Oriya ଓଡ଼ିଆ



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Tourism





Konark Sun Temple built by the Eastern Ganga dynasty is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.



Ranigumpha part of Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves

The landscape of Odisha is dotted with a large number of temples. The temples of Odisha conform to the Indo Aryan Nagara style of architecture, with distinctive features specific to this region. The best known of these are the Lingaraja temple at Bhubaneshwar, Jagannath Temple at Puri and the Sun Temple at Konark. The temples of Odisha exhibit a majestic grandeur. An Odia temple (deula) usually consists of a sanctum, one or several front porches (jagamohana) usually with pyramidal roofs, a dancing hall (nata mandir) and a hall of offerings (bhog mandir).

'The Lingaraj temple at Bhubaneshwar boasts of a 150-foot (46 m) high deul while the Jagannath Temple at Puri is about 200 feet (61 m) high and it dominates the skyline of the town. Only a portion of the Sun Temple at Konark, the largest of the temples of the Golden triangle exists today, and it is still staggering in size. It stands out as a masterpiece in Odisha architecture. Odisha is also well known as a Buddhist and Jain pilgrimage destination. North-east of Cuttack, about 10 km from Bhubaneshwar, there are Buddhist relics and ruins at the three hilltop complexes of Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves, which still bear witness to Buddhism's fruitful tryst with this region until well into the 13th century.

Odisha's varying topography – from the wooded Eastern Ghats to the fertile river basin – has proven ideal for evolution of compact and unique ecosystems. Thereby creating such treasure troves of flora and fauna that even seem inviting to many migratory species of birds and reptiles. Bhitar Kanika National Park is famous for its second largest mangrove ecosystem. The bird sanctuary in Chilika (Asia's biggest brackish water lake) and the tiger reserve and waterfalls in Simlipal National Park are integral part of any eco tours in Odisha, arranged by Tourism of Odisha.[43]

The Gharial Sanctuary at Tikarpada and the Olive Ridley Sea Turtles in Gahirmatha turtle sanctuary also feature on the list of avid nature watchers. The city wildlife sanctuaries of Chandaka and Nandan Kanan are a must visit for the lessons they teach is conservation and revitalization of species from the brink of extinction.



Odisha is blessed with around 500 km long coastline and has some of the most beautiful beaches in the world. Chilika, Asia's largest brackish water lake, not only provides a haven for millions of birds, but is also one of the few places in India where one can view dolphins. The lush green forest cover of Odisha plays host to a wide variety of flora and fauna, including the famed Royal Bengal Tiger. Amidst the picturesque hills and valleys nestle a number of breathtaking waterfalls and rivulets that attract visitors from all over. Odisha beaches include Puri, Gopalpur-on-Sea, Chandipur, Ramachandi Beach, Balighai Beach, Astarang Beach, Paradeep Beach. The famous Shiva Temple is near Dhenkanal.

Children's literature in Oriya

Children's literature written in the Oriya language has a long history. Its roots are in Moukhika Sishu Sahitya, which is a part of the Loka Sahitya meant for the children. As its development started after modern education was implemented, Oriya children's literature is divided in two parts Oriya Moukhika children's literature and Oriya written children's literature.

