This Mexican peasants' song from the early 1900s reflected many Mexican's desire for change under the rule of the dictator Porfirio Diaz:
44Our homes and humble dwellings always full of sadness
living like animals
in the midst of riches.
On the other hand, the haciendados, owners of lives and lands,
and don't listen to our complaints,'
Listen to the Witness History audio to learn more about the Mexican Revolution.
• General Carranza with some of his rebel forces ' during the Mexican Revolution
Chapter Focus Question How did nationalism lik and the desire for change shape world events in the early 1900s?
Struggle in Latin America
Nationalism in Africa and the Middle East
, Section 3
India Seeks Self-Rule
Section 4 Upheavals in China
Conflicting Forces in Japan
Note Taking Study Guide Online
For: Note Taking and Concept Connector worksheets Web Code: nbd-2701
WITNES'.7 le AUDIO
Fighting for an Ideal
Zeferino Diego Ferreira, a peasant soldier at the time of the Mexican Revolution, describes his feelings on fighting with the rebel leaders Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata:
«I am glad to have fought in the same cause with Zapata ... and so many of my dear revolutionary friends who were left behind in the hills, their bones eaten by animals. I wasn't afraid. Just the opposite, I was glad. It's a beautiful thing to fight to realize an ideal?,
Mexico's revolution was a dramatic fight for reform, with mixed results.
Focus Question How did Latin Americans struggle for change in the early 1900s?
Coffee beans, one of Latin America's major export crops
Struggle in Latin America
Identify the causes and effects of the Mexican Revolution.
Describe the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) and the reforms it introduced in Mexico after the revolution.
Analyze the effects of nationalism in Latin America in the 1920s and 1930s.
Terms, People, and Places
haciendas cultural nationalism
nationalization Good Neighbor Policy economic nationalism
Reading Skill: Identify Causes and Effects As you read, note the causes and effects of the Mexican Revolution in a chart like the one below.
In the early 1900s, Latin America's economy was booming because of exports. Latin Americans sold their plentiful natural resources and cash crops to industrialized countries. In return, they bought products made in those countries. Meanwhile, foreign investors controlled many of Latin America's natural resources.
Stable governments helped to keep the region's economy on a good footing. Some Latin American nations, such as Argentina and Uruguay, had democratic constitutions. However, military dictators or small groups of wealthy landowners held the real power. The tiny ruling class kept the economic benefits of the booming economy for themselves. The growing middle class and the lower classes—workers and peasants—had no say in their own government. These inequalities troubled many Latin American countries, but in Mexico the situation led to an explosive revolution.
The Mexican Revolution
By 1910, the dictator Porfirio Diaz had ruled Mexico for almost 35 years, winning reelection as president again and again. On the surface, Mexico enjoyed peace and economic growth. Diaz welcomed foreign investors who developed mines, built railroads, and drilled for oil. However, underneath the surface, discontent rippled through Mexico. The country's prosperity benefited only a small group. Most Mexicans were mestizos or Indian peasants who lived in desperate poverty. Most of these peasants worked on haciendas, or
490 Nationalism and Revolution Around the World
large plantations, controlled by the landowning elite. Some peasants earned meager wages in factories and mines in Mexico's cities. Meanwhile, the growing urban middle class wanted democracy and the elite resented the power of foreign companies. All of these groups opposed the Diaz dictatorship.
The unrest boiled over in 1910 when Francisco Madero, a liberal reformer from an elite family, demanded free elections. Faced with rebellion in several parts of the country, Diaz resigned in 1911. Soon a bloody, complex struggle engulfed Mexico. (See below.)
Checkpoint What political and economic factors helped to cause the Mexican Revolution?
I Faced with rebellion, Diaz resigned after
orholding power for almost 30 years.
• Porfirio Diaz
Madero, a liberal reformer, was democratically elected in 1911. But within two years he was assassinated by one of his generals, Victoriano Huerta.
Fighting raged across Mexico for over a decade. Peasants, small farmers, ranchers, and urban workers were drawn into the violent struggle. Women soldiers called soldaderas cooked, tended the wounded, and fought alongside the men. The struggle took a terrible toll. When it ended, the Mexican economy was in shambles and more than one million people were dead.
Francisco "Pancho" Villa
Emiliano Zapata V
Huerta lost no time setting up his own dictatorship.
Carranza became president of Mexico in 1917. A new constitution passed, but reforms were slow to materialize.
Villa, Zapata, and Carranza
formed an uneasy coalition
against Huerta. Villa and
Zapata, peasants themselves,
wanted to make broad changes
to improve peasants' lives. Carranza, a rich landowner, disagreed. After defeating Huerta, Carranza turned on Villa and Zapata and defeated them.
Sequence Describe the events of the Mexican Revolution.
Draw Inferences Why might Carranza feel that it was in his best interests to eliminate Zapata and Villa?
A President of the People
Mexican President Lkaro Cardenas greets people at a train station in the 1930s (below). Between 1915 and 1940, nearly 75 million acres of land was distributed to Mexico's people, fulfilling one of the goals of the Mexican Revolution. Which president distributed the most land?
