Of Targeted Rural Initiatives for Poverty Termination and Infrastructure

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List of Abbreviations

BPMU Block Project Management Unit

CC Cluster Coordinators

CIF Community Investment Fund

DPMU District Project Management Unit

EC Executive Committee

GoO Government of Orissa

GPLF Gram Panchayat Level Fund

IEC Information, Education and Communication

IS Institutional Strengthening

ISD Institutional Strengthening and Development

ITDA Integrated Tribal Development Agency

LF Livelihood Fund

MIP Micro Investment Plan

OBC Other Backward Class

PRA Participatory Rural Appraisal

SC Schedule Caste

ST Schedule Tribe

TIDS Tribal Inclusion and Development Strategy

TSC Tribal Sub Committee

TRIPTI Targeted Rural Initiatives for Poverty Termination and Infrastructure

List of Annexure:

Annexure-1 Scheduled Areas in Orissa

Annexure-2 List of Scheduled Tribes of Orissa

Annexure-3 Tribal Population in Studied Districts

Annexure-4 Category of Scheduled Tribes in Study districts

Annexure-5 A profile of the population of the community development blocks of Orissa:


Annexure-6 Blocks classified according to % of STs Population: 2001 Census

Annexure-7 Special Educational Facilities for Tribal and Number of Schools

Annexure-8 Specific Educational Facilities for Tribal

Annexure-9 Project district wise literacy status of tribal and other communities

Section One

State Scenario

  1. Introduction

The state of Orissa has the second highest percentage tribal population of the Indian State.

As per the census 2001, the ST population of the State of Orissa stands at 8,145,081. This constitutes 22.13 % of the total population of the state and 9.7 per cent of the total tribal population of the country. The decennial population growth rate of Scheduled Tribe has been 15.8 per cent, which is 0.5 per cent lower than the overall population growth [16.3 %].

Despite a number of specific development initiatives, and some progressive policy moves, tribal have lagged behind in Orissa in terms of socio-economic development. These differentials are most apparent in the case of literacy rate of the STs, which is considerably below the national average at 47.1% and the state average at 63.08%. Male literacy has increased from 34.4 per cent to 51.5 per cent while female literacy has gone up from 10.2 per cent in 1991 to 23.4 per cent during1991-2001.
Ecological imbalance is now seriously undermining the livelihood patterns of the tribal and increasing vulnerability. A small land base, low agricultural productivity and low incomes have led to rising indebtedness, trapping tribal into a vicious circle of exploitation. The life of the tribal is increasingly vulnerable due to a persistent lack of assured entitlements to their resource base. Land alienation has deprived them of their land; forest legislation has turned them into encroachers on land they have always used; and they have also been disproportionately affected by displacement due to mining operations, irrigation projects, wildlife sanctuaries, etc. These have led to social discontent and unrest which provide fertile ground for extremist activities and violent protests.
Tribal generally suffer from social and political marginalization and remain vulnerable to exploitation. In order to redress this situation to alleviate the suffering of tribal communities and to remove obstacles to their development, different constitutional amendments have been introduced. It is expected that, by bringing suitable amendments, the acts should create an enabling environment for promoting the interests of the tribal communities and for harnessing their untapped potential for overall social and economic development of the state and nation.
The Tribal Development Plan is based on information derived from the Social Assessment commissioned by the project. An External Agency was commissioned to undertake a Tribal Inclusion and Development Assessment and to recommend critical implementation mechanisms for its implementation. The preparatory activities efforts involved consultations with a range of stakeholders as well as field based consultation in 11 villages from three sample districts selected by the project. A round of consultations on the plan is planned by the State Project Management Unit (SPMU) during January 2008 to disseminate and seek feedback on the proposed TDP.
Specific Issues of Tribal Development in the Project Area: Though the demographic figure of tribal in the study districts is comparatively at a lower side in comparison to some of the districts of the state in western and southern part, still a persistent gap in the process of mainstreaming appears when interacted with the tribal families in the local context.
As most of the studied areas/districts do not fall in to Modified Area Development Approach (MADA) or Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (ITDA) area due to less tribal concentration i.e. less than 50 % of the total population in a geographical set up, they have been deprived of exclusive provisions of tribal development. As certain schemes meant for scheduled area is not applicable in such cases, the scattered tribal families are remaining deprived of the welfare based development benefits.
The TRIPTI project aims to promote economic and social development among the poor in rural Orissa. As such, tribal development issues will be addressed through the project, and the emphasis that is being given to social inclusion will ensure that the interest of the poor and marginalized tribal will be addressed. However, a number of mechanisms will be created to ensure that the tribal communities benefit from the various components of the project, which defines the project’s Tribal Development Plan
The “Tribal Development Plan” [TDP] for the project adopts a diversified strategy reflecting the different condition of tribal groups in the project area on the basis of their population at the GP level. In addition, in light of the fact that, in many areas, tribal are concentrated in small hamlets but remain a minority at the GP level, emphasis will be given to developing intermediary institutions for tribal in the form of sub-committees at the GP level and on ensuring community investment funds are reserved for their exclusive use in the development stage of the project.
The emphasis of the following strategy is on creating the conditions whereby tribal communities will be integrated into the people’s institutions and economic development objectives of the project. As such, the emphasis will be on ensuring long-term sustainability beyond the life of the project.

