National health standards and elements

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Hypothermia in children

What is it?

Hypothermia occurs when body temperature drops below 35°C (95°F). Children are most at risk when they've been active outside for a long time in low temperatures, or have become wet (by falling into cold water, for example).


  • Shivering

  • Cold, pale, dry skin

  • Listlessness or confusion

  • Failing consciousness

  • Slow, shallow breathing

  • Weakening pulse

First aid aims

  • Prevent further body heat loss

  • Warm the casualty

  • Get medical help


  • Give the child a warm, not hot, bath

  • When their colour has returned, help them out of bath, dry them quickly and wrap in warm towels or blankets

  • Dress child warmly (including a hat) and put them to bed, covered with plenty of blankets

  • Ensure room is warm

  • Give warm drinks

  • Stay with them

  • Call a doctor

Hypothermia in adults

What is it?

Hypothermia occurs if body temperature drops below 35°C (95°F). It's a result of the body's inability to adapt to low temperatures.

Older people are particularly at risk because their bodies can't cope as well with temperature changes and they may be less able to generate body heat through activity.

  • Shivering

  • Cold, pale, dry skin

  • Slurred speech and clumsiness

  • Possible loss of consciousness

  • Slow, shallow breathing

First aid aims

  • Prevent further body heat loss

  • Warm the casualty

  • Get medical help


  • Warm casualty gradually by wrapping in layers of blankets in a warm room (25°C/77°F)

  • Don't try to put casualty in a bath

  • Put casualty to bed and keep well covered (including a hat)

  • Offer warming drinks


Hazardous Materials

  • Exists in industrial workplaces and crashes. Only trained personnel should enter if:

    • Signs Posted

    • Vapor clouds

    • Unusual odors

    • Spilled fluids


Motor Vehicle Crashes

Obligated to stop and assist when involved in an accident.

    • Assess victims:

      • condition of victims

      • Activate EMS

      • Prioritize and provide care



  • Quickly direct others to safety

  • Activate EMS

  • Use an extinguisher or other method to stop small fire

  • Maintain a clear escape route and keep a safe distance from fire

Prioritizing Care More than 1 Victim

Triage: the process of prioritizing (to put in order) sick or injured people for treatment according to the seriousness of the condition or injury.

  • Immediate Care

    • Life-threatening emergencies

    • Immediate transport and advanced care

  • Urgent Care

    • Care and transportation can be delayed up to one hour if necessary

  • Delayed Care

    • Care and transportation for victims can be delayed up to 3 hours


Health World Online: Emergency and First Aid
Imagine that you and some friends are playing beach volleyball on a hot summer day. Suddenly, one of your friends collapses. What might have happened? What should you do? Visit this Web site to learn about first aid for emergencies such as broken bones, burns, cuts, and insect stings. Design a poster that identifies the steps to take if someone is choking.



Circulatory system fails to circulate oxygen-rich blood to cells throughout body.

    • Heart failure

    • Fluid loss


Shock Signs/Symptoms

  • Restlessness and altered mental status

  • Pale, cold, or clammy skin

  • Rapid breathing and heart rate

  • Changes in responsiveness

Caring for Shock

  • Activate EMS

  • 2. Assess

  • 3. Respond to other life-threatening emergencies

  • 4. Place victim on back (shock positions)

    • Elevate legs and prevent body heat loss

    • Care for life-threatening emergencies

  • Shock caused by reaction to: medications, foods, insect stings, plants, radioactive dyes.

  • Can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention.

  • Call 9-1-1 and use epinephrine if prescribed

    • Swollen face

    • Difficulty breathing

    • Tightness in chest or throat

    • Dizziness


Stroke treatment

Stroke is caused by an interruption of the blood supply to the brain. This can be caused by a blood clot or a breaking blood vessel. It can result in loss of movement to one side of the body.

Strokes are more common in older people but can happen at any age.

One way of recognising a stroke is to ask the person to smile- if their smile is lopsided, you will know they have been affected.

The severity of a stroke varies widely and some people make a complete recovery.

Use the FAST (Face, Arm, Speech, Time) guide is you suspect a casualty has had a stroke

F Facial weakness – ask him to smile. If he had had a stroke he may be unable to smile evening and the mouth or eye may be droopy

A Arm weakness – ask him to raise his arms. He may be unable to raise one arm.

S Speech problems – ask him some questions. Can he understand what you are saying /can he speak?

T Time to call 911 for emergency help


Diabetic Emergencies

Abnormal fluctuations in blood sugar can lead to someone with diabetes becoming unwell and, if untreated, losing consciousness.

What is it?

Abnormal fluctuations in blood sugar can lead to someone with diabetes becoming unwell and, if untreated, losing consciousness.

There are two conditions associated with diabetes - hyperglycaemia (high blood sugar) and hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar).

Hypoglycaemia is the more common emergency which affects brain function and can lead to unconsciousness if untreated.

Signs and symptoms


  • Hunger

  • Feeling 'weak' and confused

  • Sweating

  • Dry, pale skin

  • Shallow breathing


  • Thirst

  • Vomiting

  • Fruity/sweet breath

  • Rapid, weak pulse

First aid aims


  • Raise blood sugar level as quickly as possible

  • Get person to hospital, if necessary


  • Get person to hospital as soon as possible



  • Sit person down

  • If conscious, give them a non-diet sweet drink or something sweet to eat

  • If there's an improvement, offer more to eat or drink. Help the person to find their glucose testing kit to check their level. Advise them to rest and see their doctor as soon as possible.

  • If consciousness is impaired, do not give them anything to eat or drink. Dial 911 for an ambulance


Further actions

If the person loses consciousness

  • Open airway and check breathing

  • Place them in recovery position

  • Prepare to give CPR

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