National health standards and elements



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FIRST AID EYE INJURIES


Eye Injury


What is it?

Foreign bodies (such as eyelashes) in the white of the eye can cause discomfort until they're removed.



Eye injuries are caused by objects embedded in the eye (such as grit or pieces of debris). Only a health professional should attempt to remove anything embedded or resting on the colored part of the eye.

Symptoms

  • Redness and watering of eye

  • Eyelids closing

  • Blurred vision

  • Pain

First aid aims

  • Prevent any further injury to the eye

Actions

  • Sit person in a good light

  • Advise not to rub or touch the eye

  • Separate eyelids carefully and examine the eye

  • If there's a free-floating object clearly visible in the white of the eye, try to remove it

  • Use clean water to wash it out or the corner of a clean handkerchief



FIRST AID HEAD AND SPINAL INJURIES

HEAD AND SPINAL INJURIES

  • Overview:

    • Can result in paralysis, speech or memory problems, permanent disability, and death.

    • Can damage fragile bone and soft tissue including brain and spinal cord

    • Skull fracture

    • Eye injury

    • Brain injury

    • Nose injury

    • Spinal injury

    • Dental injury

Central Nervous System

  • Made up of skull and spinal column

  • Skull protects the brain

  • Spinal column protects the primary communication pathway between the brain and rest of the body




Skull Fracture

  • Force impacting the head can damage the nervous system. Can be life-threatening

    • Pain at site of impact

    • Deformity of skull

    • Bleeding from eyes, ears, and scalp

    • Leakage of clear, watery fluid

    • Discoloration around eyes

    • Penetrating objects

RESPOND:

  • Control bleeding: pressure around edge of wound

  • Bandage and Protect: sterile dressing

  • Stabilize head and neck against movement

  • Call EMS


Brain Injuries

  • Brain bounces against the inside of the skull

  • There is no room for swelling so concussions occur

  • If brain injury is suspected have victim rest and activate EMS


Assess: Brain Injury

  • Confusion/Disorientation

  • Headache

  • Emotional Unease

  • Visual Disturbances


RESPOND:

  • Control bleeding

  • Monitor and Care

    • Head slightly elevated unless spinal injury is suspected

  • Call EMS


Spinal Injuries

  • Can be identified after a head injury. Spine is in an abnormal position.

    • Pain or weakness upon movement

    • Numbness or tingling

    • Weakness or lack of sensation

    • Burning sensation

    • Loss of bowels or bladder control

    • Paralyzed arms or legs

    • Head or neck at odd-looking angle

RESPOND:

  • Stabilize head and neck to prevent movement

    • Lying down: grasp head over ears and hold until EMS arrives

    • Sitting or standing: stabilize head or neck with hands and forearms to prevent movement

  • Do NOT move

  • Call EMS at once


SUN AND FUN


FIRST AID SUNBURN



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