Of Targeted Rural Initiatives for Poverty Termination and Infrastructure



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Scope for Tribal Development

  1. Local Organization of Tribal:


In cases, where tribal are found to be in a particular cluster or relatively less scattered, scope of organizing them to different community groups or SHGs is a possibility. It is expected that, by organizing them, a local level platform for tribal development can be created which will be a strategic means to deliver project designed services. The savings and credit operations can be managed effectively using such established platform/s where there will be organized development participation of tribal and ownership of the process.

      1. Positive Biasness and Development Inclusion:


Taking into account the deprived state of tribal, the project design [criteria for selection and project implementation] need to be positively biased towards tribal, in-spite of their lower concentration. The project and intervention / operational plan should encompass a pre-condition of inclusion of tribal section within the scope of the project in a desired manner so that they can optimally utilize the benefit of project services to improve their present status.

      1. Tribal Inclusion and Development Plan:


Giving due emphasis to STs in the project areas, the need for preparing a separate Tribal Inclusion and Development [TID] Plan can be thought of. TID Plan purview thus would relate to both Scheduled and non-scheduled areas especially where the ST population is residing.

      1. Capacity Building and Skill Improvement Measures:


For the purpose, two fold strategies can be thought of i.e. a welfare approach of considering them as a beneficiary of the project or adopting a development approach where they are equal partner of development process. It is always desirable to make them partners in development by promoting their skill, knowledge and capacity in the desired direction so that by making use of such resources, they can improve their living condition. So, different vocational trainings and allied inputs may be given them based on the market demand.

      1. Credit Provision for Livelihood Promotion:


Further, strengthening productive household asset base may be considered one of the Pre-requisite to make them self sustaining in the longer run. As discussed earlier, it is also equally important to develop their investment capacity by making available the required resource base at their level. As, required financial resource is not available with them for livelihood investment and equally they have poor access to such resources due to assetlessness and allied factors, it is important to make required provision in the project intervention by which they can access financial resources at the time of need. Provision of credit through formal and/or informal institutional mechanism can help them in minimizing their external financial dependency, which at present is exploitative, and strengthen their financial base through productive resource investment.

      1. Additional support and Untied Fund Provision:


The project may think up allocating additional financial and human resources in tribal pockets to serve to the specific needs of tribal. Such exclusive financial provisions could be of be in shape of “tied funds” or “untied funds” but it is advisable to have some “untied funds” provision placed with the promoted tribal groups for in-time utilization as “internal credit fund” for meeting emerging livelihood requirements.

      1. Suitable Project Operational Mechanism / Operational Flexibility:


This may be considered as one of the essentiality by which tribal families can be benefited. There should be operational flexibility to certain expected and tolerable degree for smooth execution of the project in tribal pockets. A suitable project operational strategy may be devised looking at their overall situation and capacity to cope with the demand of the project especially after their involvement in the project processes. To achieve expected results in a tribal pocket may take relatively more time in comparison to areas where people from other social strata reside.

      1. Conflict Resolution:


An important issue raised in the social assessment for this project is the extent of social conflict between ST and SCs. Both groups tend to be among the poorest groups in the village, often living in exclusive habitation that border one another. Conflict are common over access to resources and government schemes and there is a broad tendency for the SCs to dominate over the STs. It is therefore important that the project creates mechanisms to ensure that ST (and SC) has the opportunity to access grievance redressal mechanisms and that representation of these two groups on representative fora is managed appropriately.

    1. Conclusion:


Tribal development, in the context of the proposed project, requires a different kind of thinking apart from tradition mode of looking at tribal development. A paradigm shift in the approach seems more essential especially in the studied project districts i.e. from welfare approach to development approach. Social inclusion in a development paradigm would be the top priority in these districts with regard to tribal development on equity norms which will ultimately help in strengthening the overall process. So, socio-economic development of tribal under the scope of the project can be thought of suitably if plans are prepared accordingly making it a thrust intervention area. Initially, expected level of output may not be achieved in comparison to other social sections, still it seems wiser to make them a part of the process to achieve the overall tribal development objective in a longer run. Resource dovetailing and inter-departmental collaboration is another possibility where all concerns come to a common platform to address the tribal issues. As tribal population is relatively in a scattered mode in studied districts, suitable strategies need to be devised accordingly under the overall district development plan. So, a thoughtful action seems essential in the context for making the tribal development plan a success.

Section Three

Tribal Development Plan




  1. Tribal Development Plan

    1. Objective


The objective of the Tribal Inclusion and Development Strategy under TRIPTI will be to empower the poor Tribal Communities and improve their livelihoods through:
(a) Developing and strengthening pro-poor local institutions/groups (including self-help groups);

(b) Ensuring representation and benefits flow from gram panchayat level federations

(c) Building skills and capacities of the Tribals; and

(d) Financing productive demand-driven sub-project investments through value chain based

support for key livelihood activities

(e) To develop good practices in social inclusion that will be adopted more widely.


Given the context of the STs, care would be taken to evolve and follow a project implementation process that fosters full respect for dignity, human rights and cultural uniqueness of the Tribal Communities; and that all be culturally and socially compatible.
The Tribal Development Plan has been developed in regard for the specific context of district of coastal Orissa and the blocks which have been selected by the GoO for implementation. Overall, these districts are among the lowest in terms of tribal population in the state, and tribal have received least support compared to other districts in Orissa. . Hence a three-pronged strategy has been developed, with different modalities for blocks depending on the population density.


    1. Project Coverage


  • 10 Districts

  • 38 Blocks

  • 1020 GPs

  • 8,369 villages

  • Total rural families : 12,54,607

    • ST : 6.22 %

    • SC : 20.19 %

    • OBC : 52.90 %

    • Others : 20.69%


Table No. 12: Percentage of Tribal by Project Districts


Sl.

District

% of STs

No. of Blocks in ST Population Range

No.

0-10%

11-30%

>30%

1

Angul

16

2

1

1

2

Balasore

9

2

2

0

3

Bhadrak

2

4

0

0

4

Cuttack

5

2

0

0

5

Jagatsinghpur

1

4

0

0

6

Jajpur

15

2

1

1

7

Kendrapara

0.5

4

0

0

8

Khurda

4.5

3

1

0

9

Nayagarh

8.3

2

2

0

10

Puri

0.3

4

0

0




TOTAL

5.2

29

7

2



    1. Principles


The major project principles will also be applicable in the TDP implementation that includes:

  • Focus on the rural poor

  • Specific components to target the most vulnerable and poorest social groups

  • Women will be in positions of decision-making

  • Transparency and accountability

  • Community driven development
    1. Plan Components


The project has five major components

(a) Institution and Strengthening and Development

(b) Community Investment Fund

(c) Livelihoods Fund

(d) Project Management,

(e) Knowledge and Monitoring



Table No.13: Project Objective and Component Linkage


Sl.

Objectives

No.

Components and Subcomponents

1

Institution Strengthening and Development

A1

Community Level Institution Building

A2

Developing Capacity of Project Staff

2

Community Investment Fund

B1

Financing Micro Investment Plans

B2

Pro-poor Inclusion Fund

3.

Livelihood Fund

C1

Value chain proposal

C2

Skill Building for Rural Youth

C3

Innovations on livelihoods enhancement and promotion

4.

