowed from Erik Erikson. See particularly his ‑roung Man Luther (New York: Norton, 1958).
13 Edward Said, Orientalisni (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1978).
14 1 needhardly drawattention to the logical and moral sleight‑of‑hand which helps equate the refusal to be non‑West with being Western.
15 K. Venkata Ramanan, Ndgdrjuna's Philosophy, As Presented in the MahdPrqjAdpdramitd Sastra (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1978) antipodes. Both trace their roots to the cultural arrogance of post‑Enlightenment Europe which sought to define not only the 'true' West but also the 'true' East. And both have produced social critics who share the naive belief that the resulting cultural poverty has hurt the East more than the West.
16 1 was brought up as a social scientist and only recently have found that these two terms have many meanings. I have in mind only the meanings given to them y Ruth Benedict in Patterns of Culture (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1934).
17T. K. Mahadevan, Dvija (New Delhi: Affiliated East‑West Press, 1977), pp. ii8‑iq.
18 E. M. Forster in A Passage to India (London: Arnold, 1967) ventures the colonial culture as an explanation of this separation and in that form it is an attenuated version of the argument of Frantz Fanon in The Wretched of the Earth, trans. Constance Farrington (Harmondsworth; Penguin, 1967) feet and that they could use the Occident for their own purposes. Even the crafty babus, as Kipling recognized in utter disgust, know how to use the white man; they too have a theory of the West.
19Tradition and Law in India', in R. J. Moore (ed.), Tradition and Politics in South Asia (New Delhi: Vikas, 1979), PP. 32‑59. See especially PP. 34‑5.
20Venkata Rarnanan, Ndgarjuna's Philosophy, P. 39.
21 I wanted this, and today I got it. I want that: I shall get it tomorrow. All these riches are now mine: soon I shall have more. I have killed this enemy. I will kill all the rest. I am ruler of men. I enjoy the things of this world. I am successful, strong and happy. I am so wealthy and so nobly born. Who is my equal?' Gita, Chapter 16, Slokas 13‑15. The translation 11ollows 21hagavad‑Gad, trans. Swami Prabhavananda and Christopher Isherwood (Madras: Sri Ramakrishna Math, 1974), P. 240‑
22Richard Lannoy seems to recognize a part of the dynamic in his The Speaking Tree: A Study of Indian Culture and Sociey (London: Oxford University Press, 1975), P‑ 256, when he says 'From the viewpoint of the traditional society, Westernization is an extension of Kshatryaization.'
23 Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1974), P‑ 135‑
24 V. G. Kiernan, The Lords of Human Kind: European Attitudes to the Outside World in the Imperial Age (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1972), P. 71. Emphasis added.
25 D. D. Kosambi, Myth and Reality (Bombay: Popular Prakashan, 1962), p. 17.
26 Actually the point can be made neatly through a comparison of the works of, say, Radhakrishnan and Chattopadhyaya. In a strange way the two views can become each other's captive opposites. See particularly S. Radhakrishnan, Indian Philosophy (Bombay: Blackie, 1977), vol. i ; and The Hindu View of Life (London, 1926); D. P. Chattopadhyaya, Lokiyata: A Study in Ancient Indian Materialism (New Delhi: People's Publishing House, 1973); and What is Living and What is Dead in Indian Philosophy (New Delhi: People's Publishing House, 1977). Alan Roland in his forthcoming, as‑yet‑untitled work on the Indian personality treats this complementarity in terms of a tripartite division of the self into the spiritual, the familial and the individuated. There is here an isomorphism between the cultural and the psychological.
27 Nirad C. Chaudhuri, The Continent of Circe (London: Chatto and Windus, 1965); V. S. Naipaul, An Area of Darkness (London: Andr6 Deutsch, 1964) and India: A Wounded Civilization (London: Andr'6 Deutsch, 1977).