    1. Social assessment summary, Key Findings

  1. The study covered eleven villages in ten proposed project districts of the state to understand socio-economic situation of tribal. The Social and Tribal Assessment was carried out based on intensive consultation with potential project beneficiaries in 11 villages, selected from three project districts i.e. Jagatsinghpur, Nayagarh and Angul. The sample villages were selected based on concentration of different social communities like Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribe and Other Backward Classes.

  1. Among all the project districts, Anugul and Balasore observed to be having relatively high percentage of scheduled tribe population In scheduled caste category, relatively high percentage of scheduled caste observed to be in the district of Jajpur followed by Bhadrak and Jagatsingpur district. Lowest % among the studied districts observed to be in the district of Khurda. Major tribes observed In the district of Anugul and Balasore, are mainly Gond, Kondh and Kissan Santal, Bhumija and Kolha. Of the total eleven study villages, tribal presence observed to be very high in some villages of study District. In pockets of Nayagarh and Anugul tribal concentration is relatively more in some villages in comparison to other districts. No tribal population was also observed in a few studied villages

  1. Tribes normally observed in the studied villages are Kandha and Kolha in Nayagarh and Munda and Bhuyan in the district of Anugul. Study observed the key prevalence factors associated with the tribal in these districts are migration based, rehabilitation based or origin based.

  1. In social and human development front, it is observed that tribal literacy percentage is comparatively low to the educational status of all other communities residing in the studied villages. Even, in the educational front, their status is relatively low than that of scheduled caste communities.

  1. The predominant livelihood options of the tribes depend upon agriculture, animal rearing and forest apart from temporary migration and wage engagement. Over a period of time, there has been a shift in the land ownership status i.e. from tribal to other social communities due to various socio-economic and political factors. As a result, other caste sections, considered higher in the social ladder own better quality of productive land than that of the tribal. The existing tribal groups mostly hold unproductive or less productive up land. Most of the tribal families are engaged in agriculture and wage activities, which has been their primary source of livelihood. With the poor productive asset base, engagement as laborer is prominent in study villages. Apart from aforementioned livelihood means, tribal families are also observed rearing livestock to supplement their earning. With the changing economic scenario, shift in livelihood means is also observed in many villages. Rampant forest depletion has contributed to a large extent in this regard pushing many families for migrating out of the district and state.

  1. Observing culture and tradition is a part of tribal identity and they keep their cultural identity intact where their concentration is relatively high and they stay in a concentrated pocket. The process of social assimilation is slow but emerging in the gradual process of change. Some of the promoted community groups observed having both tribal and non-tribal members and they work together for the common interest.