Land Distribution in Mexico by President, 1915-1940
Lazaro Cardenas, 1934-1940
Five presidents, 1920-1934
Venustiano Carranza, 1915-1920
SouRcE: Michael C. Meyer and William L. Sherman,
The Course of Mexican History
Revolution Leads to Change
In 1917, voters elected Venustiano Carranza president of Mexico. That year, Carranza reluctantly approved a new constitution that included land and labor reform. With amendments, it is still in force today.
The Constitution of 1917 The Constitution of 1917 addressed three major issues: land, religion, and labor. The constitution strengthened government control over the economy. It permitted the breakup of large estates, placed restrictions on foreigners owning land, and allowed nationalization, or government takeover, of natural resources. Church land was made "the property of the nation." The constitution set a minimum wage and protected workers' right to strike.
Although the constitution gave suffrage only to men, it did give women some rights. Women doing the same job as men were entitled to the same pay. In response to women activists, Carranza also passed laws allowing married women to draw up contracts, take part in legal suits, and have equal authority with men in spending family funds.
The PRI Controls Mexico Fighting continued on a smaller scale throughout the 1920s, including Carranza's overthrow in 1920. In 1929, the government organized what later became the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). The PRI managed to accommodate many groups in Mexican society, including business and military leaders, peasants, and workers. The PRI did this by adopting some of the goals of these groups, while keeping real power in its own hands. It suppressed opposition and dissent. Using all of these tactics, the PRI brought stability to Mexico and over time carried out many desired reforms. The PRI dominated Mexican politics from the 1930s until the free election of 2000.
Reforms Materialize At first, the Constitution of 1917 was just a set of goals to be achieved in the future. But in the 1920s and 1930s, as the government finally restored order, it began to carry out reforms.
In the 1920s, the government helped some Indian communities regain lands that had been taken from them. In the 1930s, under President Lazar° Cardenas, millions of acres of land were redistributed to peasants
under a communal land program. The government supported labor unions and launched a massive effort to combat illiteracy. Schools and libraries were set up. Dedicated teachers, often young women, worked for low pay. While they taught basic skills, they spread ideas of nationalism that began to bridge the gulf between the regions and the central government. As the revolutionary era ended, Mexico became the first Latin American nation to pursue real social and economic reforms for the majority of its people.
The government also took a strong role in directing the economy. In 1938, labor disputes broke out between Mexican workers and the management of some foreign-owned petroleum companies. In response, President Cardenas decreed that the Mexican government would nationalize Mexico's oil resources. American and British oil companies resisted Cardenas's decision, but eventually accepted compensation for their losses. Mexicans felt that they had at last gained economic independence from foreign influence.
Checkpoint How did the Constitution of 1917 try to resolve some of the problems that started the revolution?
Nationalism at Work in Latin America
Mexico's move to reclaim its oil fields from foreign investors reflected a growing spirit of nationalism throughout Latin America. This spirit focused in part on ending economic dependence on the industrial powers, especially the United States, but it echoed throughout political and cultural life as well.
Economic Nationalism During the 1920s and 1930s, world events affected Latin American economies. After World War I, trade with Europe fell off. The Great Depression that struck the United States in 1929 spread around the world in the 1930s. Prices for Latin American exports plunged as demand dried up. At the same time, the cost of imported consumer goods rose. Latin America's economies, dependent on export trade, declined rapidly.
A tide of economic nationalism, or emphasis on home control of the economy, swept Latin American countries. They were determined to develop their own industries so they would not have to buy so many products from other countries. Local entrepreneurs set up factories to produce goods. Governments raised tariffs, or taxes on imports, to protect the new industries. Governments also invested directly in new businesses. Following Mexico's lead, some nations took over foreign-owned assets. The drive to create domestic industries was not wholly successful. Unequal distribution of wealth held back economic development.
Political Nationalism The Great Depression also triggered political changes in Latin America. The economic crisis caused people to lose faith in the ruling oligarchies and the ideas of liberal government. Liberalism, a belief in the individual and in limited government, was a European theory. People began to feel that it did not work in Latin America. However, ideas about what form a new type of government should take varied.
In the midst of economic crisis, stronger, authoritarian governments of different types rose in Latin American countries. People hoped that these governments could control, direct, and protect each country's economy more effectively.
Ana -oli Ica a s'.
Nationalizing Oil In 1938, Mexican President Cardenas nationalized foreign-owned oil companies. In response, some nations boycotted Mexican oil.
Why is Cardenas shown standing on a pile of oil barrels?
Do you think the cartoonist is Mexican? Why or why not?
assets—(AS ets) n. things of value
Identify Effects As you read, identify the
effects of nationalism in Latin America and record them a chart like the one below.
This stained glass image shows one variation of the Mexican coat of arms that appears on Mexico's flag today. An ancient prophecy dictated that the Aztec capital should be founded where scouts saw an eagle perched on a cactus growing out of a rock surrounded by water, holding a snake in its beak. Accordingly, the founders of Tenochtitlan were believed to have seen this sign in 1325 at the site of present-day Mexico City. The symbol is an emblem of Mexican nationalism. Why do you think that an Aztec symbol is included on the Mexican flag?
intervening—(in tur VEEN ing) vi. coming between two arguing factions
Cultural Nationalism By the 1920s, Latin American writers, artists, and thinkers began to reject European influences in culture as well. Instead, they took pride in their own culture, with its blend of Western and native traditions.