28 See particularly Chaudhuri, The Continent of Circe, Chapter 5.
29 This was particularly noteworthy for two reasons. First, many of his acquaintances from his earlier political days, as well as younger political leaders like Subhas Chandra Bose whom he so admired, were seeking the help of Germany and Japan to oust the British frorn India. Many of these young leaders had been deeply influenced by Aurobindo's earlier political ideology and record. Second, he was perfectly aware of the possibility of misuse by the Allies of their victory in the war. On his yogic intervention in the war, see Sri Aurobindo, On Himself (Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram, 1972), PP‑ 38‑9, 393‑9; see also P‑ 388 for his comments on Lenin and the Russian Revolution which seem to suggest that Aurobindo himself did not think of his yogic interventions in the 'world forces' in too concretistic terms.
30 Sisirkurnar Mitra, The Liberator: Sri Aurobindo, India and the World (Delhi: Jaico, 1954), P. 24. Also Satprern, Sri Aurobindo or The Adventure of Consciousness, trans. Tehrni (Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashrarn, 1968), Chapter i.
31 Niradbaran, Sri Aurobindayan (Calcutta: Sri Aurobindo Pathmandir, 198o), 3rd ed., p. 17.
32 Only one of them slips into the shrewd observation in his hagiography that Aurobindo never cared much about any of his relatives except his maternal grandfather. Pramodkumar Sen, Sri Aurobindo: Jivan o Tog (Calcutta: Sri Aurobindo Pathmandir, 1977), PP. 9‑10.
33 Aurobindo quoted in K. R. Srinivasa 1yengar, Sri Aurobindo (Calcutta: Arya Publishing House, 1950), P. 15.
34 Mitra, The Liberator, P. 25.
35 The interest in poetry was to persist and Aurobindo's most creative work was to remain an English epic, Savitri, which he began writing in his twenties and completed shortly before his death. Aurobindo considered himself a poet first. Niradbaran, Sri Aurobinddyan, P‑ 40‑
36 Aurobindo, On Himse~f, P. 7. Also Aurobindo's letter to Dilip (1935) quoted in Srinivasa Iyengar, Sri Aurobindo, p. 19.
37 Aurobindo, On Himself, P. 20.
38 He was helped in this by the traditions of the mother's side of his family~ Raj Narayan Bose anticipated some of the tenets of Hindu nationalism‑and by his unpredictable father's other self. Krishnadhan might have faltered on their allowance, but he did not fail to send his sons in England a nationalist periodical published from Calcutta, with its accounts of British oppression in India underlined.
39 Mitra, The Liberator, p. 26.
40 Ibid.$ P‑ 34‑
41 Part of an untitled essay by Mrinalini's father published in Sri Aurobinder Patra, Mrinalinike Likhita(Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram, 1977), first expanded edition, PP. 31‑5; see P. 33.
42 Mitral The Liberator, P ‑ 3 7.
43 Sri Aurobinder Patra. Was it the nation which was conceptualized as mother by Aurobindo or was it a still more primal image of the mother which found expression in his concept of India? 'In the unending revolutions of the world, as the wheel of the Eternal turns rightly in the courses, the Infinite Energy, which streams forth from the Eternal and sets the wheel to work.... This Infinite Energy is Bhavani. She also is Durga. She is Kali; she is Radha the beloved, she is Lakshmi. She is our mother and creatress of us all. In the present age the mother is manifested as the Mother of Strength.' Aurobindo in Bhavdni Mandir, translated by Mitra, The Liberator, P‑ 48.
A good description of Aurobindo's political ideology in the context of his times is in Haridas and Uma Mukherji, Sri Aurobindo's Political Thought (i893‑r9o8) (Calcutta: Firma K. L. Mukhopadhyay, 1958).
44 Aurobindo once proudly said: 'When a Maratha or Gujarati has anything important to say, he says it in English; when a Bengali, he says it in Bengali.... English is being steadily driven out of the field. Soon it will only remain to weed it out of our conversation.' Indu Prakdf, 23 July 1894‑ Quoted in Mitra, The Liberator, P‑ 47‑
45 He was later to write an account of his jail days and his trial in elegant, witty Bengali. It was also a brilliant sociological study of British justice in India under stress. Aurobindo, Ghose, 'Kdriikahini', in Bdhgld Racand (Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram, 1977), pp. 257‑314.
