[Note. This doc version does not show the Chinese characters correctly, but it does show the structure diagrams; the reverse is true of the ps (postscript) version which can also be downloaded

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We can rephrase (8b) into (8c), with who being replaced by living. But there is no rephrase of this kind in (8a) which is in Chinese.

Let’s look at another example which in English a signal word preceding the subordinate clause must be present. The embedded clause is a noun clause.

(9a) 我 懷疑 他 會 不 會 來。

wŏ huáiyí tā huì bù huì lái

I wonder he will not will come

Which means…
(9b) I wonder if he will come.
The sentence (9b) will be rendered ungrammatical if the signal word if is absent:
(9c) *I wonder he will come.
Again, the Chinese sentence (9a) does not allow any signal word in the noun clause. 懷疑huáiyí selects a verb phrase (VP).
The arrows in (9c) do not show its ungrammaticality because the relationships between arrows are perfectly fine. However, the verb wonder selects a complementiser phrase (CP), such as if he will come, but not a VP he will come.

English and Chinese do not always behave differently. Look at the following adverbial clause:


Which means…

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