  1. As the study reveals, Accessibility of tribal to government provisions is relatively less in comparison to other classes. Various associated factors are observed responsible such as schematic understanding, approachability on part of tribal families, less tribal development concentration due to scattered demographic situation etc. As most of the studied areas do not fall in to Modified Area Development Approach (MADA) or Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (ITDA) area the residing tribal families have been deprived of exclusive tribal development provisions

  1. Looking at the prevailing situation in the studied districts, as per the findings, the study proposes to have a tribal inclusion and development plan called TID Plan which will benefit the tribal in maintaining and upholding their interest in cultural and other livelihood related aspects. The plan is having a diversified strategy reflecting the different condition of tribal groups in the project area on the basis of their population at the GP level.

  1. In view of the project and its context from tribal perspective, the study unfold that the approach of SHG and federation could be useful instruments to foster the development of tribal in an inclusive and mainstream mode

  1. Savings and credit activities observed commonly prevalent among the tribal SHGs though rate of saving and amount of credit availability is relatively less. Multi-facet source of credit is normally not available from other sources apart from rare cases of formal credit linkages.

  1. Several key issues have been identified which could have a negative bearing on the functioning of federations like functional skill and Capacity; conflict among the groups and members, fund investment / utilization etc. The study proposes key measures to minimize and mitigate such upcoming critical issues for smooth functioning of the federations.

  1. The study has explored different scope for tribal development in project districts such as promoting tribal SHGs in tribal concentrated pockets, inclusion of tribal families in the existing or to be formed groups, making inclusion fund available for development inclusion of tribal and other vulnerable sections, creating scope for skill improvement, making available untied fund provision etc.

    1. Tribal Development in Orissa – State Overview

The sizeable population of tribal in the state assumes significance both in terms of socio-economic and political processes defining the context of developmental intervention. The history of vulnerability and prolonged marginalization of the ST in the state along with their present socio-economic conditions in terms of work-participation, education, health, etc preempt their inclusion and targeting in all developmental activities undertaken by the state. To get a clear understanding on the poor socio-economic status of ST in Orissa, a comparative analysis of ST with State averages is presented here:

  • The overall literacy rate of ST is only 37.4% as compared to the state average of 63.08%

  • The ST population in the State is overwhelmingly rural, with 94.5 percent residing in villages as compared to the state total of 85% people living in rural areas.

  • 54.41% of the total tribal populations live in the Scheduled area and the remaining 45.59% live outside the Scheduled area

  • Among the total workers, 57.4 per cent are ST main workers where as the main workers for the whole State is accounted for 67.2%

  • Workers engaged in household industries constitute 4.77% of the total ST workers.

  • Agricultural Laborers constitute the highest proportion [46.9 per cent] among the total ST main workers where as the percentage of agricultural laborers to the total main workers of the state is only 21.9%.

  • Various poverty indicators and access indicators reveal that around 63% are poor and 17% are very poor [survey undertaken by OTELP in their program area]

  • Vulnerability indicators [food security, migration, displacement] 5% have access to PDS and 70% of children are mal-nourished; 50% of the population have suffered some forms of displacement [survey undertaken by OTELP in their program area]

    1. Tribal Demography

Table 1: Demography of the Project Area

Total population of the state


Scheduled tribes [ST] population


Scheduled caste [SC] population


Percentage of ST population to total population


Percentage of SC population to total population


S.T. communities


S.C. communities

The State has a total of sixty two [62] Scheduled Tribe communities enumerated in the 2001 census. 13 out of these 62 communities have been identified and declared as primitive tribal groups. In the state context, the tribal population is predominantly rural, with 94.5 per cent residing in villages.