46On Himse~f, p. 68. See also Aurobindo, 'Kdrdkdhini'; also Niradbaran, Sri Aurobinddyan.
47 One suspects that he had had them from his earliest years but discovered new, non‑threatening meanings for them.
48 Aurobindo, On Himself, p. 89.
49 Aurobindo, had of course expected the acquittal: 'He had been assured from within and knew that he would be acquitted.' On Himsetf, P. 32.
50 Aurobindo made it clear that his spiritualism had 'nothing to do with ascetic withdrawal or contempt or disgust of secular things.' On Himself, P‑ 430.8
61 Aurobindo, On Himself, p. 445. Sri Aurobindo, The Mother (Sri Aurobindo Ashram, 1928, republished 1979).
52 Readers of Bengali might remember Raj Sekhar Bose's savage satire on such idioms in his 'Birificibaba', Kajjali (Calcutta: M. C. Sarkar and Sons, 1968‑9), 1oth edition, pp. 1‑37.
53 Aurobindo, On Himself, P. 460.
54 Niradbaran, Sri Aurobindayan; Aurobindo, On Himself, p. 46o.
55Aurobindo, On Himself, P. 450‑
56 This idea of the superman had nothing to do with the Nietzschean world view; Aurobindo's superman was to carry forward the evolution of consciousness and be more universal in his orientation and more powerful in his ability to change the world through spiritual attainments.
51 Claude Alvares, 'Sri Aurobindo, Superman or Supertalk'? Quest, January- February 1975 (93), PP‑ 9‑23, see pp. 10-11. Alvares provides brief but telling descriptions of the hostility of the local people and Ashram workers to the Ashram. He however locates the origins of this in Aurobindo's philosophy, which he judges from the point of view of academic philosophy.
58 Aurobindo, On Himsey, p. 458.
59 Ibid., P. 458.
60 Aurobindo, The Mother, p. 24.
61 Cf. Theodor W. Adorno's position on the role of culture in society Minima Moralia, trans. E. F. N. Jephcott (London: NLB, 1977), PP‑ 43‑4 ; also Ernst Bloch's position in On Karl Marx (New York: Herder and Herder, 1971). This position emerges even more clearly from the chapter on Bloch by Dick Howard in his The Marxian Legacy (London: Macmillan, 1977), Chapter 4. Amilcar Cabral places the argument squarely in the context of modern colonialism when he says in his 'National Liberation and Culture', Return to the Source: Selected Speeches (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1973), PP‑ 39‑56, PP‑ 39‑40:
'When Goebbels ... heard culture being discussed, he brought out his revolver. That shows that the Nazis‑who were and are the most tragic expression of imperialism and thirst for domination‑ . . had a clear idea of the value of culture as a factor of resistance to foreign domination.... Whatever may be the material part of this domination, it can be maintained only by the permanent, organized repression of the cultural life of the people concerned.
'The idea for foreign domination, whether imperialist or not, would be to choose:
'‑either to liquidate practically all the population of the dominated country, thereby eliminating the possibilities of cultural resistance;
,‑or to succeed in imposing itself without damage to the culture of the dominated people‑that is to harmonize economic and political domination of these people with their cultural personality.'
The first part of this book is a detailed analysis of this part of the story.
62 In the Western context the avowed aesthete Oscar Wilde, given both to poetry and to the kind of fooling which in polite society goes by the name of posing, would have understood this. As a poet he sang of things as they were not; as a poseur he defied the existent of everyday life. Wilde was a critic not in spite of but because of these. See Richard Ellmann ` 'The Critic as Artist as Wilde', Encounter, JULY 1967, PP. 29‑37. Wilde was only actualizing the belief of Ernst Bloch that 'banality' is counter‑revolutionary
63 This may sound like a sentence borrowed from George Lukacs. But it is certainly not an attempt to place the sufferer's understanding of the human predicament outside culture and outside time. The formulation is closer to some readings of the works of Antonio Gramsci within the Marxist framework.
