Nİhal arat 2018 public speaking

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Public speaking (sometimes termed oratory or oration) is the process or act of performing a presentation (a speech) focused around an individual directly speaking to a live audience in a structured, deliberate manner in order to inform, influence, or entertain them. Public speaking is commonly understood as the formal, face-to-face talking of a single person to a group of listeners. It is closely allied to "presenting", although the latter is more often associated with commercial activity. Most of the time, public speaking is to persuade the audience.

In public speaking, as in any form of communication, there are five basic elements, often expressed as "who is saying what to whom using what medium with what effects?" The purpose of public speaking can range from simply transmitting information, to motivating people to act, to simply telling a story. Good orators should be able to change the emotions of their listeners, not just inform them. Interpersonal communication and public speaking have several components that embrace such things as motivational speaking, leadership/personal development, business, customer service, large group communication, and mass communication. Public speaking can be a powerful tool to use for purposes such as motivation, influence, persuasion, informing, translation, or simply ethos.

Public speaking has been around for over 2,500 years. Through the years, not much has changed. Speaking before a large audience is still done for the same reasons: to inform, persuade or entertain.

Public Speaking: The Early Years

It all started with the famous Greek philosopher Aristotle back in the 300s BC. Aristotle discovered that in order to rally the citizens into conformity, one needed to persuade people. This is what he called rhetoric (konuşma sanatı), and it's defined as the capacity to persuade people, and he broke it down into three strategies:

  • Ethos

  • Logos

  • Pathos

What are Ethos, Pathos, and Logos?

So, what are ethos, pathos, and logos?

In simplest terms, they correspond to:

  • Ethos: credibility (or character) of the speaker

  • Pathos: emotional connection to the audience, empathy

  • Logos: logical argument

Together, they are the three persuasive appeals. In other words, these are the three essential qualities that your speech or presentation must have before your audience will accept your message.
ETHOS: Dürüstlük ve Güvenilirlik

Ethos, ruhsal zekayı temsil eder. Temel etik doğanız, kişisel inanırlılığınız, insanların sizin dürüstlük ve yeterliliğinize olan güveninin derecesi demektir. İnsanlar, verdikleri sözü ve onlardan beklenenleri, ilke temelli biçimde gerçekleştirirlerse Ethos’a sahiptirler.

Bunlar, vicdanlı, sezgili, sorumluluk alan, ahlaklı, bilge, dürüst, alçak gönüllü, adil, etik, şefkatli, saygılı ve amaca yönelik kişilerdir.
PATHOS: Önce Anlamaya Çalış

Pathos, empatidir. Duygusal zekayı temsil eder. Başkasının kendini nasıl hissettiğini, ihtiyaçlarını, olayları nasıl gördüğünü ve ne demek istediğini anlamanız ve onu anladığınızı ona hissettirmektir. Bunlar, tutkulu, iyimser, umut dolu, cesaretli, empati kuran, korkusuz, hassas, eğlenceli, etkili, motive edici, mizah yönü güçlü, insan odaklı kişilerdir.

LOGOS: Önce anlamaya, sonra anlaşılmaya çalış

Logos, temel olarak mantığı ve zihinsel zekayı simgeler. Kendi duruşunuz ve düşüncenizin gücü ve ikna etme özelliğidir. Bunlar, vizyon ve uzun vadeli perspektif sahibi, idealist, geleceği tahmin eden, hayal kuran, insanlara inanan, öncülük yapan, felsefi düşünen, başarıya odaklı, stratejik düşünen, kalıpların dışındaki kişilerdir.


Before you can convince an audience to accept anything you say, they have to accept you as credible.

There are many aspects to building your credibility:

  • Does the audience respect you?

  • Does the audience believe you are of good character?

  • Does the audience believe you are generally trustworthy?

  • Does the audience believe you are an authority on this speech topic?

