Tribal Operational Holding:
There are 40.67 lakh operational holdings in Orissa with an area of 50.81 lakh hectares according to the Agricultural Census- 2000-2001. Small [2.5 to 5 acres] and marginal [1 – 2.5 acres] holdings accounted for 83.8% with an area of 53.12 %. 16.2% of holdings are semi-medium and large categories with an area of 46.88%. Out of 40.67 lakh operational holdings, 42.22% belong to tribal.
Organization and Association:
Among all the category of tribes, conformity to customs, norms and social integration continue to be achieved through their traditional political organizations. As the traditional leaders continue to wield influence over their fellow tribesmen, it is worthwhile to take them into confidence in the context of economic development and social change.
Traditional Tribal Governance Mechanisms:
The main organizing principle of the tribal society is the kinship system with little stratification. The traditional political organization of the tribes follows a hierarchical order, with the King [symbolizing the State] is at the apex and the family is at the bottom most rung, preceded by the lineage, village and Pargana. The roles of the lineage and village heads are very crucial in maintenance of social and political order. After, the introduction of the statutory Panchayati Raj system, the traditional tribal political organizations are gradually becoming feeble, yet are considered as important socio-cultural institutions.
Devolution of Power- Emergence of system of local self-governance:
As institutional mechanisms for decentralized governance, PRIs Act was introduced in 1990s. For Tribal, a separate act called Panchayat [Extension to the Scheduled Areas] Act of 1996, [popularly known as PESA Act] was passed in the year 1996 [Refer Annexure 1 for list of PESA districts]. As a result traditional Gram Sabhas in the tribal areas are being endowed with special functional powers and responsibilities to ensure effective participation of the tribal societies in their own development and in harmony with their culture so as to preserve/ conserve their traditional rights over natural resources. As scheduled tribes live in contiguous, an area approach for development activities as well as regulatory provisions to protect their interests was taken up under the constitutional frame and such areas were declared as “Scheduled Area”. The criteria for declaring “Scheduled Area” under the fifth schedule are  Preponderance of tribal population  Compactness and reasonable size of the area  A viable administrative entity such as a district, block or taluk, and  Economic backwardness of the area as compared to the neighboring areas. Introduction of PRI system of local governance, through initiated modern development initiatives in tribal pockets, still it failed to substitute the traditional culture based tribal governance system. But success of the PRI system is mostly to induce development works at tribal pockets taking in to account their concerns and expectations.
With the enactment of PESA, certain powers were given to tribal with regard to forest, land and water. Apart from that, as per recent provisions, tribal can use the local forest [excluding reserved forest and sanctuary] to met their requirements and rights over the collection and sale of 69 Non Timber Forest based Products have been recently transferred to local bodies (see annex…).
Strategies for Tribal Development, Orissa:
The Constitution of India has provided many safeguards for the welfare and development of the tribal. The relevant articles can be classified under four major heads: [A] protective provisions [B] developmental provisions [C] administrative provisions and [D] reservation provisions. The administrative provisions under the Fifth and Sixth Schedules give special powers to the State for the protection and governance of tribal areas and the reservation provisions ensure due representation of the STs and SCs in legislative bodies and government jobs.
S.T. & S.C. Development Department is the nodal Department of GoO for the welfare of the ST and SC communities. Various programs have been undertaken for the development of STs in the state with assistance from Centre, fund allocation under State plan and Grants-in-Aid received from various agencies.
Tribal Development Programs in Orissa:
A number of tribal development programs are in place sponsored by both Central and State Government. The table below reflects different development initiatives taken for tribal development at state level.
Table No. 2 : Different indicative Tribal Programs
The Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes Development Department is the nodal Department of the State Government for the welfare of the ST & SC communities.
Regulations & acts, Protective and anti-exploitative legislations:
On account of their ignorance and simplicity, tribal normally fall an easy pray to the unscrupulous money lenders and middlemen who exploit them in many ways. To curb the exploitation several protective regulations have been enacted from time to time and subsequently amended to cope up with the changing situations. Some of the important enactments are stated below.
Table No. 3: Exclusive Regulation to Protect Tribal Interest
The Scheduled Tribes [STs] and Scheduled Castes [SCs] are educationally backward. The percentage of literacy among the STs and SCs is 37.37% and 55.53% as against the general literacy level of 63.08 % as per 2001 census. The overall literacy rate of the STs has increased from 22.3 per cent in 1991 to 37.4 per cent in 2001. Despite this improvement, the literacy rate among the tribals is considerably below the national average at 47.1% and the state average at 63.08%. Male literacy has increased from 34.4 per cent to 51.5 per cent while female literacy has gone up from 10.2 per cent in 1991 to 23.4 per cent during1991-2001. Orissa was the pioneer in setting of special type of Residential Educational Institutions for their educational development. The Department has established and manages different Residential Educational Institutions all over the state to promote tribal education [Refer Annexure 7 & 8].
Key Findings from the Tribal Development Assessment
Coverage of the study
The study covered eleven villages in ten proposed project districts of the state to understand socio-economic situation of tribal. Under the scope of the study, consultation made with a total of twenty five tribal families in these sample villages through Focus Group Discussion. It was observed that out of the total 35% households in the sample villages belong to Scheduled Tribes while remaining are from other caste categories. Inferences and conclusions are drawn from the analysis of available information.
Download 1.42 Mb.
Share with your friends:
The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2020