Dr. Basanta Kishore Sahoo is a research scholar and a children's writer who published his Ph.D thesis on the topic, entitled "Oriya Moukhika Shisu Sahitya." He is an Indian children writer and research scholar who created his own field. He was born on 15 March 1955, at Kusupur, a famous village in the Mahanga block of Cuttack District of Orissa State where Palikabi Nanda Kishore Bal, Silpiguru Bimbadhar Barma, Kabi Gyanindra Burma, Reporter Rajendra Burma and Suvendra Burma, Editor Pradmyuna Bal and Sishu Sahityika Nanda Kishore Bal were Born. His father’s name is Bira Kishore Sahoo and mother’s name Malli Dei. Now he is working as a Lecturer in Oriya at Aeronautics College, Sunabeda of Koraput District. He is one of the famous children’s writer of the present time. He wrote 25 books in Oriya, English, Hindi and Bengali who are very popular among the children’s of Orissa. Phula Ame Phula is his first children’s poem collection which is published in 1992. After that his book Agada Bagada Jhainki Jhumpa is published which is give him name and fame. He wrote both criticism and creative books for the children’s as well as children’s scholars of the state in his mother tongue Oriya. He got his Ph. D. in Oriya Moukhika Shisu Sahitya which is also published in book form and popularize him among the scholar and readers because in this thesis he collected the folk songs of Orissa which are going to be abolished. He married to Smt. Binapani Sahoo D/o of Sri Raj Kishore Sahoo who is a Headmaster of M.E. School of Bartanda village of Jajpur District in 12 June 1985. Gitimaya Sahoo his son born in 1987 now he is working as software engineer at Infosys and daughter Bulbul Priyadarshini Sahoo is reading in +3. After doing the social and educational responsibility he engage himself to create a good moral poams for the betterment of children’s of Orissa. He also active participation to develop the Oriya Children’s Literature through Research Institute for Oriya Children’s Literature(RIOCL) established by Dr. Manindra Mohanty the first scholar of Oriya Children’s Literature and his guide. He get the full support from his wife Binapani Sahoo and two children’s to do something for the Oriya literature and language. He also edit a children’s magazine name as BAGALABAGULI from 1981 to 1985. He is founder secretary of Banaphula Sahitya Parishad, Sunabeda and Oriya Lekhaka Pathaka Sammelan Semiliguda for the development of Oriya Literature at undivided Koraput district. He started his profession career as instructor in Secretarial Practice and Hadidas Mahavidyalay, Chhatia as well as Aeronautics college Sunabeda. Now he is working as a Lect. In Oriya at Aeronautics College, Sunabeda. He has guided doctoral reaserach and also published many research articles in various research journal of Orissa. He is member of many organization of Orissa like Research Institute of Oriya Children’s Literature(RIOCL), AIJLC, Calcutta, Banaphula Sahitya Parishad, Sunabeda, Oriya Lekhaka Pathaka Sammelan, Semiliguda, Oriya Gabesana Parishad, Cuttack, Utkal Sahitya Samaj, Cuttack, Banaprabha Sahitya Parishad, Sunabeda and many more organization of the state of Orissa. Selected writing in children’s literature

  • Phula Ame Phula 1992

  • Agada Bagada Jhainki Jhumpa 1997

  • Kalia Balada Galare Gala 2000

  • Marinele Mohapatra 2000

  • Uduuduma 2003

  • Gachha Ama Jebana 2003

  • Inchidi Minchidi 2003

  • Aei Matira Manisha 2004

  • Aainsi Mantara Kainsi Mantra 2004

  • Gai Dia Pade Gita 2008

  • Khara Barasa Gita 2008

  • Biluananara Banabhoji 2008

  • Hata Deba Bhala Kame 2009

  • Basanta Kishore Rachanabali-I 2009

Criticism and Alochana

  • Odiya Sishu Sahitya Alochana 1994

  • Odiya Moukhika Sishu Sahitya(Ph.D. Thesis)1996

  • Sampratika Shisu Sahitya O Sahityika 2000

  • Odiya Shisu Sahityara Sahayak Pathyasuchi 2002

Other Publications

  • Koraputra Parba Parbani 2005

  • Koraputra Lokakatha 2005

  • Ama Koraput 2005

Edited Books

  • Koraput Parikrama (Edited) 1992

  • Odishara Lokanatya(Edited) 1993

  • Sampratika Shisu Sahitya(Edited) 2000

  • Manindra Abhinandan Grantha(Edited) 2004

  • Saraswata Sadhaka Dr. Jagannath Mohanty 2007

  • Nanda Kishore Rachanabali 2007

Humor

  • Kahaku Kahiba 2003

Hindi

  • Bhaita Bhai 2003

Bangala

  • Ekati Chand Aneka Tare 2004

English

  • Who’s Who in Oriya Children’s Literature, Vol. I , 1995

  • Who’s Who in Oriya Children’s Literature, Vol. I , 1997

  • Drops of Nectar (Children’s Poem) 1998

* Edited Other Books and Magazines :

