Konark Sun Temple built by the Eastern Ganga dynasty is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Ranigumpha part of Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves
The landscape of Odisha is dotted with a large number of temples. The temples of Odisha conform to the Indo Aryan Nagara style of architecture, with distinctive features specific to this region. The best known of these are the Lingaraja temple at Bhubaneshwar, Jagannath Temple at Puri and the Sun Temple at Konark. The temples of Odisha exhibit a majestic grandeur. An Odia temple (deula) usually consists of a sanctum, one or several front porches (jagamohana) usually with pyramidal roofs, a dancing hall (nata mandir) and a hall of offerings (bhog mandir).
'The Lingaraj temple at Bhubaneshwar boasts of a 150-foot (46 m) high deul while the Jagannath Temple at Puri is about 200 feet (61 m) high and it dominates the skyline of the town. Only a portion of the Sun Temple at Konark, the largest of the temples of the Golden triangle exists today, and it is still staggering in size. It stands out as a masterpiece in Odisha architecture. Odisha is also well known as a Buddhist and Jain pilgrimage destination. North-east of Cuttack, about 10 km from Bhubaneshwar, there are Buddhist relics and ruins at the three hilltop complexes of Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves, which still bear witness to Buddhism's fruitful tryst with this region until well into the 13th century.
Odisha's varying topography – from the wooded Eastern Ghats to the fertile river basin – has proven ideal for evolution of compact and unique ecosystems. Thereby creating such treasure troves of flora and fauna that even seem inviting to many migratory species of birds and reptiles. Bhitar Kanika National Park is famous for its second largest mangrove ecosystem. The bird sanctuary in Chilika (Asia's biggest brackish water lake) and the tiger reserve and waterfalls in Simlipal National Park are integral part of any eco tours in Odisha, arranged by Tourism of Odisha.
The Gharial Sanctuary at Tikarpada and the Olive Ridley Sea Turtles in Gahirmatha turtle sanctuary also feature on the list of avid nature watchers. The city wildlife sanctuaries of Chandaka and Nandan Kanan are a must visit for the lessons they teach is conservation and revitalization of species from the brink of extinction.
Odisha is blessed with around 500 km long coastline and has some of the most beautiful beaches in the world. Chilika, Asia's largest brackish water lake, not only provides a haven for millions of birds, but is also one of the few places in India where one can view dolphins. The lush green forest cover of Odisha plays host to a wide variety of flora and fauna, including the famed Royal Bengal Tiger. Amidst the picturesque hills and valleys nestle a number of breathtaking waterfalls and rivulets that attract visitors from all over. Odisha beaches include Puri, Gopalpur-on-Sea, Chandipur, Ramachandi Beach, Balighai Beach, Astarang Beach, Paradeep Beach. The famous Shiva Temple is near Dhenkanal.
Children's literature in Oriya
Children's literature written in the Oriya language has a long history. Its roots are in Moukhika Sishu Sahitya, which is a part of the Loka Sahitya meant for the children. As its development started after modern education was implemented, Oriya children's literature is divided in two parts Oriya Moukhika children's literature and Oriya written children's literature.
Dr. Basanta Kishore Sahoo is a research scholar and a children's writer who published his Ph.D thesis on the topic, entitled "Oriya Moukhika Shisu Sahitya." He is an Indian children writer and research scholar who created his own field. He was born on 15 March 1955, at Kusupur, a famous village in the Mahanga block of Cuttack District of Orissa State where Palikabi Nanda Kishore Bal, Silpiguru Bimbadhar Barma, Kabi Gyanindra Burma, Reporter Rajendra Burma and Suvendra Burma, Editor Pradmyuna Bal and Sishu Sahityika Nanda Kishore Bal were Born. His father’s name is Bira Kishore Sahoo and mother’s name Malli Dei. Now he is working as a Lecturer in Oriya at Aeronautics College, Sunabeda of Koraput District. He is one of the famous children’s writer of the present time. He wrote 25 books in Oriya, English, Hindi and Bengali who are very popular among the children’s of Orissa. Phula Ame Phula is his first children’s poem collection which is published in 1992. After that his book Agada Bagada Jhainki Jhumpa is published which is give him name and fame. He wrote both criticism and creative books for the children’s as well as children’s scholars of the state in his mother tongue Oriya. He got his Ph. D. in Oriya Moukhika Shisu Sahitya which is also published in book form and popularize him among the scholar and readers because in this thesis he collected the folk songs of Orissa which are going to be abolished. He married to Smt. Binapani Sahoo D/o of Sri Raj Kishore Sahoo who is a Headmaster of M.E. School of Bartanda village of Jajpur District in 12 June 1985. Gitimaya Sahoo his son born in 1987 now he is working as software engineer at Infosys and daughter Bulbul Priyadarshini Sahoo is reading in +3. After doing the social and educational responsibility he engage himself to create a good moral poams for the betterment of children’s of Orissa. He also active participation to develop the Oriya Children’s Literature through Research Institute for Oriya Children’s Literature(RIOCL) established by Dr. Manindra Mohanty the first scholar of Oriya