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pragmatic epistemology


B.

memetics


C.

Kantian epistemology


D.

constructivism


E. *

evolutionary epistemology


79.

A proper epistemology may be called …


A.

pragmatic epistemology


B.

proper epistemology


C.

constructivism


D.

evolutionary epistemology


E. *

memetics


80.

… notes that knowledge can be transmitted from one subject to another, and thereby loses its dependence on any single individual.


A.

pragmatic epistemology


B.

Kantian epistemology


C.

constructivism


D.

evolutionary epistemology


E. *

memetics


81.

A piece of knowledge that can be transmitted or replicated is called a …


A.

event


B.

mind


C.

construction


D.

evolution


E. *

meme





82.

According to …, the death of an individual carrying a certain meme now no longer implies the elimination of that piece of knowledge.


A.

pragmatic epistemology


B.

Kantian epistemology


C.

constructivism


D.

evolutionary epistemology


E. *

proper epistemology


83.

According to …, the subject of knowledge has lost his primacy, and knowledge becomes a force of its own with proper goals and ways of developing itself.


A.

pragmatic epistemology


B.

Kantian epistemology


C.

constructivism


D.

evolutionary epistemology


E. *

proper epistemology


84.

From a … approach, knowledge is constructed by individuals or society.


A.

memetic


B.

evolutionary


C.

pragmatic


D.

Kantian


E. *

constructivist


85.

A … approach sees society and even individuality as byproducts constructed by an ongoing evolution of independent fragments of knowledge competing for domination.


A.

evolutionary


B.

pragmatic


C.

constructivist


D.

Kantian


E. *

memetic


86.

According to … theory, knowledge is merely an image of external objects and their relations.


A.

naturalism


B.

dualism


C.

evolutionary


D.

pragmatic


E. *

reflection-correspondence


87.

Who said that “psychology should restrict itself to examining the relation between observable stimuli and observable behavioural responses”?


A.

Wilhelm Wundt


B.

George Miller


C.

Herbert Simon


D.

Noam Chomsky


E. *

J. B. Watson


88.

Who proposed that memory limitations can be overcome by recoding information into chunks, mental representations that require mental procedures for encoding and decoding the information?


A.

Wilhelm Wundt


B.

J. B. Watson


C.

Herbert Simon


D.

Noam Chomsky


E. *

George Miller





89.

Who rejected behaviourist assumptions about language as a learned habit and proposed instead to explain language comprehension in terms of mental grammars consisting of rules?


A.

Wilhelm Wundt


B.

J. B. Watson


C.

George Miller


D.

Herbert Simon


E. *

Noam Chomsky


90.

Who introduced the term “ontology”?


A.

Kant


B.

Skovoroda


C.

Hegel


D.

Ficht


E. *

Hoklinius


91.

When was the term “ontology” introduced?


A.

in the 18th century


B.

in the 16th century


C.

in the 20th century


D.

in the 21th century


E. *

in the 17th century


92.

Which form of being does “being of things and processes, produced by a man” belong to?


A.

being of a man


B.

being of God


C.

social being


D.

spiritual being


E. *

being of things and processes


93.

Which form of being does “being of a man in the world of objects” belong to?


A.

being of things and processes


B.

being of God


C.

social being


D.

spiritual being


E. *

being of a man


94.

Which form of being does “individual, spiritual” belong to?


A.

being of things and processes


B.

being of a man


C.

being of God


D.

social being


E. *

spiritual being


95.

Which form of being does “being of a man in the society” belong to?


A.

being of things and processes


B.

being of a man


C.

being of God


D.

spiritual being


E. *

social being


96.

Which form of being does mythology belong to?


A.

being of things and processes


B.

being of a man





C.

being of God


D.

social being


E. *

spiritual being


97.

Which types of consciousness do you know?


A.

individual and spiritual


B.

theoretical and esthetic


C.

locomotive and sensory


D.

intellectual and moral


E. *

individual, group and social


98.

Who said: “Cogito ergo sunt” (I think means I live)?


A.

Hegel


B.

Kant


C.

Socrates


D.

Plato


E. *

Rene Descartes


99.

How did the representatives of ancient Greek philosophy treat “substance”?


A.

as a philosophical category


B.

as everything that can be rationally explained


C.

as everything that can be perceived


D.

as an absolute category


E. *

as corpuscles (atoms) bodies are made from


100.

Who was the first in the history of philosophy who studied the ratio of consciousness and unconsciousness?


A.

Rene Descartes


B.

Hegel


C.

Ficht


D.

Kant


E. *

Freud


101.

The ability to create mental images or pictures is called …


A.

perception


B.

reflection


C.

consciousness


D.

genetics


E. *

imagination


102.

The reflection of separate properties of the objects of the real world with the help of our sense organs - …


A.

affects


B.

will


C.

imagination


D.

perception


E. *

senses


103.

Mental power by which one can direct one’s thoughts and actions or influence those of others - …


A.

affects


B.

senses


C.

imagination


D.

perception


E. *

will





104.

