What did the writings of Ptolomy and Archimedes make obvious?
What new invention helped to spread new scientific ideas quickly and safely?
Where is earth placed in the universe according to the Ptolemeic system?
What discoveries did Galileo make using a telescope?
Why did the Church order Galileo to abandon the Copernican idea of the nature of the universe?
What did Isaac Newton define in his first book? Name the book?
ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS IN COMPLETE SENTENCES!
The new anatomy of the 16th century was based on the work of Andreas Vesalius, published in his On the Fabric of the Human Body (1543).
He reported his results from dissecting human bodies as a professor of surgery at the University of Padua, presenting an accurate view of the individual organs and general structure of the human body.
He erroneously believed that the body had 2 kinds of blood.
William Harvey’s On the Motion of the Heart and Blood (1628) showed that the heart, not the liver as Galen had thought was the beginning point of the blood’s circulation.
He also showed that the same blood runs through veins and arteries and that the blood makes a complete circuit through the body.
Harvey’s work was based on close observation and experiment.
The work of Robert Boyle in chemistry was also based on close observation and experiment.
He formulated Boyle’s Law about gases-the volume of a gas varies with the pressure exerted on it.
In the 18th century, Antoine Lavoisier, the founder of modern chemistry, invented a system of naming the chemical elements.
One of the most prominent female scientists of the 17th century was Margaret Cavendish.
In works such as her Observations Upon Experimental Philosophy, she criticized the belief that humans, through science, were the masters of the universe.
Maria Winkelmann was the most famous woman astronomer; she assisted her husband in their observatory, and discovered a comet.
She was denied a post as assistant astronomer at the Berlin Academy because in the view of most people of the 17th century, science and scholarship conflicted with the domestic roles women were expected to fulfill.
17th century French philosopher, Descartes, wrote about the doubt and uncertainty that seamed to be everywhere at the time.
In his most famous work, Discourse on Method, in 1637 emphasized the importance of reason in relation to truth.
A famous quote that came from this thought is- “I think, therefore I am.”
Descartes 2nd Principle
Descartes used his reason to arrive at a 2nd principle.
He argued that because “the mind cannot be doubted but the body and material world can; the two must be radically different.”
Descartes has rightly been called the father of modern rationalism (reason is the chief source of knowledge).
The Scientific Method
The scientific method is a systematic procedure for collecting and analyzing evidence.
Francis Bacon, a British philosopher, believed that instead of relying on the ideas of ancient authorities, scientists should use inductive reasoning (to proceed from the particular to the general).
Bacon stated that the “true and lawful goal of the sciences is none other than this: that human life is empowered with new discoveries and power.”
He wanted science to benefit industry, agriculture and trade.
Science and Medicine
What did William Harvey write?
What were Harvey’s observations and experiments showing him?
What field of science in Germany provided opportunities for women?
Name women of the Scientific Revolution?
What did René Descartes emphasize and assert were essential for knowledge?
Who developed the scientific method and what is it exactly?
PATH TO THE ENLIGHTENMENT
The Enlightenment was an 18th century philosophical movement of intellectuals who were greatly impressed by the achievements of the Scientific Revolution.
Reason, natural law, hope and progress were common words used by the thinkers of the Enlightenment.
Englishman, John Locke, in his 18th century Essay Concerning Human Understanding argued that everyone was born with a tabula rasa (a blank mind).
He suggested that people were molded by personal experiences and influences, which caused people to look for societal change.
He said, “Law should come from the consent of the people.”
Using Newton’s methods, people believed that they could discover the natural laws that all institutions should follow to produce the ideal society.
The intellectuals of the Enlightenment were known by the French name philosophe, meaning philosopher.
They were writers, professors, journalists, economists and above all else social reformers.