In Mexico, cultural nationalism, or pride in one's own culture, was reflected in the revival of mural painting, a major art form of the Aztecs and Maya. In the 1920s and 1930s, Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco (oh ROHS koh), David Alfaro Siqueiros (see KEH rohs), and other muralists created magnificent works. On the walls of public buildings, they portrayed the struggles of the Mexican people for liberty. The murals have been a great source of national pride ever since.
The Good Neighbor Policy During and after World War I, investments by the United States in the nations of Latin America soared. British influence declined. The United States continued to play the role of international policeman, intervening to restore order when it felt its interests were threatened.
During the Mexican Revolution, the United States stepped in to support the leaders who favored American interests. In 1914, the United States attacked the port of Veracruz to punish Mexico for imprisoning several American sailors. In 1916, the U.S. army invaded Mexico after Pancho Villa killed more than a dozen Americans in New Mexico. This interference stirred up anti-American feelings, which increased throughout Latin America during the 1920s. For example, in Nicaragua, Augusto Cesar Sandino led a guerrilla movement against United States forces occupying his country.
In the 1930s, President Franklin Roosevelt took a new approach to Latin America and pledged to follow "the policy of the good neighbor." Under the Good Neighbor Policy, the United States pledged to lessen its interference in the affairs of Latin American nations. The United States withdrew troops stationed in Haiti and Nicaragua. It lifted the Platt Amendment, which had limited Cuban independence. Roosevelt also supported Mexico's nationalization of its oil companies. The Good Neighbor policy strengthened Latin American nationalism and improved relations between Latin America and the United States.
Checkpoint Describe how economic and political nationalism in Latin America were related.
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For: Self-quiz with vocabulary practice Web Code: nba-2711
Terms, People, and Places
What do each of the key terms listed at
the beginning of the section, except
"haciendas," have in common? Explain. Nate Taking
Reading Skill: Identify Causes and Effects Use your completed flowcharts to answer the Focus Question: How did Latin Americans struggle for change in the early 1900s?
Comprehension and Critical Thinking
Recognize Causes Describe three causes of the Mexican Revolution.
Analyze Credibility How did the PRI fulfill some goals of the revolution but not others?
Identify Central Issues How did nationalism affect Latin America?
Summarize How did Franklin Roosevelt change the policy of the United States toward Latin America?
• Writing About History
Quick Write: Write a Thesis Statement
A persuasive essay seeks to convince its
reader to accept the writer's position on a topic. To be effective, the thesis statement must state a position that provokes valid arguments. Write an effective thesis statement on the topic of economic nationalism in Latin America.
494 Nationalism and Revolution Around the World
During the 1920s and 1930s, the Mexican government commissioned artists to paint beautiful murals about revolutionary themes on the walls of public buildings. The murals were meant to help all Mexicans, even those who couldn't read, learn about the ideals of the Revolution.
The most famous Mexican muralist was Diego Rivera. The panel to the right is part of a huge work on Mexican history that Rivera painted on the stairway of the National Palace in Mexico City.
Zapata, Villa, and other revolutionaries appear at the top of the panel, holding a banner that reads "Tierra y Libertad" ("Land and Liberty")—Zapata's slogan.
The center of the composition shows an eagle sitting on a cactus. The eagle is part of a national symbol of Mexico. A variation of it appears on the current Mexican flag. However, here, the eagle holds the Aztec war symbol in its beak rather than the traditional serpent.
The bottom segment shows the conquest of Mexico by Herman Cortes. Cortês's armies battle the native Aztecs.
Make Inferences Why do you think Diego Rivera has the Mexican eagle holding the Aztec war symbol rather than the serpent?
Draw Conclusions What do Rivera's murals reveal about how he viewed Mexican history?
WITI 2.1 HISTORY w
AUDIO wwwwst mom
An African Protests Colonialism
66 If you woke up one morning and found that somebody had come to your house, and had declared that house belonged to him, you would naturally be surprised, and you would like to know by what arrangement. Many Africans at that time found that, on land that had been in the possession of their ancestors from time immemorial, they were now working as squatters or as laborers,
—Jomo Kenyatta, Kenyan independence leader
Focus Question How did nationalism contribute to changes in Africa and the Middle East
following World War I?
Nationalism in Africa and the
Describe how Africans resisted colonial rule.
Analyze how nationalism grew in Africa.
Explain how Turkey and Persia modernized.
Summarize how European mandates contributed to the growth of Arab nationalism.
Understand the roots of conflict between Jews and Arabs in the Palestinian mandate.
Terms, People, and Places
apartheid Asia Minor
negritude movement Balfour Declaration
Reading Skill: Identify Causes and Effects Record reasons for the rise of nationalism in Africa
and the Middle Cast and its effects in a chart like
the one below.