Keep in mind that it isn’t enough for you to know that you are a credible source. (This isn’t about your confidence, experience, or expertise.) Your audience must know this. Ethos is your level of credibility as perceived by your audience.


Pathos is the quality of a persuasive presentation which appeals to the emotions of the audience.

  • Do your words evoke feelings of … love? … sympathy? … fear?

  • Do your visuals evoke feelings of compassion? … envy?

  • Does your characterization of the competition evoke feelings of hate? contempt?

Emotional connection can be created in many ways by a speaker, perhaps most notably by stories. The goal of a story, anecdote, analogy, simile, and metaphor is often to link an aspect of our primary message with a triggered emotional response from the audience.


Logos is synonymous with a logical argument.

  • Does your message make sense?

  • Is your message based on facts, statistics, and evidence?

  • Will your call-to-action lead to the desired outcome that you promise?

rhetoric: The art of using language, especially public speaking, as a means to persuade.

sophist: One of a class of teachers of rhetoric, philosophy, and politics in ancient Greece, especially one who used fallacious but plausible reasoning.

orator: A skilled and eloquent public speaker.

Speech Anxiety

Coping with Speech Anxiety

So you have to make a speech? And the thought terrifies you? Well, you’re certainly not alone. Survey after survey has indicated that fear of public speaking is one of the very most common fears. Even many top professional speakers experience some little bit of “stage fright” when they speak. It is normal and natural. The key is to control this nervousness and use it as form of adrenaline instead of anxiety.

Public speaking doesn’t have to be something to be feared, with the right mind set and training you can approach your speech with confidence.

Very few people have genuine biological “communication anxiety” (the fear of communicating). What most people have is “evaluation anxiety” based on the irrational thought that they will be harshly evaluated by their audience. This could not be further from the truth. The truth is the audience wants you to succeed. Recall, for a minute, the worst speaker you’ve ever seen in person. How did seeing that speaker struggle make you feel as audience member? Probably uncomfortable. You probably wished that the speaker would pull themselves together and finish the speech strongly.

As a speaker, you also have something that the audience wants. They are present to hear from you. You will provide them with some entertainment or information that they would otherwise be without. They have an interest in seeing you succeed. And, since they have not chosen to speak themselves, they may very well admire you for your courage.

Your fears may also be compounded by the fact that you believe that the audience will perceive your nervousness, but this is not nearly the problem that you may think. Most physical manifestations of speech anxiety feel significant to the speaker, but are really only very slight and subtle. For example: If your hand is shaking a bit, it feels like big deal to you. However, even audience members in the front row are unlikely to pick up on it.

And finally, remember that you are your own worst critic. Your audience members have lives of their own. Any minor flaws in your speech will likely go unnoticed by members of the audience. Any major flaws will likely soon be forgotten by members of the audience. No one is evaluating you as harshly as you are evaluating yourself.

Having said all that, chances are you are still feeling a normal level of speech anxiety. Some ways that you can lower this to a controllable level include-

  1. Practice, practice, practice – The more prepared you are, the more confident you will feel.

  2. Use visualization- Imagine yourself giving a successful speech. Think about your past speaking successes. Prepare yourself mentally to succeed. Or, imagine how happy you will be when your speech is over. Whatever puts you in a positive frame of mind.

  3. Reframe the speech- Think about the speech as a simple conversation. Think of your audience as friends. You wouldn’t be frightened to converse with your friends. A speech is fundamentally the same thing, except that you may not have yet met your “friends” and they are unlikely to interrupt you.

  4. Exercise- OK, so it may not be practical to sprint from your car to the podium on speech day, but exercising a couple hours before your speech can have a great effect. Exercising releases stress and tension, two feelings synonymous with speech day.

  5. Develop your skills- The more you understand the speech-making process, the better equipped you will be to succeed. Use this site as a starting point, but also consult other public speaking-related books and DVD’s for more insights.

  6. Use a checklist- Don’t let yourself worry about skipping a step or leaving out some important element of your speech. Use a checklist to ensure that you’ve covered all the bases.