Project Management, Knowledge Management and Replication

D1

Project Management : Staff Salary

D2

Monitoring and Evaluation

D3

Learning : Thematic Studies and Pilots



    1. Overall Project Design


Component A: Institution Strengthening and Development Community level institutional building will focus on needs assessment and capacity building for SHGs and Gram Panchayat Federation in order to reach quality and inclusiveness criteria for release of funds. A specific sub-component of this project has been developed to focus on the inclusion of the poor and vulnerable section of the community and to enhance access to, and quality of, key public services at the village level.
Component B: Community Investment Fund: The Project will transfer financial resources to Panchayat-level and Block-level federations of Self Help Groups in the form of the Community Investment Fund.. These resources will be transferred as grants and used as a revolving fund towards investments at the household level through SHGs. CIF will be released in two tranches to the SHG federations on the basis of their achieving clear and transparent readiness indicators. A process of Micro Investment Planning (MIPs) at the household-level, and the aggregation and prioritization of these plans at the SHG and SHG federation levels will be a key readiness indicator. Other readiness indicators will include extent of outreach achieved among the poor, the quality of functioning of the constituent entities of the federation, and the maturity and quality of functioning of the federation itself. A portion of the CIF (X%) will form the ‘pro-poor inclusion fund, offering targeting grant based assistance, channeled through GPLF and SHG, of up to Rps 5000 to the extreme poor and vulnerable individuals to allow them to participate on a par with other SHG members. Pro-poor inclusion fund will also finance innovative capacity enhancing activities for the extreme poor and vulnerable groups, including aids to disabled persons and crèche facilities for working mothers.
Component C: Livelihood Development Fund: The livelihood promotion fund will increase the share of SHG households in the value chain of key commodities or products and promote skill training for rural youth and the poor. Livelihoods enhancement will include enhanced production, productivity and profitability across key supply chains like dairy, vegetable production, and handlooms, key rural livelihoods in the coastal districts. This would be achieved through improvements in production technologies and management practices, better market linkages, more efficient and effective delivery of key support services, and augmentation of community-level productive capacities as well as infrastructure. This component will also support skill upgradation for rural youth and an innovation fund livelihoods activities.
Component D: Project Management, Knowledge Management and Replication:

The first sub-component will ensure the smooth implementation of project activities, monitoring of project implementation progress and outputs/outcomes achieved, staff recruitment and training. The second component will include base-line and evaluation survey, as well on-going MIS and participatory monitoring activities. In addition, thematic studies on issues including participatory and community process, institutional sustainability and empowerment will be carried out in order to feed learning’s across the project. This component will also support learning across other departments and districts in Orissa. This will ensure sustainable monitoring & evaluation even after the End of Project.


    1. Management & Implementation Structure




    1. Key Elements of the Tribal Inclusion and Development Strategy

The TRIPTI project is a targeted approach to improve livelihoods of the rural poor in Orissa through mobilizing women’s self-help groups, improving access to credit for productive activities and specific livelihood support. In addition, additional support for the poorest and most vulnerable section of society are part of the project design, operationalized though a social inclusion fund that will provide seed capital to widows, destitutes, disabled persons and other individuals that the community identifies as being among the poorest of the poor. As such, issues of tribal development – focusing on the poorest and socially excluded sections among the tribal population – are integral to the project design. However, the strategy set out below will ensure that tribals are not left out of the community driven process.


Given the wide variation in the tribal social and economic scenario across the selected project districts in coastal Orissa – with block level populations ranging from 0.3% to more than 50% in a few cases - TDP has been designed in three modes to reflect the differing needs for tribal integration in project process.

    1. Implementation Strategies for Tribal Development – Key safeguard measures as part of Project Cycle



Table No. 14: Implementation Strategy as per Tribal Population Range





GP level tribal population

Activity

0-10%

11-30%

30%+

Start up activity

Tribal leaders included in initial meeting Tribal Inclusion Analysis as part of Situation Analysis

Tribal Situation Analysis

IEC campaign

Specific tribal IEC campaign to be developed

Institution formation

At least one CC received training in tribal development

At least one CC from tribal community

Mobilization

(Left out poor criteria applied to tribals)

  • At least 40% of BPL households including tribals are in SHGs and are part of GPLF before release of CIF I

  • At least 60% of poorest households including tribals who are members of SHGs are financed by first tranche of CIF before release of CIF2

Representation

Priority tribals as part of Social inclusion fund

Sub-committee of tribal as part of GPLF

Tribal hold at least 4 posts on 11 member executive




Provision for informal habitation level groups to support minority/weaker section inclusion




At least one tribal member on participatory monitoring committee

`At least one tribal member of each five member GPLF sub-committee (participatory monitoring, procurement, asset monitoring, CIF etc)

GPLF strengthening

Appraisal of disbursement to tribal groups

MIP and consolidation

District level workshops on tribal economic activities

Appraisal of tribal MIPs



Livelihood Fund

(Block level)



Inclusion plan for tribal development as part of livelihood assessment

At least one sub-project aimed at tribal livelihoods

Where population 30%

Skill training for rural youth

8% of job for rural tribal youth

(15% for SC)



Innovation Fund

At least 10% of fund to be used for activities that support tribal livelihoods

Institutional Sustainability

Project objectives to be applied to tribal groups

Project aim to promote 75% inclusion of the poorest (BPL) groups in sustainable federations.




    1. Description of the Tribal Development Strategy – according to project components

      1. Institutional Strengthening & Development


Principles

  1. Engagement of tribal groups in project entry activities

  2. Ensuring mobilization strategies (IEC, training etc) are developed in culturally sensitive manner

  3. Mobilizing SHG formation among tribals

  4. Ensuring representation on the GP level federation

  5. Developing accessible grievance redressal mechanism for tribal groups


Strategy

The project will support and develop inclusive, self-reliant, self-managed and sustainable, SHGs and their GP level Federations (GPLF) for livelihoods improvement.




  1. SHGs: As part of the mobilization process, Tribal communities will be provided information, rules, and non-negotiables, through appropriate channels/medium about the program. Further, Tribal communities will be encouraged to be part of the SHGs and will receive additional training on key issues including: concept of saving, book keeping, and meeting. In areas where there are concentrated tribal populations, SHGs of tribal communities will be promoted and nurtured. In areas of mixed populations, efforts will be made to mobilize tribal communities along with the other left out poor in the village into SHGs. The Cluster Coordinators and Community Resource Persons facilitating this process will have and or will be capacitated with the requisite skills and expertise to work with Tribal communities.

  2. GPLF: In the formation of federations, three different modalities for tribal representation will be employed. In all cases, 50% of tribals are to be mobilized into SHG as a condition for the release of the CIF II.

  • In GP where tribal population less that 10%

Tribal groups to be included as part of the Social Inclusion Fund, and will be prioritized for receiving ‘seed grants’. As per the guidelines for social inclusion component, beneficiaries will be integrated into the GPLF as a condition for the release of CIF II.

  • In GPs where tribal population 10-30%

Tribal sub-committee to be formed as part of the GPLF

  • In GPs where tribal population 30%+

At least 4 posts in the 11 member executive committee should be allotted to tribals.
      1. Pro-poor inclusion


Principles

a) Ensuring that the poorest and most vulnerable section of the tribal population receives addition project support to pull them out of poverty

b) Institutionalizing planning for the inclusion of the needs of vulnerable groups by federation members.

Strategy

This grant fund will be used to provide seed money to the poorest and most vulnerable groups (disabled, destitutes, and extreme poor) at GP level. Training and intensive action research pilots will be carried out in blocks with both high and low tribal concentration to formulate guidelines and methods for including the most poor and vulnerable groups based on their needs.



      1. Community Investment Funds


Principles

a) Enhancing the sources of credit for private asset creation and livelihood activities among tribals

b) Ensuring inclusion of tribal through collective planning by the GPLF

Strategy


  • These funds will be released to federations following the achievement of a number of key eligibility criteria, in two tranches. Social inclusion is an important requirement for CIF release. For the first tranches, GPFL need to plan that at least 40% of BPL households are in SHGs and are part of GPLF and 60% of poorest households who are members of SHGs have plans to be financed by CIF.

  • For the second tranch, at least 60% of poorest households who are members of SHGs are financed by CIF II.

For the first release of the first tranche of the CIF will be dependent on the GPLF giving an inclusion plan, setting out how the needs of the poorest of the poor and the tribal groups will be prioritized. After release of first tranche of CIF, GPLF Strengthening & Sustainability Plan would focus on inclusion of extreme poor groups including tribal groups in the GPLF and empowering them to access social and development programmes. The release of the second CIF will be dependent on the performance of the GPLF in reaching these goals.