Rise of Nationalism
Region Reasons for Rise Effects
Turkey and Persia
Jomo Kenyatta, quoted above, was a leader in Kenya's struggle for independence from British rule. During the 1920s and 1930s, a new generation of leaders, proud of their unique heritage, struggled to stop imperialism and restore Africa for Africans.
Africans Resist Colonial Rule
During the early 1900s, almost every part of Africa was a European colony. Agricultural improvements in some areas caused a boom in export crops. However, the colonizers exploited the boom solely for their own benefit.
Some Africans were forced to work on plantations or in mines run by Europeans. The money they earned went to pay taxes to the colonial government. In Kenya and Rhodesia, white settlers forced Africans off the best land. The few who kept their land were forbidden to grow the most profitable crops. Only Europeans could grow these. Also in Kenya, the British made all Africans carry identification cards, imposed a tax, and restricted where they could live or travel. In other parts of Africa, farmers kept their land but had to grow cash crops, like cotton, instead of food. This led to famines in some regions.
During World War I, more than one million Africans had fought on behalf of their colonial rulers. Many had hoped that their service would lead to more rights and opportunities. Instead, the situation remained mostly the same or even worsened.
496 Nationalism and Revolution Around the World
Opposing Imperialism Many Western-educated Africans criticized the injustice of imperial rule. Although they had trained for professional careers, the best jobs went to Europeans. Inspired by President Woodrow Wilson's call for self-determination, Africans condemned the colonial system. In Africa, as in other regions around the world, socialism found a growing audience. Protests and opposition to imperialism multiplied.
Racial Segregation and Nationalism in South Africa Between 1910 and 1940, whites strengthened their grip on South Africa. They imposed a system of racial segregation. Their goal was to ensure white economic, political, and social supremacy. New laws, for example, restricted better-paying jobs in mines to whites only. Blacks were pushed into low-paid, less-skilled work. As in Kenya, South African blacks had to carry passes at all times. They were evicted from the best land, which was set aside for whites, and forced to live on crowded "reserves," which were located in dry, infertile areas.
Other laws chipped away at the rights of blacks. In one South African province, educated blacks who owned property had been allowed to vote in local elections. In 1936, the government abolished that right. The system of segregation set up at this time would become even stricter after 1948, when apartheid (uh PAHR tayt), a policy of rigid segregation, became law.
Yet South Africa was also home to a vital nationalist movement. African Christian churches and African-run newspapers demanded rights for black South Africans. They formed a political party, later known as the African National Congress (ANC), to protest unfair laws. Their efforts, however, had no effect on South Africa's white government. Still, the ANC did build a framework for political action in later years.
Checkpoint In what ways did colonial powers try to control African life?
Nationalism and an "Africa for Africans"
In the 1920s, a movement known as Pan-Africanism began to nourish the nationalist spirit and strengthen resistance. Pan-Africanism emphasized the unity of Africans and people of African descent worldwide. Among its most inspiring leaders was Jamaica-born Marcus Garvey. He preached a forceful, appealing message of "Africa for Africans" and
WITNESt :TORY VIDEO
Watch South Africa: The Rise of Apartheid on
the Witness History Discovery School1M video program to explore the workings and origins of apartheid.
Segregation in South Africa
In the early 1900s, white people in South
Africa began to force urban Africans to
move to camps outside of the larger cities,
such as this settlement outside of Cape
Town. Why do you think that the white
people have forced the African people
behind a barbed wire fence?
Opposition to imperialism grew among Africans in the 1920s and 1930s. Resistance took many forms. Those who had lost their lands to Europeans sometimes squatted, or settled illegally, on European-owned plantations. In cities, workers began to form labor unions, even though they were illegal under colonial law codes. Africans formed associations and political parties to express their opposition to the colonial system. Although large-scale revolts were rare, protests were common.
In 1929, Ibo market women in Nigeria denounced British policies. They demanded a voice in decisions that affected their markets (below). The "Women's War," as it was called, soon became a full-fledged revolt.
In 1912, educated Africans organized a political party that later became the African National Congress (ANC). Its members worked through legal means, protesting laws that restricted the freedom of black Africans. One ANC member (left) gave a speaking tour in England to raise support for his cause.
demanded an end to colonial rule. Garvey's ideas influenced a new generation of African leaders.
Pan-African Congress Forges Ties African American scholar and activist W.E.B. DuBois (doo BOYS) organized the first Pan-African Congress in 1919. It met in Paris, where the Allies were holding their peace conference. Delegates from African colonies, the West Indies, and the United States called on the Paris peacemakers to approve a charter of rights for Africans. Although the Western powers ignored their demands, the Pan-African Congress established
cooperation among African and African American leaders.
The Negritude Movement Shows Pride French-speaking writers in West Africa and the Caribbean further awakened self-confidence among Africans through the negritude movement. In the negritude movement, writers expressed pride in their African roots and protested colonial rule. Best known among them was the Senegalese poet Leopold Senghor, who celebrated Africa's rich cultural heritage. He fostered African pride by rejecting the negative views of Africa spread by colonial rulers. Later, Senghor would take an active role in Senegal's drive to independence, and he would serve as its first president.