64 By only slightly stretching Madhav Deshpande's analysis, the idea of synthesis here can be,made into what Vedanta and 13hatta Mimamsd call 'a higher order cognition' which can prove false an earlier valid cognition (paratah aprdmdryanz and svatah primatzyam). See Deshpande's 'History, Change and Permanence: A Classical Indian Perspective', in Gopal Krishna (ed.), Contributions to South Asian Studies i (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1979), PP‑ 1‑28; particularly P. 3‑
65 Psichari‑Soldier‑of‑Africa, quoted in Aime Cesaire, Discourse on Colonialism, trans. Joan Pinkham. (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1977), P. 29. Italics in the original.
66 Among Indians, elements of such an awareness can be found for example in Rammohun Roy, The English Works, vols. I‑VI, ed. Kalidas Nag and Debojyoti Burman (Calcutta: Sadharon Brahmo Samaj, 1945‑8); Bankimchandra. Chatterji, Racanavali, vols. 1 and 2 (Calcutta: Sahitya Samsad, 1958) (see especially 'Anandamath', PP. 715‑88); Swami Vivekananda, Pricya o Pdlcdtya (Almora: Advaita Ashrama, 1898); and Nirad C. Chaudhuri, The Autobiography of an Unknown Indian (London: Macmillan, 195 1) ‑ Of these, Rammohun Roy and Bankimchandra Chatterji do not fully fit the bill. The former, particularly, lived and worked at a time when one could think of incorporating the ideas of science, history and progress as forces of criticism within Indian traditions. He could not visualize an epoch when modernity would take over the world and maxginalize all nonmodern cultures as well as the nonmordern West. He was a product of an age which was culturally more self‑confident. To a lesser extent, these arguments apply to Chatterji, too.
Cabral has expressed similar sentiments in the context of Africa. See his 'Identity and Dignity in the Context of National Liberation Struggle', Return to the Source, PP‑ 57‑69‑
67 1 once worked on two Indian scientists and their models of endogenous scientific creativity. One of them, Srinivasa Ramanujan, fell in the first category; the other, Jagadis Chandra Bose, in the second. At the time I wrote my book, my sympathy was mainly with Ramanujan. He seemed to need protection from the modern world. He was less contaminated by that world but, for that very reason, innocent about it while Bose, with his subtle intellectual antennae, could at least manipulate his way through. I am no longer sure of this. Rananuian was nor especially vulnerable after all, I found. Nor was Bose particularly inauthentic; the cultural problems he dealt with in his science were real and immediate. And he, too, was vulnerable. As he negotiated his way through the ruthless world of modern science, he had to cope with the hostility which the liminal man always arouses as opposed to the proper alien. Ashis Nandy, Alternative Sciences: Creativiy and Authenticiy in Two Indian Scientists (New Delhi: Allied Publishers, i 98o).
68 'The Quest for Hinduism', International Social Science journal, 1977, 19(2), PP‑ 261‑78. The psychological counterpart of such open‑ended, fluid, cultural self‑definition is the 'liquid' reality of the self McKim Marriott speaks about. See his 'The Open Hindu Person and Interpersonal Fluidity', unpublished paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association of Asian Studies, 198o.
69 Rabindranath Tagore, Rabindra Racandvali (Calcutta: West Bengal Government, ig6i), pp. 1‑350,
70 See Part One in this book. See also my 'Psychology of Communalism', The Times of India, 19 February 1978; and 'Relearning Secularism', The Times of India, 20, 21, and 22 February 1981.
71 Cf. F. D. Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made (New York: Pantheon, 1970); Frantz Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth.
72 These leaders have partially coped with the problem of non‑critical traditions in India which Pratima Bowes seems to pose in her The Hindu Intellectual Tradition (New Delhi: Allied Publishers, 977).