      1. Livelihood Development Fund


Priorities:

a) Screening Process on MIP and livelihood activites to ensure that no sub-prpojects adversely affect tribal livelihoods

b) Upgradation and development of indigenous knowledge and skills for tribals through innovations and support

c) Augmentation of community level productive capacities as well as infrastructure

d) Building community level institution for establishment of sustainable and self-managed livelihood promotion

e) Fostering linkages between community level institutions with various public and private institutions

f) Better input and output linkages.
Strategy: Tribal communities are primarily forest or natural resources-based. Natural resources form an integral part of their lives, skills and livelihoods. Villages inhabited by these communities are the poorest and devoid of the infrastructure and livelihood supporting mechanisms conducive to their lifestyle. A majority of these communities depend on collection of forest produce seasonally as their only source of livelihood. During other times, they are wage-gatherers - a significant population is marginal or landless. One of the critical roles of the project in the tribal area would be to ensure an environment to help grow a symbiotic relationship between tribal people and the natural resources. Therefore, one of the important tasks of the agencies involved in the project should be to closely work with the tribal communities in the protection, conservation, regeneration and sustainable development of the natural resources. This will mutually benefit developing natural resources-based livelihood enterprises and options.
This requires the project, take both a regulative and proactive approach. All MIP and livelihood activities will be screened for adverse effects on tribal livelihoods. The principle mechanism for this will be the appraisal process at the Gram Sabha and by the federation executive.
Considering the immense importance of Non Timber Forest Produce (NTFP) in the lives of the tribals, especially the landless tribals, and the policy issues involved in ensuring the rights of the tribals over the resource, the various issues involved in NTFP development need to be addressed. For example:

  • The issue of NTFP Conservation & Augmentation,

  • Sustainable Harvesting mechanisms,

  • Value addition, Marketing and Enterprise Development

In each of the tribal areas, NTFP groups/associations – including VSS committees – will be linked to the GPLF, or formed where needed. They would also be trained as the key unit for other diversification and development initiatives to take off. Close cooperation and joint project initiatives need to be put in place between the Orissa Forest Department and this project will have to be given a priority for addressing issues of NTFP trade, control and value addition. Where present, forest management committees will be inducted into the project’s natural resource management framework. It is imperative therefore; that the present project revisits these marginalized communities through: a) Holistic Natural Resource Based Livelihood Approach and b) An Institutional Development & Local Governance perspective which builds from existing traditional cultural practices and has the ability to converge with project initiatives


The second aspect of the tribal livelihoods plan will ensure that tribal livelihoods to be supported through value chain analysis and asset creation for producer companies, through the prioritization of tribal livelihood activities (for example non-timber forest produce) in blocks where population is higher than 30%. In other areas, value chain analysis will prioritize the inclusion of tribals in value chain activities. In addition, innovative approaches ensuring gainful involvement of the communities will be achieved through the skill training component of the project (7% of jobs created by the project will be for tribals) and the innovation fund (10% to focus on tribal livelihood activities).

      1. Project Management


Principles

a) Ensuring project staff is trained in tribal development issues

b) Front line staff is chosen to ensure engagement with tribal groups

c) Ensuring linkages to tribal development agencies for convergence at the state level
Strategy

All Project functionaries working in the tribal areas, especially the CC, CRPs and nodal members and the staff at the State, Block and District Project Units would be sensitized and oriented towards tribal culture and development issues to enable them to appreciate the importance of “tribal way of life” (culture) while working among the tribals. With this participatory strategy in place, the possibility of any potential adverse impacts on the tribals, as they are completely involved in each and every stage of the intervention process would be remote.

In blocks where tribal population is higher than 30%, at least one CC will be from tribal community. This may require the education level recruitment criteria for CCs to be reduced in the case of tribals.

In GPs where tribal population is higher than 10%, at least one CC will receive training in tribal development issues.




      1. Monitoring and Learning


Principles

a) Ensuring that tribal issues, and project learning’s are developed and replicated in the project

b) Developing robust methods to track tribal development objectives of the project

c) Specialist Support from a partner agency to development specific components of the TDP, including legal entitlements and awareness inputs.
Strategy

Thematic studies on tribal development carried out throughout project cycle.


Tribal Development indicators are being developed and are to be included in PME, MIS and evaluation process.

    1. Additional Provision as Part of the TDP


The critical processes related to the prior arrangements and mechanisms that need to be set in place, for implementation of the TDP, are described below.


  1. Project level : The major project level arrangements for the implementation of the TDP include selection of team for carrying out this project, training to team members on Tribal issues, selection of tribal villages, organizing stakeholder workshops to analyze data and observations and make changes to the project implementation plan, field investigation on existing activities – group under traditional, project/Government intervention – what works, why and what does not and why, and mapping of resources and mapping of skills in different geographical zones with links to markets, trader chains….




  1. Policy Level: A study has been proposed to be carried out after inception of the project to explore the potential links of tribals to other line departments and based on the findings of the study a convergence strategy for the project will be developed. This will help to ensure participation of the tribals in the social and economic development programmes.




  1. Information: A major aspect of the limited success with programs and the participation of Tribals, especially the poorer sections, are related to the inadequate availability of information regarding different programs and schemes. Information dissemination of project aspects like project components, basic principles, non-negotiables, roles and responsibilities of different stakeholders, are critical to elicit interest and participation of the Tribal communities. The IEC strategy of the project has taken into account the specificities of the Tribal areas and is putting together a special strategy to reach out to Tribals. Some of the methods being looked at are folk art, street theatre, films and simple pamphlets. The emphasis will be on creating resource persons from within the Tribal community to provide information and local insight.



  1. Gender: The participation of women would be the key factor in implementing the TDP. Tribal men and women would be sensitized for enhancing the women’s participation in community affairs. The strategy would be to promote women’s active involvement in the process of development and their effective participation in decision making. All project functionaries would be sensitized on gender issues.



  1. Grievance Redressal: In the process of strengthening the SHGs and GPLFs, besides CB on Credit flow and management, stress will be made to cover social and convergence issues. Conflict resolution and grievance redressal procedures will be built in to enable the community not only to resolve the issues related to credit management and social issues, but also to grievances related to various schemes and entitlements. A participatory monitoring Sub-committee will be formed in the GPLF for complaints handling at Panchayat level. Apart from this, contact numbers and official addresses will be displayed and made public for faster redressal of complaints. A HOTLINE number and postal address will also be provided so that the community can lodge complaints immediately.




  1. Social outcomes: the TRIPTI project aims to leverage the potential of improved organization and voice of the poor to enhance development outcomes more generally. Specific focus is given to improving the quality of mid-day meal provision and the public distribution system. As such, this objective will be part of the tribal inclusion and development strategy, focusing on the specific issues facing tribal groups in accessing these institutions. In addition, given the poor health and education indicators of tribal groups in Orissa, a special action research study of these issues will be carried out as part of the institutional inclusion component of this project



    1. Legal Entitlement:

Given the centrality of legal provision, and the enforcement of the same, to tribal development in Orissa, issues of tribal legal empowerment will be incorporated into the project plan for tribal districts, as part of the first year activities under the project. This component will draw on lessons and learning from existing projects, studies and reports available in the state. If needed, a specialist agency will be recruited to develop this component. The scope of the component will include examination and synthesis of provision for tribal empowerment and production of inputs on capacity building and institutional arrangements in the following areas:




  • Land alienation and Restoration

  • Transparency and Access to Land Records

  • Tenancy Reform

  • Access to Common Property Resources

  • Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996

  • Regularisation of Habitations in Forest Areas

  • Rights of the tribal communities vis-à-vis forest areas

  • Access and Support for Legal Assistance for land claims.

  • Other Empowerment Issues:

  • Implementation of Orissa Moneylenders Act

  • Implementation of Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act

  • Access of tribals to other government schemes and programmes.

  • Legal Assistance for the above.

This component will be managed by the State and District Management Units, who will be responsible for producing an operational manual for and natural resource implementation and sub-project screening, IEC material on legal provisions, and capacity building training for different actors for addressing tribal development issues. These materials and training packages will draw on lessons form other tribal livelihood projects in the state, notably Orissa Tribal Empowerment and Livelihoods Program (OTELP), Western Orissa Rural Livelihoods Project (WORLP) and the World Bank funded non-lending technical assistance on Social Development in Orissa.


No land acquisition or displacement of tribal or other groups is envisaged under the project, however, if deemed necessary due to land dispute or entitlement claims, an action plan for legal recognition of land ownership, occupation or usage – to be integrated into the project process.