Egypt Gains Independence African nationalism brought little political change, except to Egypt. Egyptians had suffered during World War I. After the war, protests, strikes, and riots forced Britain to grant Egypt independence in 1922. However, Britain still controlled Egypt's monarchy.
498 Nationalism and Revolution Around the World
Simmering resistance to British rule in Egypt flared as World War I ended. Peasants, landowners, Christians, Muslims and Western-educated officials united behind the Wafd party, which launched strikes and protests (right). In 1922, the British finally agreed to declare Egypt independent. In fact, however, British troops stayed in Egypt to guard the Suez Canal, and Britain remained the real power behind Egypt's King Faud.
Members of the Kikuyu ethnic group formed the Kikuyu Central Association in 1924. The Association protested the Kikuyu's loss of land, forced labor, heavy taxes, and the hated identification cards. The British jailed Harry Thuku (right) and other Kikuyu leaders, but protests continued.
1. Make Comparisons How did the methods of the ANC in South Africa differ from the Wafd party in Egypt?
2. Determine Relevance Why is it important to learn about early protest movements in Africa, despite the fact that most colonies did not gain independence until after World War II?
Displeased with this state of affairs, during the 1930s many young Egyptians joined an organization called the Muslim Brotherhood. This group fostered a broad Islamic nationalism that rejected Western culture and denounced corruption in the Egyptian government.
Checkpoint What significance does the phrase "Africa for Africans" have?
Nationalist movements brought immense changes to the Middle East in the aftermath of World War I. The defeated Ottoman empire was near collapse in 1918. Its Arab lands, as you have read, were divided between Britain and France. However, in Asia Minor, the Turkish peninsula between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, Turks resisted Western control and fought to build a modern nation.
Atatiirk Sets Goals In 1920, the Ottoman sultan reluctantly signed the Treaty of Sevres, in which the empire lost its Arab and North African lands. The sultan also had to give up some land in Asia Minor to a number of Allied countries, including Greece. A Greek force landed in the city of Smyrna (now Izmir) to assert Greece's claims. Turkish nationalists, led by the determined and energetic Mustafa Kemal, overthrew the sultan, defeated the Greeks, and declared Turkey a republic. Kemal negotiated a new treaty. Among other provisions, the treaty called for about 1.3 million Greeks to leave Turkey, while some 400,000 Turks left Greece.
Vocabulary Builder: assert—(uh SURT) vt. maintain or defend
"Ataturk" is the name that Mustafa Kemal gave himself when he ordered all Turkish people to take on surnames, or last names. It means "Father of the Turks." In 1920, he led Turkish nationalists in the fight against Greek forces trying to enforce the Treaty of Sevres, establishing the borders of the modern Republic of Turkey. Once in power, he passed many reforms to modernize, Westernize, and secularize Turkey. Ataturk is still honored throughout Turkey today—his portrait appears on postage and all currency. Why is Ataturk considered the "Father of the Turks"?
Atatark's Reforms in Turkey
Replaced Islamic law with European model
Replaced Muslim calendar with Western (Christian) calendar
Moved day of rest from Friday to Sunday
Closed religious schools and opened state schools
Forced people to wear Western-style clothes
Replaced Arabic alphabet with Latin alphabet
Gave women the right to vote and to work outside the home.
Kemal later took the name Ataturk (ah tah TURK), meaning "father of the Turks." Between 1923 and his death in 1938, Ataturk forced through an ambitious program of radical reforms. His goals were to modernize Turkey along Western lines and to separate religion from government. To achieve these goals, Ataturk mandated that Islamic traditions in several fields be replaced with Western alternatives (see Biography).
Westernization Transforms Turkey Ataturk's government encouraged industrial expansion. The government built railroads, set up factories, and hired westerners to advise on how to make Turkey economically independent.
To achieve his reforms, Ataturk ruled with an iron hand. To many Turks, he was a hero who was transforming Turkey into a strong, modern power. Others questioned Atatiirk's dictatorial powers and complete rejection of religion in laws and government. They believed that Islam could play a constructive role in a modern, civil state.
Nationalism and Reform at Work in Persia The success of Atattirk's reforms inspired nationalists in neighboring Persia (present-day Iran). Persian nationalists greatly resented the British and Russians, who had won spheres of influence over Persia in 1907. In 1925, an ambitious army officer, Reza Khan, overthrew the shah. He set up his own dynasty, with himself as shah.
Like Ataturk, Reza Khan rushed to modernize Persia and make it fully independent. He built factories, roads,
and railroads and strengthened the army. He forced Persians to wear Western clothing and set up modern, secular schools. In addition, he moved to replace Islamic law with secular law and encouraged women to take part in public life. Muslim religious leaders fiercely condemned Reza Khan's efforts to introduce Western ways to the nation.
Reza Khan also persuaded the British company that controlled Persia's oil industry to give Persia a larger share of the profits and insisted that Persian workers be hired at all levels of the company. In the decades ahead, oil would become a major factor in Persia's economy and foreign policy.
Checkpoint: What did the reforms of Ataturk and Reza Khan have in common?