The ability to see, hear or understand things - …


A.

affects


B.

will


C.

senses


D.

imagination


E. *

perception


105.

A strong feeling of any kind - …


A.

affects


B.

senses


C.

imagination


D.

perception


E. *

emotion


106.

Where did dialectics originate from?


A.

the Middle Ages


B.

the Renaissance


C.

the Enlightment


D.

German classic philosophy


E. *

ancient Greek philosophy


107.

Who represented dialectics as theoretical system?


A.

Marx


B.

Ficht


C.

Descartes


D.

Plato


E. *

Hegel


108.

What is the objective dialectics?


A.

one that lives in the person’s thinking


B.

one that is unchangeable


C.

one that was developed by Hegel


D.

there is no correct answer


E. *

one that lives in the very objects


109.

What is the subjective dialectics?


A.

one that lives in the very objects


B.

one that is unchangeable


C.

one that was developed by Hegel


D.

there is no correct answer


E. *

one that lives in the person’s thinking


110.

Which dialectic law explains the appearance of new species of animals and plants?


A.

the law of interpenetration of opposites


B.

the law of the negation of the negation


C.

all the answers are correct


D.

there is no correct answer


E. *

the law of transformation quantity into quality


111.

Which dialectic law explains the development of a man and his language?


A.

the law of interpenetration of opposites


B.

the law of the negation of the negation


C.

all the answers are correct





D.

there is no correct answer


E. *

the law of transformation quantity into quality


112.

Which dialectic law explains the political changes in the society?


A.

the law of interpenetration of opposites


B.

the law of the negation of the negation


C.

all the answers are correct


D.

there is no correct answer


E. *

the law of transformation quantity into quality


113.

A special quality or characteristic that something has - …


A.

quantity


B.

quality


C.

measure


D.

space


E. *

property


114.

The measurement of something by stating how much there is of it, an amount or number of something - …


A.

quality


B.

property


C.

measure


D.

space


E. *

quantity


115.

The standard of something when compared to other things like it, how good or bad something is - …


A.

quantity


B.

property


C.

measure


D.

space


E. *

quality


116.

Who is the creator of the law of the negation of the negation?


A.

Freud


B.

Marx


C.

Ficht


D.

Kant


E. *

Hegel


117.

Who introduced the term “metaphysics” in philosophy?


A.

Socrates


B.

Plato


C.

Lenin


D.

Skovoroda


E. *

Aristotle


118.

What are the quintessential ideas of all the system of knowledge in dialectics called?


A.

categories


B.

forms


C.

laws


D.

ration


E. *

principles


119.

What is the philosophical study of determination of phenomena by other phenomena called?





A.

dialectics


B.

metaphysics


C.

dualism


D.

nominalism


E. *

determinism


120.

According to …, all the phenomena in the world are planned in advance and the possibility of chance is rejected.


A.

determinism


B.

formalism


C.

indeterminism


D.

providencialism


E. *

fatalism


121.

According to …, the world is complete chaos and all the phenomena in the world are accidental and chaotic.


A.

determinism


B.

formalism


C.

indeterminism


D.

providencialism


E. *

fatalism


122.

What was dialectics in antique philosophy?


A.

alternative style of thinking


B.

the development of the “absolute idea”


C.

the study of the objective world


D.

the theory of scientific cognition


E. *

the art of debate


123.

What is the main antipode of dialectics?


A.

pantheism


B.

cosmocentrism


C.

anthropocentrism


D.

infantilism


E. *

metaphysics


124.

Who was the first to use the term “metaphysics” as an antipode of dialectics


A.

Marx


B.

Ficht


C.

Kant


D.

Plato


E. *

Hegel


125.

Which philosophical conception rejects everything old, completely destroying it and changes it into something new?


A.

pantheism


B.

cosmocentrism


C.

anthropocentrism


D.

infantilism


E. *

metaphysics


126.

Who is the author of the work “Negative dialectics”?


A.

Hegel


B.

Marx





C.

Sartre


D.

Plato


E. *

Adorno


127.

Who is the author of the work “Critique of dialectic mind”?


A.

Hegel


B.

Marx


C.

Adorno


D.

Plato


E. *

Sartre


128.

Who were the representatives of “negative dialectics”?


A.

Lenin, Plekhanov


B.

Marx, Engels


C.

Hegel, Ficht


D.

Socrates, Plato


E. *

Adorno, Sartre


129.

Who introduced the classic definition of truth?


A.

Hegel


B.

Marx


C.

Sartre


D.

Plato


E. *

Aristotle


130.

What are two levels in cognition?


A.

inductive and deductive


B.

rational and theoretical


C.

empirical and rational


D.

inductive and empirical


E. *

empirical and theoretical


131.

What does Latin word scire stand for?


A.

to perceive


B.

to understand


C.

to exist


D.

to live


E. *

to know


132.

What do empirists determine as the quintessential source of knowledge?