    1. Convergence


The Tribal Inclusion and Development Plan is a part of the TRPTI which is being implemented as part of the Orissa Rural Poverty Mission. For effective implementation, the TDP envisages convergence with the Tribal Welfare Department and Forest Department whose involvement is critical to the TDP in order to promote the implementation of legal provisions pertaining to tribal land and resource entitlements. Convergence arrangement will be different in areas of high tribal density (where special agencies are present) and in areas where tribal population are sparse. Accordingly, a diversified strategy will be developed.
Convergence arrangement will also be examine with respect to tribal heath and education. Linkages are also envisaged with other externally funded poverty eradication projects.
Given the important of this component, the project director has agreed to commission a study of convergence potential that is to be implemented in the first months following initiation of the project.
The TOR for the convergence study will to:

  • Assess major rural development schemes that provide potential linkages to the TRIPTI project

  • Draw on findings of ISEA and assess another further areas of convergence that the project needs to address (i.e. forestry, employment, etc)

  • Analyze implementation process

  • Undertake a rapid participatory assess of implementation – leading to a SWOT type analysis

  • Organizing a meeting with implementation department to assess convergence options

This convergence study should aim towards Memorandum of Understanding (MoUs) – Several MoUs will be put in place for better implementation – Forest Department and Tribal Welfare Department. In principle, the MoU should contain that a Project Steering Committee established at the State and the village level to continuously monitor the progress of the project, difficulties, challenges and what needs to be done. This Steering Committee should sit 3 times in a year. Decisions taken at the Steering Committee are shared through newsletters, media campaigns and other approaches that are understood by tribals



    1. Operational Arrangements



Staffing: For implementing the Tribal Development Plan, the project will have a Tribal and Vulnerability Co-ordinator anchoring this aspect under the project at the SPMU.
All BPMU members working in areas where tribal population exceeds 10% will be sensitized on tribal issues and the BPMU members working in Tribal areas will undergo a comprehensive training to implement the TDP. In blocks like Pallahara in Angul and Sukinda in Jajpur, which have ST populations higher than 30%, the Project Coordinator (Institution Building and Tribal Issues) will have experience in working with tribal development.
Since the scheduled tribes inhabiting the different project districts exhibit striking diversity in ethnic origins, cultural heritage, social institutions, religious traditions, dialects, festivals and economic pursuits, an in depth understanding of the socio-cultural, economic, political and religious life of the tribals will be imparted to all the project functionaries, right from the district level to the village level, including the NGOs involved in TDP at the time of their entry into project. This would run concurrently with the rest of the Project.
Table 15 : Implémentation arrangements, Organisation and Management


Level

Nodal Agent for Tribal Development

Functions

Project Level



State level Executive Committee with Director, Tribal Welfare Department, ITDA, SC corporation

  • Providing necessary guidance and support to the Project in tribal areas.

State level

Tribal Development and Vulnerability Coordinator


  • Coordination with DPMUs and other line depts. activities.

  • Support DPMUs and BPMU in social mobilization and capacity building of tribals and their institutions

  • Support DPMUs and BPMUs in generating and grounding community sub-projects

District Level

District Program Manager

  • Coordination with BPMUs and GPLFs and other line depts. Staff.

  • Support BPMU in social mobilization and capacity building of tribals and their institutions

  • Support GPLF in generating and grounding community sub-projects

Block Level Management Unit

Project Executive

(Institution Building and Tribal Development)



  • Coordinate CCs and GPLF with tribal inclusion and livelihood activities

  • Grievance Redressal

Cluster Level

Cluster Coordinators

  • Facilitating communities identify the poor and poorest of the poor through PRA tools.

  • Mobilization of women/men to form into SHGs,

  • Formation of EC and GPLF

  • Assist in the preparation of MIPs and demand driven sub-projects

  • Facilitate implementation of the plans.

  • Registering Grievances

Village level

Community Resource Persons

  • Mobilization and Facilitation.

  • Coordination with other activities.

  • Monitoring and reporting.

  • Registering Grievances






    1. Monitoring and Evaluation Framework


The Monitoring and Evaluation (M and E) of the Tribal Development Plan is similar to the process and specific activities for the project as a whole and are integrated into the M and E framework designed for the project. The overall project M&L System will ensure a) input and output monitoring b) process monitoring and c) impact evaluation would ensure effective implementation of Tribal Development Plan.

For the purpose of monitoring and evaluation of Tribal Development Plan, basic data relating to village wise information on tribal population, infrastructure facilities, land utilization, cropping pattern, livelihoods etc. would be recorded in the village registers that will be kept with the GPLF. The project interventions planned in the village as part of the Annual Plan and the project interventions actually implemented will also be captured in the MIS. The data collection would be the responsibility of the BLMU in association with the CC and CRPs of each village in her/his jurisdiction. The BLMU in turn would report the progress to the DLMU and SPMU for taking up remedial measures, if any.


The community would be involved in process monitoring through Focus Group Discussions (FGD) and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) techniques, wherever required in order to know the quality of project implementation and inputs provided under the project. The villagers will monitor the performance of all project functionaries, starting with the Community activists, Community Para professionals and the BPMU.

Monthly progress reports on the progress of various sub components of the project in Tribal areas would be submitted by the DLBSU to the SPMU.



Table 16 : Key issues for Monitoring and Evaluation of TDP




Indicators

Start up activity

Habitation and Village baseline data

Present status (group inclusion, links to federation etc)

Number of Tribal Situation Assessments conducted


IEC campaign

Development of Tribal focused materials

Coverage of IEC campaign

Awareness levels among tribal groups


Institution formation

Training for CCs

Number of tribal CCs and CPRs recruited



Mobilization and GPLF strengthening

Number of Tribals in SHGs before release of CIF 1

Number of Tribals in SHGs before release of CIF 2

Number of Tribals member of federation

Number of Tribal MIPs financed by CIF

Number of Tribals supported by Pro-poor inclusion fund


Representation

Number of Tribal Sub-committees as part of GPLF

Number of Tribals on GPLF EC

Tribal membership in sub-committees


MIP and consolidation

District level workshops held on tribal economic activities held

Number of MIPs approved



Livelihood Fund

(Block level)

Inclusion plan for tribal development – submitted

Funding flows to livelihood activities

Number of sub-projects directed at tribal groups financed


Skill training for rural youth

Number of tribal benefiting from job training

Innovation Fund

Percent of innovation funds directed to tribal development

Grievance Redressal

Number of grievance from tribal submitted, time take to resolve

Monitoring and Learning

Number of thematic studies on tribal issues completed

Partnerships with tribal development agencies and EAPs established and workshops held



Monitoring will be ongoing and periodic, done internally by the Monitoring, Learning and Evaluation Unit at the SMPU level and supported by District Level and Block Level Financial Management and MIS Officers.
The M and E system will comprise of the following components

  • Baseline and Impact Assessments (external agency)

  • Regular MIS system

  • Participatory Monitoring – at the GP level

  • Thematic studies and learning activities



      1. Dissemination Plan




Pre-appraisal

Consultation


Community Level Consultations

State Level Consultation

District Level Consultation (planned by end Jan 2008 – Angul District)

Pre-appraisal

Disclosure


Copy of TDP to be send to all DCs and ZPs in districts with tribal population above 10%

Translated Summary Posted Publically in all project districts



Project Activities



Forging Linkages to NGOs and CSO working in tribal districts

State level co-ordination with the tribal development agencies, and donor funded projects for joint learning and dissemination





      1. Costing for the Tribal Development Plan


Since the Tribal Development Plan forms an integral part of TRITPI, the budgets for the above interventions are not shown separately. The required budgets will form part of the Annual Plans and Budgets of the SPMU, based on the village livelihoods, institutional strengthening and capacity building interventions planned and the sub-projects prepared by the village level organizations and other project interventions. The scheduled tribes constitute 6.22% of the population in the project area. However, considering their low levels of development, the target tribal population to be covered under TRIPTI is expected to be much higher than 6.22%, since the poverty ratio in the tribal population is quite high. It is difficult to state the exact ratio at this time. This ratio will differ from district to district. Since the project is aimed to cover, the poorest of the poor, all poor tribal families will be covered under the project. Accordingly, a significant percentage of the project outlay with regard to cost estimates of all project components will be earmarked for tribal development.


Table No. 17: Tribal Development Plan – Components Summary


Strategy

Likely activities under TDP


Project Component

Primary Responsibility

Support Institutions

Objective 1: Institutional Developing and Strengthening


Start Up Activities

Project Orientation workshop for community at GP level

  • Discussion with tribal option leaders

IB fund

BPMU

CC


DPMU

Orientation meeting at the village level for SHGs

  • Initial needs identification

  • Federation assessment

IB fund

BPMU

CC


DPMU

Communication campaign

  • Development of specific communication products for tribal localities

IB fund

DPMU

SPMU

Formation of tribal sub-committees

  • Identification of key tribal spokespersons and opinion leaders

  • Training and orientation of roles




IB fund

BPMU

CC


DPMU

Training and sensitization on tribal development

  • Training for CCs and CRPs on the importance of women’s participation in developmental activities to the field functionaries and the tribal community.