  • Bagala Baguli (20 issues) 1981-1985

  • Banaphula –I to 8 (8 volumes) 1986-96

  • Koraput Parikrama (Poems) 1994

  • Panchapakhuda (Collection of children’s Poems) 1992

  • Deshatmabodhaka Kabita Samkalan 1992

  • Bhagirathi Smaranika 2004

  • Swarnakhetra-2006 2006

  • Swarnakhetra-2007 2007

  • Swarnakhetra-2008 2008

  • Swarnakhetra-2009(Khetra Bisesanka) 2009

  • Swarnakhetra-2010(Bhakta Bisesanka) 2010

  • Aeronautica-VII Aeronautics College Magagine 1987-88

  • Aeronautica-XI Aeronautics College Magagine 1991-92

  • Aeronautica-XVII Aeronautics College Magagine 1997-98

  • Aeronautica-XIX Aeronautics College Magagine 1999-2000

  • Aeronautica-XXI Aeronautics College Magagine 2002-03

  • Aeronautica-XIV Aeronautics College Magagine 2004-05

  • Aeronautica-XV Aeronautics College Magagine 2005-06

  • Aeronautica-XVI Aeronautics College Magagine 2006-07

  • Aeronautica-XVII & XVIII Aeronautics College

Magagine 2008-09

List of languages by number of native speakers in India

India is home to several hundred languages. Most languages spoken in India belong either to the Indo-European (ca. 74%), the Dravidian (ca. 24%), the Austroasiatic (Munda) (ca. 1.2%), or the Tibeto-Burman (ca. 0.6%) families, with some languages of the Himalayas still unclassified. The SIL Ethnologue lists 415 living languages for India.

] Overview

Hindi (Standard Hindi in addition to many dialects of varying mutual intelligibility, forming a macrolanguage) is the most widespread language of India. The Indian census takes the widest possible definition of "Hindi" as a broad variety of "Hindi languages". The native speakers of Hindi so defined accounts for about 43% of Indians and another 27 to 43% of national population can understand or speak the language.



Indian English is recorded as the native language of 226,449 Indians in the 2001 census. English is the second "language of the Union" besides Hindi.[1]

Thirteen languages account for more than 1% of Indian population each, and between themselves for over 95%; all of them are "scheduled languages of the constitution." Scheduled languages spoken by less than 1% of Indians are Santali (0.64%), Nepali (0.28%), Sindhi (0.25%), Manipuri (0.14%), Bodo (0.13%), Dogri (0.01%), spoken in Jammu and Kashmir). The largest language that is not "scheduled" is Bhili (0.95%), followed by Gondi (0.27%), Kumaoni (0.21%), Tulu (0.17%) and Kurukh (0.10%)



List by number of native speakers

Further information: List of languages by number of native speakers

Ordered by number of speakers as first language. Indian population in 1991 exhibited 19.4% of bilingualism and 7.2% of trilingualism, so that the total percentage of "native languages" is at about 127%.



More than one million speakers

The 2001 census recorded 29 individual languages as having more than 1 million native speakers (0.1% of total population).



Table: Ordered by number of native speakers

Rank

Language

2001 census[2]
(total population 1,004.59 million)

1991 census[3]
(total population 838.14 million)

Encarta 2007 estimate[4]
(worldwide speakers)







Speakers

Percentage

Speakers

Percentage

Speakers

1

Hindi[5]

422,048,642

41.03%

337,272,114[6]