Speech Delivery

There are four primary types of speech delivery: Manuscript, Memorized, Impromptu, and Extemporaneous.

Manuscript speaking, like it sounds, involves reading your speech word-for-word from it’s written form. The advantage to delivering a speech this way is that you can perfectly plan and control the wording of your speech. This sounds like it is ideal, but really it is not. For one thing, as discussed in the section of this website on writing the speech body, in most speeches you should be striving for an informal, conversational delivery style. Reading prevents that, as well as eye contact. Also, with set wording, you can’t adapt the speech if the audience isn’t following or interested in your speech.

Memorized, like it sounds, involves committing your entire speech to memory. Once again, this sounds great. But, practically speaking, who has time to memorize even a short speech? And like a manuscript speech, you can’t adapt to feedback from the audience.

An Impromptu speech is one that you are asked to deliver with little or no preparation.

Finally, the Extemporaneous speech is a speech delivered with some prepared structure, such as notes or an outline, but is otherwise delivered off-the-cuff. In most cases, this is going to be your best choice. The notes allow you to structure your speech, without handcuffing you in the event that your audience needs you to adapt. Also, you will sound more natural and conversational, and this will help hold audience attention.

There are six aspects of physical delivery that will be covered in this section: voice use, facial expressions, eye contact, gesturing, and movement.

Effective voice use involves several elements. Naturally, one of the most important aspects is volume. As a speaker, you must be loud enough to be heard by everyone in the room, but not so loud that you sound unnatural or bossy. Monitor the nonverbal feedback of audience members in the back of the room, if they are leaning forward or concentrating abnormally hard, you may need to speak up. It is also necessary to vary the pitch, rate, and tone of your voice to avoid sounding monotonous. We’ve all experienced the agony of listening to a monotonous-voiced speaker. This doesn’t mean that you need to be extremely flamboyant or obnoxious. Overall, you should just strive for a casual, conversational voice.

Your audience gathers a lot of information from your facial expressions. If your facial expressions and your spoken words conflict, the audience is likely to believe your face. So make sure that your facial expressions mesh with the feelings and ideas being expressed. Basically, a good rule of thumb for facial expressions (as well as gestures) is to do what comes naturally. There is no need to be overly theatrical with your facial expressions in a speech. And remember, if it’s at all appropriate, you can’t go wrong with a smile.

The simple rule on eye contact is this: The more, the better. A good strategy for eye contact is to make brief (a beat or two) eye contact with members of the audience in one section of the audience and then move to another section. Ideally, you should be making eye contact with someone whenever words are being spoken in your speech. Beware of this trap: People naturally tend to focus their eye contact on the person that is giving them the best nonverbal feedback (smiling, nodding, etc.). If you find yourself focusing too much on this person, work on moving to others.

One of the most common questions that people have about public speaking is: What do I do with my hands? The quick and easy answer is: Whatever comes naturally (unless clutching the podium is what comes naturally). The key to good gesturing is variety, which most of us have in our everyday gestures.

The final aspect of physical delivery is movement. If you are positioned behind a podium, your movements are obviously going to be restricted. But if you are not using a podium, feel free to walk to different parts of the stage as you deliver your speech. This keeps different parts of the audience involved and adds variety. Don’t just wander in place, though. If your feet move, go somewhere.

Visual Aids
Using Visual Aids

There are four basic reasons to include visual aids in your speech:

  1. To hold the audience’s attention- by getting the audience envolved visually as well as orally, you are more likely to keep their interest.

  2. To serve as a memory aid or learning device- people learn in different ways, some people easily recall spoken information, others written information. No matter what style they prefer, the more you expose your audience to the information, the more likely they are to remember it.

  3. To replace your speaking notes- This doesn’t mean reading directly from your visual aid. However, a PowerPoint presentation or slide show will have keywords that you can use to structure your extemporaneous speech.