  • Orientation to other departmental staff




IB fund

BPMU

Resource Agency for Tribals



DPMU and SPMU

Mobilization of Tribal women into SHGs

  • Separate SHG for tribal group (homogenous groups) in villages/habitations exclusively inhabited by tribal groups.

  • Separate SHGs for Tribals and non-Tribals in mixed villages.

  • Representation of tribal groups in federations




IB fund

GPLF

BPMU


CC

DPMU

Inclusion of the poorest and most vulnerable HH

  • Identification of destitute, vulnerable, disabled, widows etc through community process

  • Prioritization for tribal groups in Inclusion fund

IB fund

BPMU

CC

(support agency)



DPMU

GPLF strengthening plan

  • Assessment of GPLF training needs

  • Separate tribal plan for villages where population greater then 30%

IB fund

BPMU

CC


DPMU

Training and capacity building

  • Exposure visits and training workshops for tribal SHG, sub-committee and EC members



IB fund

BPMU

DPMU


SPMU


Objective 2: Community Investment Fund


Formation and appraisal of MIP


  • Screening MIPs for adverse effects on tribals

  • Workshop/training on tribal livelihoods, asset management, investment planning.




IB fund

GPLF

BPMU



DPMUU and SPMU

Capacity support in assessment and prioritization of the poor

  • Training and facilitation support for SHG and GPFL to support pro-poor investment planning

IB fund

BPMU

DPMU


SPMU


Component 3: Livelihood promotion fund


Identification and proposal of value



  • Screening of sub-projects to ensure no adverse impact on tribal land rights and livelihoods

  • Assessment of sustainable tribal livelihoods and priorities

  • Planning and vision programs

Livelihoods promotion fund

Livelihoods resource agency

BPMU


DPMU and SPMU

Training and capacity building

  • Providing training to producers

  • Formation of Natural Resource Protection Committees

  • Identification of market linkages.

Livelihoods Promotion Fund

Livelihoods resource agency

BPMU


DPMU and SPMU

Promotion of marketing

  • Demand survey for tribal products

  • Training on latest techniques of production.

  • Assistance to purchase locally available material.

  • Provision of market linkages.




Livelihoods promotion fund

Livelihoods resource agency

BPMU


DPMU and SPMU

Skill development

  • Identification of rural youth

  • Provision of training

  • Support in securing employment

Livelihood promotion fund

Skill Development Resource Agency

BPMU


DPMU and

SPMU


Innovation Fund

  • Support for innovations that contribute to tribal livelihoods

Livelihood promotion fund

SPMU





Monitoring and Learning


Mand E

Periodic reporting on the implementation status of the TDP

Mand E

SPMU

DPMU

Learning and best practice promotion

Tribal Development Legal Support Partner

Thematic studies on tribal development to be conducted

Periodic workshops, training events, with government departments, NGO and other actors on tribal development issues


M and E

SPMU









Annexure 1




Scheduled Areas in Orissa


Fully Scheduled District

Partially Scheduled District




Mayurbhanj

Kuchinda Tahasil – Sambalpur District

Sundergarh

Keonjhar and Telkoi Tahsils of Keonjhar sub-division, and Champua and Barbil Tahsils of Champua sub-division in Keonjhar district

Koraput

R. Udayagiri Tahsil, and Guma and Rayagada blocks of Parlakhemundi Tahsil of Parlakhemundi sub-division,in Gajapati district

Malkangiri

Surada Tahsil, excluding Gazalbadi and Gocha Gram Panchayats of Ghumsur sub-division, in Ganjam district

Rayagada

Thuamul Rampur Block of Kalahandi Tahsil, and Lanjigarh Block, falling in Lanjigarh and Kalahandi Tahsils, in Bhawanipatna sub-division in Kalahandi district.

Nabarangpur

Nilgiri Community Development Block of Nilgiri Tahsil in Nilgiri sub-division in Balasore district.

Kandhamal



















Annexure 2




List of Scheduled Tribes of Orissa

 


Sl No

List of Scheduled Tribes notified [after addition/deletion]as per the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Order, 1950 as amended by Modification Order, 1956, Amendment Act, 1976 and The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Order [Amendment] Act 2002 No. 10 dated 8.1.2003 of Ministry of Law & Justice republished by the Notification No. 7799/ L dated 7.6.2003 of Law Deptt, Govt. of Orissa

1

Bagata, Bhakta

2

Baiga

3.

Banjara, Banjari

4.

Bathudi, Bathuri

5.

Bhottada, Dhotada, Bhotra, Bhatra, Bhattara, Bhotora, Bhatara

6.

Bhuiya, Bhuyan

7.

Bhumia

8.

Bhumij, Teli Bhumij, Haladipokhria Bhumij, Haladi Pokharia Bhumija, Desi Bhumij, Desia Bhumij, Tamaria Bhumij

9.

Bhunjia

10.

Binjhal, Binjhwar

11.

Binjhia, Binjhoa

12.

Birhor

13.

Bondo Poraja, Bonda Paroja, Banda Paroja

14.

Chenchu

15.

Dal

16.

Desua Bhumij

17.

Dharua, Dhuruba, Dhurva

18.

Didayi, Didai Paroja, Didai

19.

Gadaba, Bodo Gadaba, Gutob Gadaba, Kapu Gadaba, Ollara Gadaba, Parenga Gadaba, Sano Gadaba

20.

Gandia

21.

Ghara

22.

Gond, Gondo, Rajgond, Maria Gond, Dhur Gond

23.

Ho

24.

Holva

25.

Jatapu

26.

Juang

27.

Kandha Gauda

28.

Kawar, Kanwar

29.

Kharia, Kharian, Berga Kharia, Dhelki Kharia, Dudh Kharia, Erenga Kharia, Munda Kharia, Oraon Kharia, Khadia, Pahari Kharia

30.

Kharwar

31.

Khond, Kond, Kandha, Nanguli Kandha, Sitha Kandha, Kondh, Kui, Buda Kondh, Bura Kandha, Desia Kandha, Dungaria Kondh, Kutia Kandha, Kandha Gauda, Muli Kondh, Malua Kondh, Pengo Kandha, Raja Kondh, Raj Khond

32.

Kissan, Nagesar, Nagesia

33.

Kol

34.

Kolah, Loharas, Kol Loharas

35.

Kolha

36.

Koli Malhar

37.

Kondadora

38.

Kora, Khaira, Khayara

39.

Korua

40.

Kotia

41.

Koya, Gumba Koya, Koitur Koya, Kamar Koya, Musara Koya

42.

Kulis

43.

Lodha, Nodh, Nodha, Lodh

44.

Madia

45.

Mahali

46.

Mankidi

47.

Mankirdia, Mankria, Mankidi

48.

Matya, Matia

49.

Mirdhas, Kuda, Koda

50.

Munda, Munda Lohara, Munda Mahalis, Nagabanshi Munda, Oriya Munda

51.

Mundari

52.

Omanatya, Omanatyo, Amanatya

53.

Oraon, Dhangar, Uran

54.

Parenga

55.

Paroja, Parja, Bodo paroja, Barong Jhodia Paroja, Chhelia Paroja, Jhodia Paroja, Konda Paroja, Paraja, Ponga Paroja, Sodia Paroja, Sano Paroja, Solia Paroja

56.

Pentia

57.

Rajuar

58.

Santal

59.

Saora, Savar, Saura, Sahara, Arsi Saora, Based Saora, Bhima Saora, Bhimma Saora, Chumura Saora, Jara Savar, Jadu Saora, Jati Saora, Juari Saora, Kampu Saora, Kampa Soura, Kapo Saora, Kindal Saora, Kumbi Kancher Saora, Kalapithia Saora, Kirat Saora, Lanjia Saora, Lamba Lanjia Saora, Luara Saora, Luar Saora, Laria Savar, Malia Saora, Malla Saora, Uriya Saora, Raika Saora, Sudda Saora, Sarda Saora, Tankala Saora, Patro Saora, Vesu Saora

60.