40.0%

336 M

2

Bengali

83,369,769

8.11%

69,595,738

8.30%

207 M

3

Telugu

74,002,856

7.37%

66,017,615

7.87%

69.7 M

4

Marathi

71,936,894

6.99%

62,481,681

7.45%

68.0 M

5

Tamil

60,793,814

5.91%

53,006,368

6.32%

66.0 M

6

Urdu

51,536,111

5.01%

43,406,932

5.18%

60.3 M

7

Gujarati

46,091,617

4.48%

40,673,814

4.85%

46.1 M

8

Kannada

37,924,011

3.69%

32,753,676

3.91%

40.3 M

9

Malayalam

33,066,392

3.21%

30,377,176

3.62%

35.7 M

10

Odia

33,017,446

3.21%

28,061,313

3.35%

32.3 M

11

Punjabi

29,102,477

2.83%

23,378,744

2.79%

57.1 M

12

Assamese

13,168,484

1.28%

13,079,696

1.56%

15.4 M

13

Maithili

12,179,122

1.18%










14

Bhili/Bhilodi

9,582,957

0.95%

5,572,308

0.665%




15

Santali

6,469,600

0.64%

5,216,325

0.622%




16

Kashmiri

5,527,698

0.54%










17

Nepali

2,871,749

0.28%










18

Gondi

2,713,790

0.27%

2,124,852

0.253%




19

Sindhi

2,535,485

0.25%

2,122,848

0.248%




20

Konkani

2,489,015

0.24%

1,760,607

0.210%




21

Dogri

2,282,589

0.22%










22

Khandeshi

2,075,258

0.21%










23

Kurukh

1,751,489

0.17%

1,426,618

0.170%




24

Tulu

1,722,768

0.17%

1,552,259

0.185%




25

Meitei/Manipuri

1,466,705*

0.14%

1,270,216

0.151%




26

Bodo

1,350,478

0.13%

1,221,881

0.146%




27

Khasi

1,128,575

0.112%










28

Mundari

1,061,352

0.105%










29

Ho

1,042,724

0.103%










* Excludes figures of Paomata, Mao-Maram and Purul sub-divisions of Senapati district of Manipur for 2001.
** The percentage of speakers of each language for 2001 has been worked out on the total population of India excluding the population of Mao-Maram, Paomata and Purul subdivisions of Senapati district of Manipur due to cancellation of census results.

100,000 to one million speakers

Rank

Language

Speakers

Percentage

32

Kui

916,222




33

Garo

889,479




34

Kokborok

854,023




35

Mizo

674,756




36

Halabi

593,43




37

Korku

574,481




38

Munda

469,357




39

Mishing

390,583

0.047%

40

Karbi/Mikir

366,229

0.044%

41

Saurashtra

310,000

0.037%

42

Savara

273,168

0.033%

43

Koya

270,994

0.032%

44

Kharia

225,556

0.027%

45

Khond/Kondh

220,783

0.026%

46

English

178,598*

0.021%

47

Nishi

173,791

0.021%

48

Ao

172,449

0.021%

49

Sema

166,157

0.020%

50

Kisan

162,088

0.019%

51

Adi

158,409

0.019%

52

Rabha

139,365

0.017%

53

Konyak

137,722

0.016%

54

Malto

108,148

0.013%

55

Thado

107,992

0.013%

56

Tangkhul

101,841

0.012%

* There are 90 million speakers of English as a second or third language.

10,000 to 100,000 speakers







1991 census

SIL estimate

57

Kolami

98,281 (0.012%)

115,000 (1997) Northwestern: 50,000; Southeastern: 10,000

58

Angami

97,631 (0.012%)

109,000 (1997)

59

Kodagu

97,011 (0.012%)

122,000

60

Dogri

89,681 (0.011%)

(Pakistan+India: 2.1 million)

61

Dimasa

88,543 (0.011%)

106,000

62

Lotha

85,802 (0.010%)

80,000

63

Mao

77,810 (0.009%)

81,000

64

Tibetan

69,146 (0.008%)

124,280 (1994)

65

Kabui (Rongmei)

68,925 (0.008%)

59,000 (1997)

66

Phom

65,350 (0.008%)

34,000 (1997)