  4. To help indicate transitions- When you switch slides, for example, it reinforces the transitions between the two ideas indicated on the slide.

As you can see, used effectively, visual aids can add a lot to a speech. Some types of visual aids you could use in your speech include:

  1. Charts and graphs – There are a number of different types of charts and graphs that serve a variety of purposes such as pie charts, line graphs, bar charts, flow charts and organizational charts. Be sure to pick the one which best conveys the points you are trying to make.

  2. Slides and overheads – Microsoft PowerPoint is the standard for slide software today. Using PowerPoint, you can create highly sophisticated slides with audio, video, animations and much more. An old-fashioned overhead projector can still do the job, though.

  3. Flipcharts – Flipcharts should only be used when you need to record information or ideas during your speech (such as taking an audience survey). Using a flipchart as a pre-prepared visual aid will seem unprofessional in most situations.

  4. Audio and video – DVD’s and CD’s that relate to your topic will add interest and variety to your presentation. However, don’t use up too much of your speech time playing these. Remember, the audience is there to see you, not your media.

  5. Handouts – Handouts are a good idea in a couple of situations: 1) Your topic is too complex for the audience to easily understand from just your spoken words, and 2) If you need to ensure that the audience will remember the information long after your speech. Be careful when using handouts, however. They tend to be distrating to audience members if you don’t refer to them often. The audience also can get ahead of you by skipping to later sections of the handout.

  6. Props– Props fall into two categories: objects and models. Objects are the actual physical item that you are speaking about. Models are representations of the item that you are speaking about. No matter which type you use, props are good to refer to if they help clarify your messages and increase understanding.

Informative Speech

First, you need to pick a topic that will appeal to your audience members. To be appealing to audience members, a topic must be:

  1. Dealt with at a stimulating level: If you are merely teaching the audience information that they already know, you will certainly bore them. If you teach them information that is “over their heads”, you will lose their attention and interest. The key is to find a happy medium, new information that they will readily grasp.

  2. Dealt with creatively: Surprise your audience. Think about your topic in unexpected ways.

Don’t merely step behind the podium with a modified version of an essay you wrote in another class. Be an entertainer. When an audience is entertained, they pay closer attention.

Your audience will also appreciate it if you pick a topic that is relevant to their lives. Whether we care to admit it or not, deep down, we all have one primary interest: ourselves. If your audience does not see a personal benefit that they will receive by listening to your speech, the speech will not be very appealing.

When presenting an informative speech, it is important to have proper supporting material to enhance your audience’s understanding of your topic. Some forms of support include:

  • Examples– It’s difficult to listen to someone speaking about an abstract idea with which you have little familiarity. As a listener in this situation, you are forced to do a lot of mental work and you may or may not fully grasp what the speaker is trying to say. It’s a whole different experience when the speaker uses an example that illustrates the abstract idea. For example (ha-ha), a speaker might be talking about poor economic conditions in a certain area of the country. Rather than just leaving the concept of a “poor economy” as an idea, they should speak about the specific struggles of real live people with names and anecdotes.

  • Statistics– People tend to avoid statistics in a speech because they are afraid that people will find them boring. To the contrary, statistics can be interesting and informative if used correctly. The key is to pick statistics that are particularly startling or shocking. You can’t build an entire speech around statistics, of course. However, as long as the statistics add to the quality of the speech, and they don’t misrepresent the situation, they can be used liberally.

  • Facts– A good informative speech is filled with facts. A “fact” is any bit of information that be verified as being “true”. Whenever you present facts in a speech, you should cite the source of those facts so that the audience believes them (and you) to be credible.

  • Expert Opinion– An informative speech is not the time for your personal opinion, that time will come on the persuasive speech. Expert opinion, however, can and should be used in an informative speech. Expert opinion involves using excerpts and quotations from people who are highly respected in the field about which you are speaking. It is important to state the credentials of the person whom you are quoting, if the audience is not familiar with this person. Otherwise, your quote will not have much impact.