    1. Tribal Operational Holding:

There are 40.67 lakh operational holdings in Orissa with an area of 50.81 lakh hectares according to the Agricultural Census- 2000-2001. Small [2.5 to 5 acres] and marginal [1 – 2.5 acres] holdings accounted for 83.8% with an area of 53.12 %. 16.2% of holdings are semi-medium and large categories with an area of 46.88%. Out of 40.67 lakh operational holdings, 42.22% belong to tribal.

    1. Organization and Association:

Among all the category of tribes, conformity to customs, norms and social integration continue to be achieved through their traditional political organizations. As the traditional leaders continue to wield influence over their fellow tribesmen, it is worthwhile to take them into confidence in the context of economic development and social change.

    1. Traditional Tribal Governance Mechanisms:

The main organizing principle of the tribal society is the kinship system with little stratification. The traditional political organization of the tribes follows a hierarchical order, with the King [symbolizing the State] is at the apex and the family is at the bottom most rung, preceded by the lineage, village and Pargana. The roles of the lineage and village heads are very crucial in maintenance of social and political order. After, the introduction of the statutory Panchayati Raj system, the traditional tribal political organizations are gradually becoming feeble, yet are considered as important socio-cultural institutions.

    1. Devolution of Power- Emergence of system of local self-governance:

As institutional mechanisms for decentralized governance, PRIs Act was introduced in 1990s. For Tribal, a separate act called Panchayat [Extension to the Scheduled Areas] Act of 1996, [popularly known as PESA Act] was passed in the year 1996 [Refer Annexure 1 for list of PESA districts]. As a result traditional Gram Sabhas in the tribal areas are being endowed with special functional powers and responsibilities to ensure effective participation of the tribal societies in their own development and in harmony with their culture so as to preserve/ conserve their traditional rights over natural resources. As scheduled tribes live in contiguous, an area approach for development activities as well as regulatory provisions to protect their interests was taken up under the constitutional frame and such areas were declared as “Scheduled Area”. The criteria for declaring “Scheduled Area” under the fifth schedule are [1] Preponderance of tribal population [2] Compactness and reasonable size of the area [3] A viable administrative entity such as a district, block or taluk, and [4] Economic backwardness of the area as compared to the neighboring areas. Introduction of PRI system of local governance, through initiated modern development initiatives in tribal pockets, still it failed to substitute the traditional culture based tribal governance system. But success of the PRI system is mostly to induce development works at tribal pockets taking in to account their concerns and expectations.
With the enactment of PESA, certain powers were given to tribal with regard to forest, land and water. Apart from that, as per recent provisions, tribal can use the local forest [excluding reserved forest and sanctuary] to met their requirements and rights over the collection and sale of 69 Non Timber Forest based Products have been recently transferred to local bodies (see annex…).

    1. Strategies for Tribal Development, Orissa:

The Constitution of India has provided many safeguards for the welfare and development of the tribal. The relevant articles can be classified under four major heads: [A] protective provisions [B] developmental provisions [C] administrative provisions and [D] reservation provisions. The administrative provisions under the Fifth and Sixth Schedules give special powers to the State for the protection and governance of tribal areas and the reservation provisions ensure due representation of the STs and SCs in legislative bodies and government jobs.
S.T. & S.C. Development Department is the nodal Department of GoO for the welfare of the ST and SC communities. Various programs have been undertaken for the development of STs in the state with assistance from Centre, fund allocation under State plan and Grants-in-Aid received from various agencies.
    1. Tribal Development Programs in Orissa:

A number of tribal development programs are in place sponsored by both Central and State Government. The table below reflects different development initiatives taken for tribal development at state level.

Table No. 2 : Different indicative Tribal Programs

Name of Program

Central State Program

Geographical Coverage

Availability in Study Districts [Yes / No]

Tribal Sub-Plan

Both State and Centre

12 Districts, 118 Blocks


Micro Projects for Primitive Tribes

Both State and Centre

12 Districts, 20 Blocks



Both State and Centre

17, Districts, 47 Blocks


Dispersed Tribal Development Program

Both State and Centre




Both State and Centre

KBK Districts


The Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes Development Department is the nodal Department of the State Government for the welfare of the ST & SC communities.