Nationalism in the Middle East
Oil became a major factor throughout the Middle East during this period. The use of gasoline-powered engines in various vehicles during World War I showed that oil was the fuel of the future. Foreign companies began to move into the Middle East to exploit its large oil reserves.
Pan-Arabism Grows Partly in response to foreign influence, Arab nationalism grew after World War I and gave rise to Pan-Arabism. This nationalist movement was built on the shared heritage of Arabs who lived in lands from the Arabian Peninsula to North Africa. Today, this
Map Skills Population movements and foreign influences changed the Middle East after World War I.
1. Locate (a) Turkey (b) Persia
(c) Palestine (d) the Persian Gulf
2. Human-Environment Interaction What natural resource was discovered in the Middle East around this time? What effect did its discovery have on the region?
3. Make Inferences List the ways foreign influence affected the Middle East in the 1920s.
area includes Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Egypt, Algeria, and Morocco. PanArabism emphasized the common history and language of Arabs and recalled the golden age of Arab civilization. The movement sought to free Arabs from foreign domination and unite them in their own state.
Betrayal at the Peace Conference Arabs were outraged by the European-controlled mandates set up at the Paris Peace Conference. During World War I, Arabs had helped the Allies against the Central Powers, especially the Ottoman empire. In return for their help, the Allies led the Arabs to believe that they would gain independence after the war. Instead, the Allies carved up the Ottoman lands, giving France mandates in Syria and Lebanon and Britain mandates in Palestine and Iraq. Later, Britain gave a large part of the Palestinian mandate, Trans-Jordan, to Abdullah for a kingdom.
Arabs felt betrayed by the West—a feeling that has endured to this day. During the 1920s and 1930s, their anger erupted in frequent protests and revolts against Western imperialism. A major center of turmoil was the British mandate of Palestine. There, Arab nationalists and Jewish nationalists, known as Zionists, increasingly clashed.
Vocabulary Builder: advocated—(AD vuh kayt id) V. supported or favored
Two Views of one Place
Posters encouraged visitors and settlers to go to Palestine. At the same time, Palestinian Arabs tried to limit Jewish settlement in the area.
Promises in Palestine Since Roman times, Jews had dreamed of returning to the land of Judea, or Israel. In 1897, Theodor Herzl (HURT sul) responded to growing anti-Semitism, or prejudice against Jewish people, in Europe by founding the modern Zionist movement. His goal was to rebuild a Jewish state in Palestine. Among other things, violent pogroms against Jews in Russia prompted thousands of them to migrate to Palestine. They joined the small Jewish community that had lived there since biblical times.
During World War I, the Allies made two conflicting sets of promises. First, they promised Arabs their own kingdoms in former Ottoman lands, including Palestine. Then, in 1917, the British attempted to win the support of European Jews by issuing the Balfour Declaration. In it, the British advocated the idea of setting up "a national home for the Jewish people" in Palestine. The declaration noted, however, that "nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine." Those communities were Arab. The stage was thus set for conflict between Arab and Jewish nationalists.
A Bitter Struggle Begins From 1919 to 1940, tens of thousands of Jews immigrated to Palestine due to the Zionist movement and the effects of anti-Semitism in Europe. Despite great hardships, Jewish settlers set up factories, built new towns, and established farming communities. At the same time, the Arab population almost doubled. Many were immigrants from nearby lands. As a result, Palestine's population included a changing mix of newcomers. The Jewish population, which was less than 60,000 in 1919, grew to about 400,000 in 1936, while the Muslim population increased from about 568,000 in 1919 to about 1 million in 1940.
At first, some Arabs welcomed the money and modern technical skills that the newcomers brought with them. But as more Jews moved to Palestine, tensions between the two groups developed. Jewish organizations tried to purchase as much land as they could, while Arabs sought to slow down or stop Jewish immigration. Religious differences between Jews and Arabs heightened tensions. Arabs attacked Jewish settlements, hoping to discourage settlers. The Jewish settlers established their own military defense force. For the rest of the century, Arab and Jews fought over the land that Arabs called Palestine and Jews called Israel.
Checkpoint Why did Palestine become a center of conflict after World War I?
Progress Monitoring Online
For: Self-quiz with vocabulary practice Web Code: nba-2721
Terms, People, and Places
1. For each term, person, or place listed at the beginning of the section, write a sentence explaining its significance.
2. Reading Skill: Identify Causes and Effects Use your completed chart to answer the Focus Question: How did nationalism contribute to changes in Africa and the Middle East following World War I?
Comprehension and Critical Thinking
3. Identify Central Issues How did Africans resist colonial rule?
4. Summarize What are three examples of the rise of nationalism in Africa?
5. Identify Central Issues Why might Muslim religious leaders object to reforms in Turkey and Persia?
6. Draw Conclusions How did the Balfour Declaration affect the Middle East?
• Writing About History
Quick Write: Generate Arguments When you write a persuasive essay, you want to support your thesis statement with valid, convincing arguments. You'll need to read about your topic in order to formulate your list of arguments. Write down ideas for three arguments supporting the following thesis: The ANC was a valuable political party even though it did not affect the white-run government of South Africa for many years.