Whatever forms of support you may be using in your informative speech, it is important to select those sources carefully. Make sure that you are using up-to-date information. Make sure you are using unbiased sources (these can be especially hard to find on the Internet). And finally, make sure that you are working from a broad base of information. Do not base your entire speech on information found in a single source.

Informative speech topics

Persuasive Speech
In any speech situation it’s important to analyze your audience, naturally. This is never more important, though, than it is in a persuasive speaking situation.

There are a couple questions that you need to ask yourself after you’ve selected a persuasive speech topic:

1. Does my audience agree or disagree with the position which I am advocating?

If they already tend to agree with you, you’ve got things a little bit easier, of course. The only problem here might be that your topic and position may not be controversial or novel enough to hold the audience’s interest. It might be a fine topic, though, and it will be your goal to convince your audience that the position which they support is the correct position.

If you audience disagrees with your perspective, you’ve probably got a little more work to do. We’ll get back to that…

2. How much does my audience care about my topic and how much thought are they willing to put into my speech?

If the audience doesn’t really care a whole lot about your topic, it’s a double-edged sword. On one hand (or edge), they are going to be easier to persuade. On the other hand, you may not have picked a good topic if it isn’t an important issue to your audience. Again, if you believe in the topic, go with it.

If the audience really cares a lot about your topic, you’re not going to be able to win them over with flimsy persuasive tactics and logical fallacies. They are going to need to hear solid arguments and evidence in support of your perspective to be persuaded.

Persuasive Speech topics:
Argumentative Speech

An argumentative speech is a persuasive speech in which the speaker attempts to persuade his audience to alter their viewpoints on a controversial issue. While a persuasive speech may be aimed more at sharing a viewpoint and asking the audience to consider it, an argumentative speech aims to radically change the opinions already held by the audience. This type of speech is extremely challenging; therefore, the speaker should be careful to choose a topic which he feels prepared to reinforce with a strong argument.

Argumentative speeches generally concern topics which are currently being debated by societycurrent controversial issues. These topics are often derived from political debates and issues which are commonly seen in the media. The chosen topic may be political, religious, social, or ethical in nature. The audience should be challenged to re-examine their long-held values, and will be asked to alter deeply held convictions based on new evidence or viewpoints on the issue.

Obviously, selecting a topic that is debatable is key to creating an effective speech. The topic should not be something which is generally already proven, or would require an enormous leap of faith or logic in order to convince the audience. The speaker should already possess a strong interest and have a deeply-held opinion on the subject, or else his arguments will probably not come across as believable to the audience.

Topics below are not our personal opinion, they are just samples of a topic. You can flip them to create a different topic. For example, if the topic is “Eating meat and dairy is bad for your body” and you believe the opposite, just make your topic “Eating meat and dairy is good for your body”.

Argumentative Speech Topics

Demonstration Speech (Goals: to demonstrate a process and give the audience information while using visual aids. Or to show how to do something, something is done, make something, or something works.)

Demonstration topics

Use this list of demonstratives to develop your own project for a demonstrative. It can be anything you like. So-called action and demo verbs are a must. Start with one of these phrases and verbs for setting up demonstrative ideas:

  • How To Make …

  • Fix …

  • Use …

  • Do …

  • … Works

  • … Is Done, Produced or Made

Try other verbs too: deal with, draw, handle, execute, create, design, develop, incorporate, integrate, invent, operate, organize, perform, plan, predict, produce or structure. Those words generate attention and they are in nature describing what your public speaking audience can expect.

Like the demonstration speech topics below, all start with the word How:

  1. to cook a pie (or anything else you like / know how to cook)

  2. fix a flat tire

  3. clean your car

  4. play the piano

  5. play a computer game

  6. make a cocktail

  7. train your brains

  8. make a dancing show

  9. make ice cream

  10. make a sweet dessert

And so on …

Policy Speech

A policy speech is a type of persuasive speech, and many of the rules for persuasive speeches will indeed apply. However, a policy speech is a very particular type of persuasive presentation, so the speaker needs to be aware of some important guidelines before choosing his or her topic.