Children’s Literature and his guide. He get the full support from his wife Binapani Sahoo and two children’s to do something for the Oriya literature and language. He also edit a children’s magazine name as BAGALABAGULI from 1981 to 1985. He is founder secretary of Banaphula Sahitya Parishad, Sunabeda and Oriya Lekhaka Pathaka Sammelan Semiliguda for the development of Oriya Literature at undivided Koraput district. He started his profession career as instructor in Secretarial Practice and Hadidas Mahavidyalay, Chhatia as well as Aeronautics college Sunabeda. Now he is working as a Lect. In Oriya at Aeronautics College, Sunabeda. He has guided doctoral reaserach and also published many research articles in various research journal of Orissa. He is member of many organization of Orissa like Research Institute of Oriya Children’s Literature(RIOCL), AIJLC, Calcutta, Banaphula Sahitya Parishad, Sunabeda, Oriya Lekhaka Pathaka Sammelan, Semiliguda, Oriya Gabesana Parishad, Cuttack, Utkal Sahitya Samaj, Cuttack, Banaprabha Sahitya Parishad, Sunabeda and many more organization of the state of Orissa. Selected writing in children’s literature
Phula Ame Phula 1992
Agada Bagada Jhainki Jhumpa 1997
Kalia Balada Galare Gala 2000
Marinele Mohapatra 2000
Gachha Ama Jebana 2003
Inchidi Minchidi 2003
Aei Matira Manisha 2004
Aainsi Mantara Kainsi Mantra 2004
Gai Dia Pade Gita 2008
Khara Barasa Gita 2008
Biluananara Banabhoji 2008
Hata Deba Bhala Kame 2009
Basanta Kishore Rachanabali-I 2009
Criticism and Alochana
Odiya Sishu Sahitya Alochana 1994
Odiya Moukhika Sishu Sahitya(Ph.D. Thesis)1996
Sampratika Shisu Sahitya O Sahityika 2000
Odiya Shisu Sahityara Sahayak Pathyasuchi 2002
Koraputra Parba Parbani 2005
Koraputra Lokakatha 2005
Ama Koraput 2005
Koraput Parikrama (Edited) 1992
Odishara Lokanatya(Edited) 1993
Sampratika Shisu Sahitya(Edited) 2000
Manindra Abhinandan Grantha(Edited) 2004
Saraswata Sadhaka Dr. Jagannath Mohanty 2007
Nanda Kishore Rachanabali 2007
Kahaku Kahiba 2003
Bhaita Bhai 2003
Ekati Chand Aneka Tare 2004
Who’s Who in Oriya Children’s Literature, Vol. I , 1995
Who’s Who in Oriya Children’s Literature, Vol. I , 1997
Drops of Nectar (Children’s Poem) 1998
* Edited Other Books and Magazines :
Bagala Baguli (20 issues) 1981-1985
Banaphula –I to 8 (8 volumes) 1986-96
Koraput Parikrama (Poems) 1994
Panchapakhuda (Collection of children’s Poems) 1992
Deshatmabodhaka Kabita Samkalan 1992
Bhagirathi Smaranika 2004
Swarnakhetra-2009(Khetra Bisesanka) 2009
Swarnakhetra-2010(Bhakta Bisesanka) 2010
Aeronautica-VII Aeronautics College Magagine 1987-88
Aeronautica-XI Aeronautics College Magagine 1991-92
Aeronautica-XVII Aeronautics College Magagine 1997-98
Aeronautica-XIX Aeronautics College Magagine 1999-2000
Aeronautica-XXI Aeronautics College Magagine 2002-03
Aeronautica-XIV Aeronautics College Magagine 2004-05
Aeronautica-XV Aeronautics College Magagine 2005-06
Aeronautica-XVI Aeronautics College Magagine 2006-07
Aeronautica-XVII & XVIII Aeronautics College
List of languages by number of native speakers in India
India is home to several hundred languages. Most languages spoken in India belong either to the Indo-European (ca. 74%), the Dravidian (ca. 24%), the Austroasiatic (Munda) (ca. 1.2%), or the Tibeto-Burman (ca. 0.6%) families, with some languages of the Himalayas still unclassified. The SIL Ethnologue lists 415 living languages for India.
Hindi (Standard Hindi in addition to many dialects of varying mutual intelligibility, forming a macrolanguage) is the most widespread language of India. The Indian census takes the widest possible definition of "Hindi" as a broad variety of "Hindi languages". The native speakers of Hindi so defined accounts for about 43% of Indians and another 27 to 43% of national population can understand or speak the language.
Indian English is recorded as the native language of 226,449 Indians in the 2001 census. English is the second "language of the Union" besides Hindi.
Thirteen languages account for more than 1% of Indian population each, and between themselves for over 95%; all of them are "scheduled languages of the constitution." Scheduled languages spoken by less than 1% of Indians are Santali (0.64%), Nepali (0.28%), Sindhi (0.25%), Manipuri (0.14%), Bodo (0.13%), Dogri (0.01%), spoken in Jammu and Kashmir). The largest language that is not "scheduled" is Bhili (0.95%), followed by Gondi (0.27%), Kumaoni (0.21%), Tulu (0.17%) and Kurukh (0.10%)
List by number of native speakers
Further information: List of languages by number of native speakers
Ordered by number of speakers as first language. Indian population in 1991 exhibited 19.4% of bilingualism and 7.2% of trilingualism, so that the total percentage of "native languages" is at about 127%.
More than one million speakers
The 2001 census recorded 29 individual languages as having more than 1 million native speakers (0.1% of total population).
Table: Ordered by number of native speakers
2001 census (total population 1,004.59 million)
1991 census (total population 838.14 million)
Encarta 2007 estimate (worldwide speakers)
* Excludes figures of Paomata, Mao-Maram and Purul sub-divisions of Senapati district of Manipur for 2001.
** The percentage of speakers of each language for 2001 has been worked out on the total population of India excluding the population of Mao-Maram, Paomata and Purul subdivisions of Senapati district of Manipur due to cancellation of census results.
100,000 to one million speakers
* There are 90 million speakers of English as a second or third language.