A Hindu servant serves tea to his mistress in colonial India.
In the early 1900s, many Indians were dissatisfied with British rule. An early leader of the Indian National Congress party expressed his frustration with an unpopular policy to divide the province of Bengal into smaller sections:
“The scheme [to divide Bengal] ... will always stand as a complete illustration of the worst features of the present system of bureaucratic rule—its utter contempt for public opinion, its arrogant pretensions to superior wisdom, its reckless disregard of the most cherished feelings of the people, the mockery of an appeal to its sense of justice, [and] its cool preference of [British civil service workers'] interests to those of the governed."
—Gopal Krishna Gokhale, 1905
Focus Question How did Gandhi and the Congress party work for independence in India?
Explain what motivated the Indian independence movement after World War I.
Analyze how Mohandas Gandhi influenced the independence movement.
Describe the impact of the Salt March on the course of the Indian independence movement.
Terms, People, and Places
Amritsar massacre untouchables
Reading Skill: Identify Causes and Effects Recognizing causes and effects can help you understand the significance of certain events. In a chart like the one below, record the causes and effects of Gandhi's leadership of India's independence movement.
Gandhi Leads Independence —0- Movement
India Seeks Self-Rule
Tensions were running high in Amritsar, a city in northern India. Protests against British rule had sparked riots and attacks on British residents. On April 13, 1919, a large but peaceful crowd of Indians jammed into an enclosed field. The British commander, General Reginald Dyer, had banned public meetings, but the crowd either ignored or had not heard the order. As Indian leaders spoke, Dyer and 50 soldiers opened fire on the unarmed crowd, killing nearly 400 people and wounding more than 1,100. The Amritsar massacre was a turning point for many Indians. It convinced them that India needed to govern itself.
Calls for Independence
The tragedy at Amritsar was linked to broader Indian frustrations after World War I. During the war, more than a million Indians had served overseas. Under pressure from Indian nationalists, the British promised Indians greater self-government. But when the fighting ended, Britain proposed only a few minor reforms.
Since 1885, the Indian National Congress party, called the Congress party, had pressed for self-rule within the British empire. After Amritsar, it began to call for full independence. But party members were mostly middle-class, Western-educated elite who had little in common with the masses of Indian peasants. In the 1920s, a new leader named Mohandas Gandhi emerged and united Indians across class lines.
Gandhi came from a middle-class Hindu family. At age 19, he went to England to study law. Then, like many Indians, Gandhi
went to South Africa. For 20 years, Gandhi fought laws that discriminated against Indians in South Africa. In 1914, Gandhi returned to India. Soon, he became the leader of the Congress party.
Checkpoint: Why did Indians call for independence after World War I?
The Power of Nonviolence
Gandhi's ideas inspired Indians of all religious and ethnic backgrounds. His nonviolent protests caught the attention of the British government and the world.
Gandhi's Ideas Gandhi's theories embraced Hindu traditions. He preached the ancient doctrine of ahimsa (uh HIM sah), or nonviolence and reverence for all life. By using the power of love, he believed, people could convert even the worst wrongdoer to the right course of action. To fight against injustice, he advocated the use of nonviolent resistance.
Gandhi's philosophy reflected Western as well as Indian influences. He admired Christian teachings about love. He believed in the American philosopher Henry David Thoreau's ideas about civil disobedience, the refusal to obey unjust laws. Gandhi was also influenced by Western ideas of democracy and nationalism. He urged equal rights for all Indians, women as well as men. He fought hard to end the harsh treatment of untouchables, who were members of the lowest caste, or class.
Gandhi Sets an Example During the 1920s and 1930s, Gandhi launched a series of nonviolent actions against British rule. He called for Indians to boycott, or refuse to buy, British goods, especially cotton textiles. He worked to restore pride in India's traditional industries, making the spinning wheel a symbol of the nationalist movement. Gandhi's campaigns of civil disobedience attracted wide support.
Checkpoint: What methods did Indians under Gandhi use to resist British rule?
The Salt March
Gandhi's march to the sea to collect forbidden salt started out with Gandhi and 78 followers, but gathered strength as it progressed. As he picked up the first lump of salt, he declared, "With this, I am shaking the foundations of the British empire." How do you think people in other countries would have reacted to British authorities using violence against this group?
Vocabulary Builder discriminated—(dih SKRIM ih nayt ed) vi. treated differently because of a prejudice
Gandhi Takes a Stand: The Salt March
To mobilize mass support, Gandhi decided to take a stand against the British salt monopoly, which he saw as a symbol of British oppression. Natural salt was available in the sea, but the British government required Indians to buy only salt sold by the monopoly.
Breaking the Law On March 12, 1930, Gandhi set out with 78 followers on a 240-mile march to the sea. As the tiny band passed through villages, crowds responded to Gandhi's message. By the time they reached the sea, the marchers numbered in the thousands. On April 6, Gandhi waded into the surf and picked up a lump of sea salt. He was soon arrested and jailed. Still, Indians followed his lead. Coastal villages started collecting salt. Indians sold salt on city streets. As Gandhi's campaign gained force, tens of thousands of Indians were imprisoned.