A.

mind


B.

practice


C.

truth


D.

God


E. *

senses


133.

What do rationalists determine as the quintessential source of knowledge?


A.

practice


B.

senses


C.

truth


D.

God


E. *

mind


134.

Who are the representatives of empirism?





A.

Descartes, Leibnitz


B.

Lenin, Plato


C.

Sartre, Kant


D.

Hegel, Freud


E. *

Bacon, Didro


135.

Who are the representatives of rationalism?


A.

Lenin, Plato


B.

Bacon, Didro


C.

Sartre, Kant


D.

Hegel, Freud


E. *

Descartes, Leibnitz


136.

Who introduced the first philosophical conception of being?


A.

Aristotle


B.

Hegel


C.

Leibnitz


D.

Medieval philosophy


E. *

Pre-socratics


137.

Who contradicted empirical being to “pure ideas” in the antique philosophy?


A.

Aristotle


B.

Socrates


C.

Bacon


D.

Dante


E. *

Plato


138.

Who created the study of different levels of being - from empirical to spiritual in the antique philosophy?


A.

Plato


B.

Socrates


C.

Bacon


D.

Dante


E. *

Aristotle


139.

Which philosophical category has “the law of transformation quantity into quality”?


A.

consciousness


B.

cognition


C.

energy


D.

negation


E. *

dialectics


140.

What does the Greek word “dialektik” mean?


A.

dialectics


B.

thesis


C.

antithesis


D.

quality


E. *

art of debate


141.

The way to show that a given hypothesis leads to a contradiction; thus, forcing the withdrawal of the hypothesis as a candidate for truth is called …


A.

the Plato’s method


B.

the Hegelian method


C.

the Aristotle’s method





D.

the Marxian method


E. *

the Socratic method


142.

Who wrote the book “Logic”?


A.

Marx


B.

Bacon


C.

Aristotle


D.

Socrates


E. *

Hegel


143.

What are Being and Nothing united as? (according to Hegel)


A.

thesis


B.

antithesis


C.

cognition


D.

consciousness


E. *

becoming


144.

How many laws of dialectics are there?


A.

1


B.

2


C.

5


D.

12


E. *

3


145.

Which philosophical category is originally derived from the Latin con (with) and scire (to know)?


A.

dialectics


B.

thesis


C.

antithesis


D.

synthesis


E. *

consciousness


146.

Which branch of philosophy is concerned with the ultimate nature of reality


A.

physics


B.

dialectics


C.

antique philosophy


D.

medieval philosophy


E. *

metaphysics


147.

Which metaphysical view states that the mind is the brain, or, more accurately, that conscious mental activity is identical with neural activity?


A.

dualism


B.

Marxism


C.

metaphysics


D.

Leninism


E. *

materialism


148.

Who brought about the near universal acceptance of the existence of unconscious mental states and processes?


A.

Marx


B.

Hegel


C.

Bacon


D.

Socrates


E. *

Freud


149.

Which philosophical category has “the law of interpenetration of opposites”?





A.

consciousness


B.

cognition


C.

energy


D.

negation


E. *

dialectics


150.

What are two broad traditional and competing metaphysical views concerning the nature of the mind and conscious mental states?


A.

thesis and antithesis


B.

being and nothing


C.

consciousness and unconsciousness


D.

vice and virtue


E. *

dualism and materialism


151.

Which philosophical category has “the law of the negation of the negation”?


A.

negation


B.

consciousness


C.

cognition


D.

energy


E. *

dialectics


152.

Who wrote “The Euthyphro”?


A.

Marx


B.

Hegel


C.

Bacon


D.

Aristotle


E. *

Socrates


153.

Who does “the idea of contradiction, with class struggle playing the central role in social and political life” belong to?


A.

Hegel


B.

Bacon


C.

Aristotle


D.

Socrates


E. *

Marx


154.

One’s ability to know and perceive is called…


A.

dialectics


B.

cognition


C.

energy


D.

negation


E. *

consciousness


155.

Who argued that “the mind is a non-physical substance distinct from the body”?


A.

Marx


B.

Hegel


C.

Leibnitz


D.

Socrates


E. *

Descartes


156.

Who does the dialectic method of cross-examination belong to?


A.

Marx


B.

Hegel


C.

Leibnitz





D.

Descartes


E. *

Socrates


157.

Which metaphysical view states that the conscious mind or a conscious mental state is non-physical?


A.

materialism


B.

Marxism


C.

metaphysics


D.

Leninism


E. *

dualism


158.

Who recognized the existence of basically unconscious perceptions and also importantly distinguished between perception and apperception?


A.

Marx


B.

Hegel


C.

Descartes


D.

Socrates


E. *

Leibnitz


159.

In which religion can “the idea of the three phases of creation, maintenance of order and destruction or disorder” be found?


A.

Christianity


B.

Buddhism


C.

Islam


D.

Judaism


E. *

Hinduism


160.

The exchange of


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