District Welfare Officer [DWO] in every District and Assistant DWO at Sub-divisions

21 Integrated Tribal Development Agencies [ITDAs] covering the Scheduled Areas

In areas outside the Tribal Sub-plan areas having tribal concentration, 46 MADAs and 14 Clusters programs under implementation.

17 Micro Projects for focused program implementation for Primitive Tribal Groups [PTGs].

The Orissa Scheduled Castes & Scheduled Tribes Finance and Development Corporation implements program for the development of Scheduled Castes and dispersed tribal population [DTDP] & minorities.

The Tribal Development Co-operative Corporation [TDCC] support marketing of minor forest produce and surplus agriculture produce for the benefit of the tribal.

    1. Regulations & acts, Protective and anti-exploitative legislations:

On account of their ignorance and simplicity, tribal normally fall an easy pray to the unscrupulous money lenders and middlemen who exploit them in many ways. To curb the exploitation several protective regulations have been enacted from time to time and subsequently amended to cope up with the changing situations. Some of the important enactments are stated below.
Table No. 3: Exclusive Regulation to Protect Tribal Interest

Regulations Acts


Implemented in Study area

Orissa Scheduled Areas Transfer of Immovable Property [by Scheduled Tribes] Regulation, 1956

To control and check transfers of Immovable property in the Scheduled Areas of the State of Orissa by Scheduled Tribes.


Orissa Scheduled Areas ] Money Lenders’ Regulation, 1967 [Regulation 2 of 1968]

To control and regulate the business of money lending in the Scheduled Areas of the State of Orissa.


The Orissa [Scheduled Areas] Debt Relief Regulation, 1967 [Regulation 1 of 1968]

To provide for relief from Indebtedness to the Scheduled Tribes in the State of Orissa.


The Orissa Reservation of Vacancies in Posts and Services[ for Scheduled Caste & Sch. Tribe Act 1975 ]

To provide adequate representations of Scheduled castes and Scheduled Tribes in Posts and Services under the State Government and in the State Public undertakings and autonomous or local bodies.


The Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955

To prevent commission of offences of atrocities against the members of Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe communities. The Act also provides for setting up of Special Courts for trial of atrocity cases.


Special Employment Exchange

To facilitate in absorbing reservation facilities and employ them in government jobs.


Monetary Relief to the victims of Atrocities

Financial support to tribal victims of atrocity.


Provision of Legal Aid to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes persons

Financial and legal support to tribal


    1. Tribal Education:

The Scheduled Tribes [STs] and Scheduled Castes [SCs] are educationally backward. The percentage of literacy among the STs and SCs is 37.37% and 55.53% as against the general literacy level of 63.08 % as per 2001 census. The overall literacy rate of the STs has increased from 22.3 per cent in 1991 to 37.4 per cent in 2001. Despite this improvement, the literacy rate among the tribals is considerably below the national average at 47.1% and the state average at 63.08%. Male literacy has increased from 34.4 per cent to 51.5 per cent while female literacy has gone up from 10.2 per cent in 1991 to 23.4 per cent during1991-2001. Orissa was the pioneer in setting of special type of Residential Educational Institutions for their educational development. The Department has established and manages different Residential Educational Institutions all over the state to promote tribal education [Refer Annexure 7 & 8].

Section Two

Study Findings

  1. Key Findings from the Tribal Development Assessment

    1. Coverage of the study

The study covered eleven villages in ten proposed project districts of the state to understand socio-economic situation of tribal. Under the scope of the study, consultation made with a total of twenty five tribal families in these sample villages through Focus Group Discussion. It was observed that out of the total 35% households in the sample villages belong to Scheduled Tribes while remaining are from other caste categories. Inferences and conclusions are drawn from the analysis of available information.

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