The following are SIL Ethnologue estimates:




estimated native speakers

Gaddi

120,000

Pardhi

119,700

Pardhan

116,919

Churahi

110,552

Sauria Paharia

110,000

Kullu

109,000

Dhanwar

104,195

Bhattiyali

102,252

Ladakhi

102,000

Dungra Bhil

100,000

Adiwasi Garasia

100,000

Rajput Garasia

100,000

Noiri

100,000

Jaunsari

97,000

Pnar

84,000

Andh

80,000

Mara

79,000 (India: 47,000 Myanmar:32,000)

Mawchi

76,000

Bishnupriya

75,000

Duruwa

75,000

Lodhi:

75,000

Bhadrawahi

69,000

Eastern Magar

67,691

Balti

67,000

Korwa

66,000

Mahali

66,000

Rana Tharu

64,000

Paniya

63,827

Rathwi Bareli

63,700

Rawang

60,536

Sansi

60,000

Kachari

59,000

Bazigar

58,236

Agariya

55,757

Kanjari

55,386

Mal Paharia

51,000

Poumei Naga

51,000

Bodo Parja

50,000

Hmar

50,000

Juang

50,000

Desiya Oriya

50,000

Kinnauri

48,778

Moinba

46,000

Paite

45,000

Tase Naga

45,000

Wancho Naga

45,000

Braj Bhasha

44,000

Buksa

43,000

Sangtam Naga

39,000

Lepcha

38,000

Kudmali

37,000

Yimchungru Naga

37,000

Gowli

35,000

Jennu Kurumba

35,000

Nocte Naga

35,000

Khirwar

34,251

Betta Kurumba

32,000

Chang Naga

31,000

Dangaura Tharu

31,000

Gadaba

31,000 (Pottangi Ollar: 15,000; Bodo: 8,000; Mudhili: 8,000)

Zeme Naga

30,800

Naga Pidgin

30,000

Car Nicobarese

30,000

Kurichiya

29,375

Mzieme Naga

29,000

Chenchu

28,754

Sikkimese

28,600

Limbu

28,000

Majhwar

27,958

Vaiphei

27,791

Ravula

27,413

Western Panjabi

27,386

Deori

26,900

Khoibu Naga

25,600

Falam Chin

25,367

Kanikkaran

25,000

Khiamniungan Naga

25,000

Maram Naga

25,000

Tutsa Naga

25,000

Sirmauri

25,000

Arakanese

24,000

Chokri Naga

24,000

Sholaga

24,000

Thangal Naga

23,600

Kamar

23,456

Apatani

23,000

Koch

23,000

Khezha Naga

23,000

Tiwa

23,000

Southern Rengma Naga

21,000

Shina

21,000

Gowlan

20,179

Kumarbhag Paharia

20,179

Savara

20,179

Matu Chin

20,000

Liangmai Naga

20,000

Ooty, Nilgiris

20,000

Sakechep

20,000

Seraiki

20,000

Sherpa

20,000

Toto

20,000

Khowar

19,200

Biete

19,000

Hajong

19,000

Reli

19,000

Manna-Dora

18,964

Hrangkhol

18,665

Bhunjia

18,601

Persian

18,000

Mukha-Dora

17,456

Maring Naga

17,361

Pangwali

17,000

Asuri

16,596

Dhatki

16,400

Malaryan

16,068

Malavedan

15,241

Gangte

15,100

Konda-Dora

15,000

Korra Koraga

15,000

Mudu Koraga

15,000

Kalto (Nahali)

15,000

Dhivehi (Mahl dialect)

15,000

Northern Pashto

15,000

Ullatan

14,846

Eastern Tamang

14,000

Anal

13,853

Northern Rengma Naga

13,000

Pochuri Naga

13,000

Western Muria

12,898

Muthuvan

12,219

Zangskari

12,006

Mirgan

12,000

War

12,000

Kaikadi

11,846

Idu-Mishmi

11,041

Pattani

11,000

Changthang

10,089

Degaru

10,089

Eastern Muria

10,089

Far Western Muria

10,089

Andaman Creole Hindi

10,000

Palya Bareli

10,000

Birhor

10,000

Lamkang

10,000

Inpui Naga

10,000

Spiti Bhoti

10,000

Vaagri Booli

10,000


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