A policy speech will essentially be a persuasive speech on some area of public policy. The subject can be an existing public policy, along with the speaker’s statements either supporting or negating the policy. The topic may also be a proposed policy which the speaker believes will not solve the problem. Finally, the speech may concern a public problem and the speaker’s own ideas on how it could best be solved. This could be the speaker’s own ideas, or any combination of ideas already proposed by experts.

The speaker’s first challenge is to describe the problem and make the audience care about it. If the audience does not understand why the problem is important to society, as well as why it affects them personally, the rest of the speech is unlikely to be successful.

The chosen problem may be a well-known controversial issue, or it may be a new concern which is unfamiliar to the audience. Either way, the key to a successful speech is making the audience understand the problem and develop a desire to solve it.

The second part of the speech will present the policy in question. The speaker will share his opinion on the procedure, specifically whether he believes it will or will not be effective. It is important to remember that this should be a learned (educated) opinion, not simply an emotional viewpoint. For example, a speaker should not argue an abortion topic from an emotional perspective, but rather with scientific facts and researched, reliable data.

Speech’s topic should concern a problematic subject area that will elicit audience participation in solving it. It should also be a topic in which the speaker can become highly proficient, and there should be adequate research and data to back up any argument for or against the subject. At the end of the speech, the speaker’s goal may either be to ask for passive agreement, or he may wish to include a passionate call for the audience to take immediate action.

Policy speech topics

Funny Speech

Public speeches can be a lot of fun, especially when humor is interjected into them. The use of humor in making an audience agree with your point of view can go a long way in convincing them that your solution is the right one. Let’s break down a humorous persuasive speech, and look at the elements one by one. Keep in mind that the purpose of the speech is to convince the audience to agree with your opinion or ideas. The example topic is: “How to convince the teacher a household pet ate your homework.”

Funny speech topics

Once you have chosen a topic, you will need to compose speech structure. This sample of outline will help you getting started.

Start the talk by introducing yourself. For example, “Good Morning, my name is ____.” Then, go for the “gold.” Hit the audience with a statement or question that will grab their attention immediately. Another example: “When was the last time you used the excuse, my dog ate my term paper?”

The body of the speech: Three points
Hopefully, with the audience waiting with baited breath, the time is ripe to hit them with three good reasons for them to listen, and agree with what is being said.

  1. Your sister’s pet hamster died, and she needed a small piece of paper to wrap the body in and used your homework paper.

  2. Your brother was making bedding for his pet gerbil and ran out of newspaper to cut into strips and used your term paper.

  3. Your new dog has been trained to pee on a newspaper on the floor, and your homework papers had slipped off the kitchen counter, and well….

Closing argument
More than three points can be made, if indicated. But at least three points should always be used, at a minimum. To close your argument, summarize and end with a strong reason why the audience should agree with you. For example, “With the number and variety of pets available today, one does not have to use the family dog all the time as an excuse for not doing your homework.”
Special Occasion Speech

There are a number of social situations in which you might find yourself asked to make a speech. 

Speech of Introduction: A speech of introduction is when you are asked to introduce the “main” speaker at the function. Your speech should answer the following questions for the audience:

  1. Who is the speaker?- Talk about the speaker’s credentials and expertise and why they were chosen to speak.

  2. What will the speaker be discussing?- Give a short preview of the upcoming speech.

It’s critically important when giving a Speech of Introduction to get the speaker’s name and speech topic correct, naturally. Whenever possible, go over your introduction with the speaker beforehand to avoid potential embarrassment for both of you.

Welcoming Speech: The goal of a welcoming speech is to bring people or groups of people together. For example, you might deliver a Welcoming Speech about a new employee in your company. The purpose is to formally introduce the newcomer(s) to the others. This involves telling the audience who the newcomer(s) is/are, where they came from, what they will be doing.