73 Richard Lannoy, The Speaking Tree, PP‑ 400‑7; Geoffrey Ashe, Gandhi: A Study in Revolution (London: Heinernann, 1968),P. 286; Glorney Bolton in Francis Watson and Maurice Brown (eds.), Talking of Gandhiji (London: Longinans, Green, 1957), PP. 58‑9. Italics in original.
74Lannoy, The Speaking Tree, PP. 404‑5.
75Philip Spratt, Hindu Culture and Personaliy (Bombay: Manaktalas, 1966).
76 For instance, it is possible to read the political and social choices of Krs a M in the Mahabhdrata entirely along these lines. Probably the more significant clue is the traditional responsibility for sustenance and protection of the Brahmans and the responsibility for disjunctive, normative creativity given to renunciators like Aurobindo. On this see Louis Dumont, Homo Hierarchicus (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1970).]
77 'He who sees every being in his own self and sees himself in every other being, he, because of this vision, abhors nothing. Isopanisad', in Atulchandra. Sen (ed.), Upanijad (Calcutta: Haraf, 1972), PP. 130‑55; see especially p. 138‑
78 Confronting a concentration camp for the first time, psychiatrist Elie Cohen found himself resorting to a similar splitting. See his Human Behaviour in the Concentration Camp, trans. M. H. Braaksma (New York: Norton, 1953), P‑ i x6, quoted in Terence Des Pres, The Survivor: An Anatomy of Life in the Death Camp (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976), p. 82. The idea of the 'essential constituent of the self' is Erving Goffman's. It has meanings similar to the more loos'ely defined idea of the core of Indianness used in this analysis. See Goffman's Asylums: Essays on the Social Situation of Mental Patients and Other Inmates (Chicago: Aldine, 1962), P. 3 19. Goffman calls this entire process 'secondary adjustment'. It involves the rejection of the self imposed by a total institution or situation.
79Des Pres, The Survivor, p. 99.
80Ananda K. Cdomaraswainy, 'On the Indian and Traditional Psychology, or Rather Pneurnatology', Selected Papers, vol. q: Metaphysics, ed. Roger Lipsey (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977) PP‑ 333‑78, see especially PP. 365, 377.
81 Halina Birenbaum, Hope is the Last to Die, trans. David Welsh (New York: Twayne, 97 1), P. 103, quoted in Des Pres, The Survivor, p. 87.
82 Cf. Gita Sereny, Into That Darkness (New York: McGraw‑Hill, 974), P. 183.
83Stalky's Reminiscences (London, 1928), PP. 3‑1, quoted in Edmund Wilson, 'The Kipling that Nobody Read', p. 22.
84 It is interesting that organized Islam in India has always feared losing its identity. The dominant ideology of Islam in India has always been confident that it could hold its own against Hinduism in statecraft and in martial prowess; it has always feared being overwhelmed or swamped by the slow, soporific sedativity of everyday Hinduism. This has never been the fear of folk Islam because it shares the world view of folk Hinduism to a great extent.
85 Goffman, Asylums.
86 Cabral, 'National Liberation and Culture', P. 43. Italics in the original.
87 Thomas S. Szasz, The Second Sin (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1974)‑, p. 20.
88 The last two polarities may not be as disparate if we remember A Echel Foucault's formulation that the confinement of the insane and the confinement of the criminal were both related to the confinement of the idle, that is of those who defied the oppression of modern industrial work. See Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason, trans. Richard Howard (London: Tavistock, 1971), Chapter2; and Discipline and Punish, trans. Alan Sheridan (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1978), particularly Part 3. §zasz writes in The Second Sin, p. 89:
'Among persons categorized as mentally ill, there are two radically different types which are systematically undifferentiated by psychiatrists and hence confused by them. One is composed of the inadequate, unskilled, lazy, or stupid; in short, the unfit (however relative this term might be). The other of the protestors, the revolutionaries, those on strike against their relatives or society; in short, the unwilling.
'Because they do not differentiate between these two groups, psychiatrists often attribute unfitness to unwillingness, and unwillingness to unfitness.'