Shabar Lodha

61.

Sounti

62.

Tharua, Tharua Bindhani

 







Annexure 3

Tribal Population in Studied Districts




Sn

Districts

Population Total

% to state population

ST population

% to dist. population

SC population

% to dist. Population






Anugul

1140003

3.10

132994

11.67

196109

17.20



Balasore

2024508

5.51

228454

11.28

381422

18.84



Bhadrak

1333749

3.63

25141

1.88

286723

21.50



Cuttack

2341094

6.38

83591

3.57

446789

19.08



Jagatsingpur

1057629

2.88

8640

0.82

222634

21.05



Jajpur

1624341

4.42

125989

7.76

373513

22.99



Kendrapara

1302005

3.55

6822

0.52

267186

20.52



Khurda

1877395

5.11

97186

5.18

254251

13.54



Nayagarh

864516

2.35

50836

5.88

121409

14.04



Puri

1502682

4.08

4482

0.30

273917

18.23

Orissa

36804660

100

8145081

22.13

6082063

16.53

Source – Census 2001















Annexure 4


Category of Scheduled Tribes in Study districts



Sn

Districts

Prime Scheduled Tribes

Population

Prime Scheduled Castes

Population




1

Anugul

Gond

23747

Pan Pano

87494







Khond

23451

Haddi

22294







Kisan

15949

Dhoba

21103




2

Balasore

Santal

84713

Kandra

79037







Bhumija

59281

Pan Pano

59984







Kolha

40194

Gokha

58300




3

Bhadrak

Kolha

8029

Pan Pano

105431







Munda

5900

Gokha

72793







Santal

3202

Dhoba

35172




4

Cuttack

Shabar

26976

Bauri

100215







Munda

15961

Dewar

85162







Saora

13246

Pan Pano

76509




5

Jagatsingpur

Santal

2560

Bauri

73218







Munda

1907

Kandra

46159







Kolha

1145

Dewar

40218




6

Jajpur

Munda

35685

Pan Pano

180145







Shabar

31840

Kandra

62850







Kolha

18569

Dhoba

29245




7

Kendrapara

Santal

1901

Kandra

114660







Shabar

1258

Dewar

34847







Munda

762

Dhoba

31353




8

Khurda

Saora

27871

Dewar

62037







Shabar

27684

Bauri

56367







Santal

10072

Dhoba

27059




9

Nayagarh

Khond

39103

Pan Pano

47742







Saora

4099

Dewar

19237







Shabar

3952

Dhoba

14901




10

Puri

Kondadora

924

Bauri

85456







Shabar

924

Bhoi

49865







Saora

436

Dewar

41542

Source – Census, 2001








Annexure 5



A profile of the population of the community development blocks of Orissa:: Census 2001


District

Name of the Block

Inhabited Villages

No. of House-holds

Total Population

Sex Ratio

S.C

% of SCs

S.T

% of STs

Person

Male

Female

ANUGUL

1

Anugul

221

28329

144783

73410

71373

972

27759

19.2

11574

8.0

 

2

Banarpal

136

34396

180275

92966

87309

939

33108

18.4

9138

5.1

3

Chhendipada

174

29219

145259

73934

71325

965

28483

19.6

11035

7.6

4

Athmallik

301

19922

96812

48448

48364

998

14556

15.0

17572

18.2

5

Kishorenagar

230

19679

95502

48344

47158

975

13720

14.4

17017

17.8

6

Pallahara

274

23953

112847

57122

55725

976

17152

15.2

40991

36.3

7

Kaniha

187

29122

136530

70816

65714

928

24473

17.9

11747

8.6

8

Talcher

138

28987

143603

76166

67437

885

22886

15.9

10305

7.2

 

Sub Total*

1661

213607

1055611

541206

514405

950

182137

17.3

129379

12.3

Source: Population Profile: Block Primary Census Abstract, 2001, Registrar General of India, Govt. of India, 1991 Census:






District

Name of the Block

Inhabited Villages

No. of House-holds

Total Population

Sex Ratio

S.C

% of SCs

S.T

% of STs

BALASORE

1

Bahanaga

159

23712

120846

62061

58785

947

35871

29.7

3160

2.6

 

2

Balasore Sadar

247

43695

217988

113068

104920

928

55622

25.5

26889

12.3

3

Baliapal

189

31582

176526

90640

85886

948

34539

19.6

9721

5.5

4

Basta

295

32055

162910

83759

79151

945

24507

15.0

17809

10.9

5

Bhograi

318

50201

253290

129712

123578

953

41466

16.4

6282

2.5

6

Jaleswar

208

34138

173329

88406

84923

961

25732

14.9

31625

18.2

7

Khaira

338

30886

159514

79845

79669

998

35593

22.3

8287

5.2

8

Remuna

228

32207

153664

79179

74485

941

36947

24.0

22249

14.5

9

Similia

155

21608

105564

53558

52006

971

22677

21.5

4867

4.6

10

Soro

157

25633

121002

61589

59413

965

24443

20.2

6890

5.7

11

Oupada

156

14224

70551

35190

35361

1005

11934

16.9

12751

18.1

12

Nilagiri

137

24965

110232

55975

54257

969

10418

9.5

61902

56.2

 

Sub Total*

2587

364906

1825416

932982

892434

957

359749

19.7

212432

11.6


District

Name of the Block

Inhabited Villages

No. of House-holds

Total Population

Sex Ratio

S.C

% of SCs

S.T

% of STs

BHADRAK

1

Basudebpur

172

36433

195674

98915

96759

978

44954

23.0

862

0.4

 

2

Bhadrak

149

34377

187705

95067

92638

974

37050

19.7

9036

4.8

3

Bhandari Pokhari

161

22388

117344

59341

58003

977

26801

22.8

2836

2.4

4

Bonth

196

25019

135211

68166

67045

984

33691

24.9

6034

4.5

5

Chandabali

276

37531

217638

110549

107089

969

44391

20.4

1595

0.7

6

Dhamanagar

137

27731

163727

82058

81669

995

35902

21.9

1304

0.8

7

Tihidi

152

31663

175379

88585

86794

980

48910

27.9

972

0.6

 

Sub Total*

1243

215142

1192678

602681

589997

979

271699

22.8

22639

1.9


District

Name of the Block

Inhabited Villages

No. of House-holds

Total Population

Sex Ratio

S.C

% of SCs

S.T

% of STs

JAGATSINGHPUR

1

Balikuda

224

32103

151279

75702

75577

998

29646

19.6

257

0.2

 

2

Biridi

79

16225

75352

38289

37063

968

24067

31.9

341

0.5

3

Ersama

195

27033

134211

67634

66577

984

25972

19.4

423

0.3

4

Jagatsinghapur

161

28741

132862

66973

65889

984

32276

24.3

540

0.4

5

Kujang

159

31416

159310

81653

77657

951

37952

23.8

1729

1.1

6

Naugaon

87

16405

73316

36716

36600

997

13396

18.3

247

0.3

7

Raghunathpur

80

16565

77583

39376

38207

970

18584

24.0

934

1.2

8

Tirtol

242

29931

149590

74257

75333

1014

29782

19.9

741

0.5

 

Sub Total*

1227

198419

953503

480600

472903

984

211675

22.2

5212

0.5



District

Name of the Block

Inhabited Villages

No. of House-holds

Total Population

Sex Ratio

S.C

% of SCs

S.T

% of STs

NAYAGARH

1

Bhapur

111

19756

93921

47973

45948

958

9827

10.5

3263

3.5

 

2

Dasapalla

348

20640

92497

47452

45045

949

18872

20.4

19167

20.7

3

Gania

98

6953

34650

18031

16619

922

8152

23.5

3917

11.3

4

Khandapada

170

20072

99618

51843

47775

922

18292

18.4

2949

3.0

5

Nayagarh

144

26818

132644

69115

63529

919

14960

11.3

621

0.5

6

Nuagaon

216

18550

84249

43872

40377

920

14637

17.4

10222

12.1

7

Odagaon

203

31931

153628

79597

74031

930

20056

13.1

2141

1.4

8

Ranapur

241

29035

150238

76044

74194

976

13921

9.3

8123

5.4

 