Award Presentation Speech: When you are presenting someone with a gift or an award you have two goals to accomplish:

  1. Discuss the award itself- Who sponsors it, who it is named after, the history of the award, and the requirements to earn it.

  2. Discuss the winner of the award- Who they are, what they have done to earn the award.

When presenting an award, hand the award off with your left hand and shake hands with recipient with your right hand.

Award Acceptance Speech: When receiving an award, your audience will most likely expect you to be gracious and humble. To this end, a good award acceptance speech involves thanking others who made your receiving the award possible. Be sure to thank those involved in helping you get the award, and the giver of the award.

Tribute Speech: Situations for a Tribute Speech might be a eulogy at a funeral, or a speech given at a retirement party, or any other occasion where a person is being honored. Basically, sincerity is the key to a good Tribute Speech. You should focus on the positive aspects of the person, tell humorous or otherwise interesting stories about the person, and speak of the person’s accomplishments and admirable qualities.

Toast: In most toasting situations (weddings, retirement parties, birthday parties) the person delivering the toast can anticipate that they will be asked to do so. Because of this, and because toasts are usually quite short, a good toast is often written in advance. A toast needs to be positive, and to include words of praise or encouragement for those to whom it is directed.
Special ocassion speech topics


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Google key word: speech delivery

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Welcoming the Audience

Good morning/afternoon, ladies and gentlemen.

Hello/Hi, everyone.

Firs of all, let me thank you all for coming here today.

I’m happy/delighted that so many of you could make it today.

Introducing yourself

Let me introduce myself. I’m …. from…

For those of you who don’t know me, my name’s…..

As you probably know, I’m the new … manager,

I’m head of logistics here at Air Spares.

I’m here in my function as the Head of Controlling.

Saying what your topic is

As you can see on the screen, our topic today is…

Today’s topic is…

What I’d like to present to you today is ….

The subject of my presentation is…

Explaining why your topic is relevant for your audience

My talk is particularly relevant to those of you/us who…

Today’s topic is of particular interest to those of you /us who…

My/The topic is very important for you because …

By the end of this talk you will be familiar with…

Remember to use words like we, us, and our to highlight common interest.


Most formal – and many formal presentations have three main parts and follow this simple Formula:

  1. Tell the audience what you are going to say – Introduction

  2. Say it – Main part

  3. Tell them what you said – Conclusion

There are several ways you can tell the audience what you are going to say.

would like + infinitive

Today I’d like to tell you about our new plans.

This morning I’d like to bring you up to date on our department.

will + infinitive

I’ll begin by explaining the function.

I’ll start off by reviewingour progress.

After that, I’ll move on to my next point.

going to + infinitive

I’m going to talk to you today about new develpoments in the R&D Department.

This afternoon I’m going to be reporting on the new division.

will be + verb-ing

I’ll be talking about our guidelines for Internet use.

During the next hour we’ll be looking at the advantages of this system.


The purpose of the introduction is not only to tell the audience who you are, what the talk is about and why it is relevant to them; you also want to tell the audience (briefly) how the talk is structured. Here are some useful phrases to talk about the structure.

I’ve divided my presentation into three (main) parts: x, y, and z.

In my presentation I’ll focus on three major issues.

First (of all), I’ll be looking at ………., second ………, and third………

I’ll begin / start off by explaining……….

Then / Next / After that, I’ll go on to ……

Finally I’ll offer some solutions.

(The most common way to structure a presentation is to have three main parts, and then subdivide them into (three) smaller sections)


The final part of the introduction deals with the organization of the talk; how long it will last, whether there will be handouts, and how questions will be handled.


My presentation will take about 20 minutes.

It should take about 30 minutes to cover these issues.


Does everybody have a handout / brochure / report? Please take one, and pass them on.