Steps Toward Freedom All around the world, newspapers criticized Britain's harsh reaction to the protests. Stories revealed how police brutally clubbed peaceful marchers who tried to occupy a government salt-works. Slowly, Gandhi's campaign forced Britain to hand over some power to Indians. Britain also agreed to meet other demands of the Congress party.
Checkpoint What did the Salt March symbolize?
In 1939, a new world war exploded. Britain outraged Indian leaders by postponing independence and bringing Indians into the war without consulting them. Angry nationalists launched a campaign of noncooperation and were jailed. Millions of Indians, however, did help Britain during World War II.
When the war ended in 1945, India's independence could no longer be delayed. As it neared, Muslim fears of the Hindu majority increased. Conflict between Hindus and Muslims would trouble the new nation in the years to come.
Terms, People, and Places
1. Place each of the key terms listed at the beginning of the section into one of the following categories: politics, culture, or economy. Write a sentence for each term explaining your choice.
2. Reading Skill: Identify Causes and Effects Use your completed chart to answer the Focus Question: How did Gandhi and the Congress party work for independence in India?
Comprehension and Critical Thinking
3. Identify Point of View How did the Amritsar massacre affect the movement for Indian independence?
4. Recognize Cause and Effect Why do you think Gandhi was able to unite Indians when earlier attempts had not succeeded?
5. Analyze Information How did the Salt March force Britain to respond to Indian demands?
( Progress Monitoring Online For: Self-quiz with vocabulary practice Web Code: nba-2731
• Writing About History
Quick Write: Use Valid Logic In a persuasive essay, you must back up your conclusions with valid logic. One common pattern of weak logic is circular reasoning, where a writer simply restates ideas instead of defending them. Bring in an example of weak logic from recent editorials in your local paper. Include a paragraph explaining the problems with the author's logic.
Editor: Passive resistance is a method of securing rights by personal suffering; it is the reverse of resistance by arms. When I refuse to do a thing that is repugnant [offensive] to my conscience, I use soul-force. For instance, the Government of the day has passed a law which is applicable to me. I do not like it. If by using violence I force the Government to repeal the law, I am employing what may be termed body-force. If I do not obey the law and accept the penalty for its breach, I use soul-force. It involves sacrifice of self.
Everybody admits that sacrifice of self is infinitely superior to sacrifice of others. Moreover, if this kind of force is used in a cause that is unjust, only the person using it suffers. He does not make others suffer for his mistakes. Men have before now done many things which were subsequently found to have been wrong. No man can claim that he is absolutely in the right or that a particular thing is wrong because he thinks so, but it is wrong for him so long as that is his deliberate judgment. It is therefore meet [proper] that he should not do that which he knows to be wrong, and suffer the consequence whatever it may be. This is the key to the use of soul-force.
Reader: You would then disregard laws—this is rank disloyalty. We have always been considered a law-abiding nation. You seem to be going even beyond the extremists. They say that we must obey the laws that have been passed, but that if the laws be bad, we must drive out the lawgivers even by force.
Editor: Whether I go beyond them or whether I do not is a matter of no consequence to either of us. We simply want to find out what is right and to act accordingly. The real meaning of the statement that we are a law-abiding nation is that we are passive resisters. When we do not like certain laws, we do not break the heads of law-givers but we suffer and do not submit to the laws.
1. Identify Central Issues What is the goal of passive resistance?
2. Draw Conclusions According to Gandhi, could soul-force ever be used to support an unjust cause? What does Gandhi mean when he says that a person using soul-force "does not make others suffer for his mistakes"?
Mohandas Gandhi led a successful, peaceful revolution in India against British rule. In the following excerpt from his book Hind Swaraj (Indian Home Rule), Gandhi explains the ideas behind his nonviolent method of passive resistance in the form of an imaginary conversation between an editor and a reader. Hind Swaraj was first published in 1909 in South Africa, but was banned in India.
Change in China
Sun Yixian, "father" of modern China, painted a grim picture of China after the end of the Qing dynasty.
“But the Chinese people have only family and clan solidarity; they do not have national spirit. Therefore, even though we have four hundred million people gathered together in one China, in reality they are just a heap of loose sand. Today we are the poorest and weakest nation in the world and occupy the lowest position in international affairs. Other men are the carving knife and serving dish, we are the fish and the meat",
As Sun emphasized, China needed to change, but how and in what direction?
Focus Question How did China cope with internal division and foreign invasion in the early 1900s?
A family of refugees (right) flee a conflict between warlords in 1926.
Chinese currency showing Jiang Jieshi, the next leader of Sun Yixian's Guomindang party.
Explain the key challenges faced by the Chinese republic in the early 1900s.
Analyze the struggle between two rival parties as they fought to control China.
Describe how invasion by Japan affected China.
Terms, People, and Places
Twenty-One Demands Guomindang
May Fourth Movement Long March
Reading Skill: Recognize Multiple Causes
Use a chart like the one below to record the causes of upheaval in the Chinese Republic.