Sub Total*

1531

173755

841445

433927

407518

939

118717

14.1

50403

6.0




District

Name of the Block

Inhabited Villages

No. of House-holds

Total Population

Sex Ratio

S.C

% of SCs

S.T

% of STs

PURI

1

Astaranga

96

16514

78069

39761

38308

963

20402

26.1

53

0.1

 

2

Brahmagiri

154

20310

119224

60176

59048

981

16885

14.2

573

0.5

3

Delanga

128

20265

112476

56449

56027

993

21018

18.7

475

0.4

4

Gop

202

30710

153508

77824

75684

973

32040

20.9

124

0.1

5

Kakatpur

103

22441

98878

49931

48947

980

20556

20.8

100

0.1

6

Kanas

128

20134

122709

61419

61290

998

16750

13.7

141

0.1

7

Krushnaprasad

115

14041

78626

40279

38347

952

17950

22.8

437

0.6

8

Nimapada

237

37570

176304

89332

86972

974

37830

21.5

234

0.1

9

Pipili

195

22819

126801

64649

62152

961

27679

21.8

503

0.4

10

Puri Sadar

141

23553

129962

65885

64077

973

23194

17.9

1123

0.9

11

Satyabadi

92

19325

102097

51494

50603

983

20822

20.4

299

0.3

 

Sub Total*

1591

247682

1298654

657199

641455

976

255126

19.7

4062

0.3


District

Name of the Block

Inhabited Villages

No. of House-holds

Total Population

Sex Ratio

S.C

% of SCs

S.T

% of STs

CUTTACK

1

Athagarh

185

25776

127407

65029

62378

959

18588

14.6

16247

12.8

 

2

Baramba

134

27637

134269

69405

64864

935

24152

18.0

7405

5.5

3

Narasinghpur

227

29592

138309

70856

67453

952

29848

21.6

5193

3.8

4

Tigiria

47

13671

68364

35125

33239

946

8902

13.0

3001

4.4

5

Banki

103

21315

99097

50364

48733

968

15199

15.3

5320

5.4

6

Banki-Dampara

43

18148

86393

44278

42115

951

17475

20.2

6659

7.7

7

Barang

75

16349

84068

42692

41376

969

22067

26.3

4902

5.8


District

Name of the Block

Inhabited Villages

No. of House-holds

Total Population

Sex Ratio

S.C

% of SCs

S.T

% of STs

KHURDA

1

Balianta

92

19537

100557

51440

49117

955

27768

27.6

2984

3.0

 

2

Balipatna

87

21424

106908

54285

52623

969

27605

25.8

148

0.1

3

Bhubaneswar

107

20072

105992

54335

51657

951

19864

18.7

10118

9.5

4

Jatani

89

15609

84875

43403

41472

956

12803

15.1

6840

8.1

5

Banapur

194

20437

106148

52566

53582

1019

10265

9.7

7469

7.0

6

Begunia

160

21200

114691

58105

56586

974

11490

10.0

13383

11.7

7

Bolagarh

216

22536

117783

59955

57828

965

9587

8.1

9940

8.4

8

Chilika

127

19443

107867

55538

52329

942

29860

27.7

1130

1.0

9

Khurda

117

21648

120117

61024

59093

968

12485

10.4

10914

9.1

10

Tangi

169

24634

139823

70817

69006

974

22726

16.3

3283

2.3

 

Sub Total*

1358

206540

1104761

561468

543293

968

184453

16.7

66209

6.0



District

Name of the Block

Inhabited Villages

No. of House-holds

Total Population

Sex Ratio

S.C

% of SCs

S.T

% of STs

KENDRAPADA

1

Aul

123

27274

136297

65116

71181

1093

30272

22.2

133

0.1

 

2

Derabis

172

27938

129532

65635

63897

974

31209

24.1

503

0.4

3

Garadpur

134

22666

98297

48916

49381

1010

20681

21.0

59

0.1

4

Kendrapara

129

27913

137512

68747

68765

1000

33194

24.1

291

0.2

5

Mahakalapada

189

40995

191745

97750

93995

962

33441

17.4

2966

1.5

6

Marsaghai

107

27221

115103

57802

57301

991

20959

18.2

111

0.1

7

Pattamundai

142

31330

147194

71125

76069

1070

39631

26.9

24

0.0

8

Rajkanika

156

24523

126887

60230

66657

1107

27074

21.3

10

0.0

9

Rajnagar

255

28174

145301

73059

72242

989

16735

11.5

1947

1.3

 

Sub Total*

1407

258034

1227868

608380

619488

1018

253196

20.6

6044

0.5


District

Name of the Block

Inhabited Villages

No. of House-holds

Total Population

Sex Ratio

S.C

% of SCs

S.T

% of STs

JAJPUR

1

Badachana

221

43116

206129

105067

101062

962

36338

17.6

16459

8.0

 

2

Bari

96

29984

140240

69457

70783

1019

39840

28.4

511

0.4

3

Binjharpur

107

33113

155265

76946

78319

1018

49614

32.0

156

0.1

4

Dasarathpur

150

37788

181707

90792

90915

1001

59426

32.7

504

0.3

5

Danagadi

104

21395

104116

53347

50769

952

23462

22.5

29293

28.1

6

Dharmasala

239

39124

195545

99556

95989

964

37655

19.3

15696

8.0

7

Jajapur

179

30077

153072

78366

74706

953

37998

24.8

1937

1.3

8

Korai

217

26087

138504

70337

68167

969

36413

26.3

9481

6.8

9

Rasulpur

158

29130

154548

78792

75756

961

27935

18.1

2730

1.8

10

Sukinda

104

24434

125364

64475

60889

944

14051

11.2

44747

35.7

 

Sub Total*

1575

314248

1554490

787135

767355

975

362732

23.3

121514

7.8



Annexure 6





Blocks classified according to % of STs population: 2001 Census

Sl. No.

District Name

No. of Blocks according to % of ST populstion

Total

Less or equal to 10%

>10 &
<=20%


>20 &
<= 30%


>30 &
<= 40%


>40 &
<= 50%


>50%

1

Angul

5

2

0

1

0

0

8

2

Balasore

6

5

0

0

0

1

12

3

Bargarh

0

6

5

1

0

0

12

4

Bhadrak

7

0

0

0

0

0

7

5

Bolangir

1

3

6

4

0

0

14

6

Boudh

0

3

0

0

0

0

3

7

Cuttack

12

2

0

0

0

0

14

8

Deogarh

0

0

1

1

0

1

3

9

Dhenkanal

4

3

0

1

0

0

8

10

Gajapati

0

1

0

1

0

5

7

11

Ganjam

20

2

0

0

0

0

22

12

Jagatsinghpur

8

0

0

0

0

0

8

13

Jajpur

8

0

1

1

0

0

10

14

Jharsuguda

0

0

0

2

1

2

5

15

Kalahandi

0

3

4

4

1

1

13

16

Kandhamal

0

0

0

0

2

10

12

17

Kendrapara

9

0

0

0

0

0

9

18

Keonjhar

0

2

0

0

4

7

13

19

Khurda

9

1

0

0

0

0

10

20

Koraput

0

0

0

1

4

9

14

21

Malkangiri

0

0

0

1

0

6

7

22

Mayurbhanj

0

0

0

1

3

22

26

23

Nabarangpur

0

0

0

1

2

7

10

24

Nayagarh

5

2

1

0

0

0

8

25

Nuapada

0

0

2

1

2

0

5

26

Puri

11

0

0

0

0

0

11

27

Rayagada

0

0

0

1

1

9

11

28

Sambalpur

0

0

3

1

2

3

9

29

Sonepur

4

2

0

0

0

0

6

30

Sundargarh

0

0

0

0

1

16

17

 

Total

109

37

23

23

23

99

314

Source: Block Primary Census Abstract, Orissa, Census 2001

NB: > Greater than; <= Less than or equal to


Annexure 7

 
Special Educational Facilities for Tribal and Number of Schools



Educational Facilities

Numbers


Residential High Schools for Boys

155

Residential High Schools for Girls

91

Total High Schools

246

Establishment of Model Tribal Schools on the pattern of Nayodaya Vidyalaya

10

Ashram Schools for Boys [M.E. Standard]

112

Residential Sevashrams [Primary School with residential facilities

143

Sevashrams [Primary School non-residential]

1031

Primary School Hostels [1 per each Grama Panchayat of the Tribal Sub-Plan areas]

1548

Special Adivasi Hostels

7

Hostels for providing residential facilities at Post-matric and Pre-matric level

569

Residential facilities at Primary level for Tribal Girls in KBK districts

400

Teachers Training Schools

2

Vocational Training Centres attached High Schools facilities for the students prosecuting their studies in the Educational Institutions of the Department

17





Annexure 8





Specific Educational Facilities for Tribal


  1. Supply of Nationalised Text Books, Reading Writing materials and Garments

  2. Excursion for students.

  3. Health measures.

  4. Provisions of School Uniforms

  5. Special Coaching.

  6. Agricultural Activities.

  7. Drinking Water Facilities

  8. Cash Rewards to Teachers and students

  9. Inspection of Educational Institutions through the Inspecting wing comprises of Circle Inspector of Schools, District Inspector of Schools, and Sub-Inspector of Schools.