Don’t worry about taking notes. I’ve put all the important statistics on a handout for you.

I’ll be handling out copies of the powerpoint slides at the end of my talk.

I’ll email the powerpoint presentation to you.


There will be time for questions after my presentation.

If you have any questions, feel free to interrupt me at any time.

Feel free to ask questions at any time during my talk.


Experts say that the first few minutes of a presentation are the most important. If you are able to get the audience’s attention quickly, they will be interested in what you have to say. Here are a few techniques you can use to start your talk.

Ask a rhetorical question

Is market research important for brand development?

Do we really need quality assurance?

Start with an interesting fact

According to an article I read recently, central banksa re now buying euros instead of dollars.

Did you know that fast food consumption has increased 600 % in Europe since 2002?

Tell them a story or anecdote

I remember when I attended a meeting in Paris……

At a conference in Madrid, I was once asked the following question:…….

Give them a problem to think about

Suppose you wanted to set up a new call centre. How would you go about it?

Imagine you had to reorganize the sales department. What would be your first step?


  1. Welcome the audience.

  2. Introduce yourself (name, position / function).

  3. State your topic.

  4. Explain why your topic is important for the audience.

  5. Outline the sructure of your talk.

  6. ‘What comes when?’ say when you’ll be dealing with each point.

  7. Let the audience know how you’re organizing the presentation (handouts, questions, etc)

Some links you can find more

Using visual aids



Introduction (Topic Sentence)

What is the topic sentence? 
The topic sentence is the first sentence in a paragraph.

What does it do? 
It introduces the main idea of the paragraph.

How do I write one? 
Summarize the main idea of your paragraph. Indicate to the reader what your paragraph will be about.

Supporting Details (Body paragraphs)

What are supporting sentences? 
They come after the topic sentence, making up the body of a paragraph.

What do they do? 
They give details to develop and support the main idea of the paragraph.

How do I write them? 
You should give supporting facts, details, and examples.

Conclusion (Closing Sentence)

What is the closing sentence? 
The closing sentence is the last sentence in a paragraph.

What does it do? 
It restates the main idea of your paragraph.

How do I write one? 
Restate the main idea of the paragraph using different words.

Individual Student Score Sheet

Name: Number & class: Score:

Performance standart

  1. A topic appropriate to the audience (5 pts): Topic engages audience. It presents new information to the audience.

  1. An introduction that directs audience to topic (5 pts): Clear thesis; description of main points which are convincing and memorable.

  1. An effective organizational pattern (5 pts): Main points are clear and they are directly related to thesis statement; effective transitions and signposts.

  1. Use of compelling supporting materials (10 pts): All key points are well supported with a variety of credible materials (eg real facts, quotes, anecdotes, statistics, real stories); sources provide excellent support for thesis.

  1. A conclusion that reinforces the thesis and provides psychological closure (10 pts): Conclusion provides a clear and memorable summary of points; refers back to thesis; ends with strong facts / events or call to action.

  1. Demonstration of careful choice of words (10 pts): is exceptionally clear; proper pronunciation of words; completely free from bias, grammar errors and inappropriate usage.

  1. The effective use of vocal expression and paralanguage to engage the audience (10 pts ): Excellent use of vocal variation (telling your opinions with confidence), intensity and speed; vocal expressions are natural and enthusiastic; avoid unimportant expressions.

  1. Demonstration of nonverbal behaviour that supports the verbal message (10 pts): Posture, gestures, facial expression and eye contact well developed; high levels of calm and confidence.

  1. Skillfully makes use of visual visual aids (10 pts): Excellent explanation and presentation of visual aid; visuals provide powerful insight into speech topic; visual aids of high professional quality

  1. The adaptation of the presentation to the audience (10pts): Speaker shows how information is personally important to audience; speech is tailored to audience beliefs, values and attitudes; speaker makes allusions to culturally shared experiences. Speaker answers the audience’s questions with full confidence and powerful/credible evidence.

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