  10. Provisions of Cots, Beds, Blankets, Mosquito nets and Utensils.

  11. Book Bank for Medical and Engineering Colleges.

  12. Provisions of Sports and Games materials.

  13. Provisions of Science apparatus, Library Books, Maps, Charts, Globes,

  14. Stipend to I.T.Is students

  15. Scholarships to SC, ST students of those parents engaged in unclean occupation.



Annexure 9

Project district wise literacy status of tribal and other communities



Sn

Districts

Education Status







All Communities

Scheduled Tribe

Scheduled Caste







Total

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

1

Anugul

68.79

81.43

55.37

45.35

60.25

30.05

56.99

71.71

41.77

2

Balasore

70.56

81.69

58.90

31.88

45.63

17.69

59.41

74.48

43.75

3

Bhadrak

73.86

84.65

62.85

27.44

38.00

16.43

59.35

74.78

43.45

4

Cuttack

76.66

85.82

66.90

35.75

50.49

20.14

61.40

74.97

47.20

5

Jagatsingpur

79.08

88.55

69.28

48.62

59.87

35.91

66.30

79.48

52.77

6

Jajpur

71.44

81.89

60.76

31.41

45.48

16.93

54.61

69.27

39.27

7

Kendrapara

74.14

87.11

66.76

40.07

53.52

25.21

60.73

75.20

46.07

8

Khurda

79.59

87.90

70.36

49.91

65.43

33.07

64.98

78.17

51.02

9

Nayagarh

70.52

82.66

57.64

47.09

64.81

28.83

57.27

72.13

41.96

10

Puri

77.96

88.08

67.57

58.72

73.37

42.11

64.05

78.51

49.30

Orissa

63.08

75.35

50.51

37.37

51.48

23.37

55.53

70.47

40.33

Source – Census 2001



Annexure 10




Minutes of ISEA State Level Consultation Workshop
Dt. 04/01/2008
Key points of discussion:

  • Investment on social infrastructures like schools and healthcare facilities is essential to strengthen the project.

  • Social engineering process needs to be strengthened to ensure the participation of tribals in the community based organisations.

  • Financial institutions do not differentiate between term loans and working capital. As a result the clients have to pay a higher rate of interest even if they cannot utilize the funds. So specific microfinance products need to be developed meeting their specific requirements.

  • The project needs to make second tier investments like establishing market chain and building supportive infrastructure to minimize the economic risks of livelihood sub-projects.

  • Single window/platform needs to be developed to interact with the SHgs- Uniformity needs to be developed in all processes including grading, federation structure etc.

  • TRIPTI project will focus on standardization of SHG processes so that the clients do not get confused any more.

  • Concrete database about SHGs and its federations needs to be developed.

  • As subsidized loans are leading to group conflicts, they should not be encouraged.

  • VSS can be linked up with SHGs and federations in tribal areas.

  • The project needs to focus on promoting the internal leaders and respecting their local wisdom. In future consultations, the community should be encouraged to participate so that the project can learn from their experiences.




Name

Designation

Organisation

Dr. Bishnu Mishra

Tech.Expert

APICOL

B.K. Prusti

Asst. Ex. Admin.

VARUN TECH.

S.B. Rath

Managing Director

VARUN TECH.

Niranjan Sahoo

M & E SPL

WORLP

Dr. U. Das

Asst Prof.

CET, BPUT

A.K. Singha

Director

CTRA

Nashir Ali

SPM, CYSD

CYSD

Dr. B.P. Mishra

Tech. Executive

APICOL

Somnath Chand

Project Consultant

SAKAR

Manas Satpathy

Programme Director

PRADAN

Narendra Nayak

Manager

Access Development Sercice

Dr. M.C. Dash

Ex-V.C. Sambalpur University

VARUN TECH.

Mr. Naresh Jena

Advisor

Vikash Nagar, Cuttack

Sudha Srivastav

Senior Coordinator

Aide-et-Action.Bhubaneswar

Anup Dash

Professor,,Dept. of Sociology, Utkal University

VARUN TECH.

Parimal Sadaphal

WB Environment Consultant




Benjamin Powis

WB Social Development Consultant




Bijay Pattnaik

Deputy Manager

ALPHA FOUNDATION

Avinash

Team Leader

SRIJAIN

Mr. Saroj Nayak

Tribal Expert

SPITRON CONSULTANT

Manoj Ku. Mohapatra

-

Bishwa Juba Kendra

Urmila Singh

CDPO

ICDS Project, Nuagaon

Nirmala Biswal

CDPO

ICDS Project, Ranpur

Pratima Rath

CDPO

ICDS Project, Pallahara

Smt. Nirupama Sahu

CDPO

ICDS Project, Angul

Smt. Saraswati Devi

CDPO

ICDS Project, Dasapalla

Prativa Parija

CDPO

ICDS Project, Baramba

Sanjubala Behera

CDPO

ICDS Project, Kujang

M.M. Nayak

CDPO

ICDS Project, Begunia

Smt. Subhalaxmi Patnaik

CDPO

ICDS Project, Nayagarh

S. Mishra

CDPO

ICDS Project, Nimapara

Sarala Devi

CDPO

ICDS Project, Naugaon (J.S.Pur)

Satyabhama Devi

CDPO

ICDS Project, Tigiria (CTC)

Mrs. M. Mohanty

CDPO

ICDS Project, Nayagarh

S.K. Mohapatra

A.C.F.

Athagarh (CTC)

K.C. Mishra

A.C.F.

Nayagarh

S.K. Pradhan

Addl. BDO

Begunia

Samik Sundar Das




WB

Ambika Nanda

PM

Action Aid, Bhubaneswar

Latika Beur

-

Ersama, Jagatsinghpur

S. Sing sahoo

Project Officer

-

Gopinath Rout

Secretary

RDO,


REFERENCES





  1. Tribal Welfare Department. 1994. Tribal Education in Orissa in the Context of Education for all by 2000 A.D.: A Status Paper. Bhubaneswar: Tribal Welfare Department, Government of Orissa.

  2. Kundu, M. 1990. “Tribal Education in India – Some Problems” (pp. 246-254), in: B. Chaudhuri (ed.), Education and Literacy Programmes. Delhi: Mittal Publications.

  3. GoO, NCCDS and UNDP, Orissa Human Development Report, 2004

  4. Planning Commission, Draft Eleventh Plan, Government of India,

  5. Census of India, 2001, Government of India

  6. Census of India, 2001, Government of Orissa

  7. The Orissa Gazette, Orissa Resettlement & Rehabilitation Policy, 2006, No. 651, Resolution, 14th May 2006

  8. ICMR Bulletin, Health Status of Primitive Tribes of Orissa, Vol-33, No.-10, October 2003

  9. Satpathy S., Orissa Vision, 2020

  10. Das P.K., Dimensions of Tribal Population in India

  11. The Orissa Scheduled Areas Transfer of Immovable properties, Orissa regulation No. 2 of 1956, To Control and Check Transfer of Immovable Property in the Scheduled Areas of the State of Orissa by Scheduled Tribes, Regulation 1956.

  12. Joshi D.K., Mund S., Mishra M. Prasad, The Kandha Revolution in Kalahandi, Orissa Review, August 2007.

  13. Minorities and Backward Classes Welfare Department, Activities of ST & SC Development Department, Year 2005-2006

  14. Scheduled Tribe and Scheduled Caste Development Department, Meeting Proceedings, 10.04.2007, Proceedings of Tribal Advisory Council [TAC]





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