Tornadoes are nature’s most violent storms. Spawned from powerful thunderstorms, tornadoes can cause fatalities and devastate a neighborhood in seconds. A tornado appears as a rotating, funnel-shaped cloud that extends from a thunderstorm to the ground with whirling winds that can reach 300 miles per hour. Damage paths can be in excess of one mile wide and 50 miles long. Every state is at some risk from this hazard.
Some tornadoes are clearly visible, while rain or nearby low-hanging clouds obscure others. Occasionally, tornadoes develop so rapidly that little, if any, advance warning is possible.
Before a tornado hits, the wind may die down and the air may become very still. A cloud of debris can mark the location of a tornado even if a funnel is not visible. Tornadoes generally occur near the trailing edge of a thunderstorm. It is not uncommon to see clear, sunlit skies behind a tornado.
The following are facts about tornadoes:
They may strike quickly, with little or no warning.
They may appear nearly transparent until dust and debris are picked up or a cloud forms in the funnel.
The average tornado moves Southwest to Northeast, but tornadoes have been known to move in any direction.
The average forward speed of a tornado is 30 MPH, but may vary from stationary to 70 MPH.
Tornadoes can accompany tropical storms and hurricanes as they move onto land.
Waterspouts are tornadoes that form over water.
Tornadoes are most frequently reported east of the Rocky Mountains during spring and summer months.
Peak tornado season in the southern states is March through May; in the northern states, it is late spring through early summer.
Tornadoes are most likely to occur between 3 p.m. and 9 p.m., but can occur at any time.
Tornado Watch Tornadoes are possible. Remain alert for approaching storms. Watch the sky and stay tuned to NOAA Weather Radio, commercial radio, or television for information.
Tornado Warning A tornado has been sighted or indicated by weather radar. Take shelter immediately.
What to do Before a Tornado
Be alert to changing weather conditions.
Listen to NOAA Weather Radio or to commercial radio or television newscasts for the latest information.
Look for approaching storms
Look for the following danger signs:
Dark, often greenish sky
A large, dark, low-lying cloud (particularly if rotating)
Loud roar, similar to a freight train.
If you see approaching storms or any of the danger signs, be prepared to take shelter immediately.
What to Do During a Tornado
If you are under a tornado WARNING, seek shelter immediately!
If you are in:
A structure (e.g. residence, small building, school, nursing home, hospital, factory, shopping center, high-rise building)
Go to a pre-designated shelter area such as a safe room, basement, storm cellar, or the lowest building level. If there is no basement, go to the center of an interior room on the lowest level (closet, interior hallway) away from corners, windows, doors, and outside walls. Put as many walls as possible between you and the outside. Get under a sturdy table and use your arms to protect your head and neck. Do not open windows.
A vehicle, trailer, or mobile home
Get out immediately and go to the lowest floor of a sturdy, nearby building or a storm shelter. Mobile homes, even if tied down, offer little protection from tornadoes.
The outside with no shelter
Lie flat in a nearby ditch or depression and cover your head with your hands. Be aware of the potential for flooding.
Do not get under an overpass or bridge. You are safer in a low, flat location.
Never try to outrun a tornado in urban or congested areas in a car or truck. Instead, leave the vehicle immediately for safe shelter.
Watch out for flying debris. Flying debris from tornadoes causes most fatalities and injuries.
One of the most dramatic, damaging, and potentially deadly events that occur in this country is a hurricane. Hurricanes are products of the Tropical Ocean and atmosphere. Powered by heat from the sea, they are steered erratically by the easterly trade winds and the temperate westerly winds, as well as by their own energy. As they move ashore, they bring with them a storm surge of ocean water along the coastline, high winds, tornadoes, torrential rains, and flooding.
Each year on average, ten tropical storms develop over the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, or Gulf of Mexico. About six of these typically strengthen enough to become hurricanes. Many of these remain over the ocean with little or no impact on the continental United States. However, about five hurricanes strike the United States coastline every three years. Of these five, two will be major hurricanes measuring a category 3 or higher (defined as having winds above 111 miles per hour) on the Saffir-Simpson Scale. These storms can end up costing our nation millions, if not billions, of dollars in damages.
During a hurricane, homes, businesses, public buildings, and infrastructure may be damaged or destroyed by many different storm hazards. Debris can break windows and doors, allowing high winds and rain inside the home. In extreme storms (such as Hurricanes Hugo, Andrew and Katrina), the force of the wind alone can cause tremendous devastation, as trees and power lines topple and weak elements of homes and buildings fail. Roads and bridges can be washed away and homes saturated by flooding. Destructive tornadoes can also be present well away from the storms center during landfall. Yet, storm surge alone poses the highest threat to life and destruction in many coastal areas throughout the United States and territories. And these threats are not limited to the coastline -- they can extend hundreds of miles inland, under the right conditions.
Only enter the water if professionally trained to do so
Reach: lightweight pole, ladder, long stick, clothing
Students will acquire the knowledge and ability necessary to create and maintain a safe and healthy environment.
To be able to make an informed decision and be aware of the consequences of that decision.
Increase awareness and empathy among students with regard to cyberbullying and online social cruelty.
Identify and describe how identity theft could ruin financial resources
Identify key general attributes of the threats to the security of computers and information via the Internet
Understand consequences of cyber terrorism in regards to individuals and to society.
Develop an understanding of how to be proactive in protecting themselves and their computers from external threats such as hacking.
Increase their awareness about the problem of cyberbullying and develop greater empathy for the targets of online social cruelty
Investigate how social norms around online behavior influence them
Evaluate copyright laws for fairness as they apply to modern technology, including the internet and mobile devices such as ebook readers and mp3 players
Cyber bullying Plagiarism Copyright Hazing
Identify examples of bullying, hazing, and harassment, and strategies for dealing with them.
Apply problem-solving process to reduce risk of injury or violence
Explore how it feels to be cyberbullied, how cyberbullying is similar to or different than in-person bullying, and learn basic strategies for handling cyberbullying when it arises.
What is cyberbullying, and how do you deal with it?
Should our democracy allow schools to punish students for off-campus cyberbullying?
How has the copyright law benefited society and the economy?
What would you change about the copyright law, given the rapid growth of the internet?
The Internet is a useful resource, but it can also be a dangerous place.
Identity theft occurs when someone uses your personal information, without your consent, to
commit fraud. It is committed for many different reasons, such as financial fraud, to work illegally in this country, or to commit crimes under another name. The following statistics are from the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and Identity Theft Resource Center (ITRC):
Identity theft is considered one of the fastest growing white-collar crimes.
Ten million individuals are victims of identity theft each year.
Identity theft costs businesses nearly $50 billion a year. This undue hardship causes higher prices to be charged to everyone.
Identity theft made up 21% of all consumer fraud complaints filed with the FTC in 2009.
Victims can spend hundreds of hours repairing the damage of identity theft.
Identity theft awareness is important for many reasons. Personal information is used in many
everyday transactions like writing a check, online shopping, purchasing an airline ticket, using a cell phone to order pizza, or applying for a credit card or student loans. Additionally, students can be prime targets for several reasons:
Many students are concerned with classes, grades, and social activities, and may not consider the danger around them.
Students may leave personal information lying around dorm rooms at college.
Some students lend their student identifications to their friends.
Many young adults do not balance checkbooks, keep receipts or check bills before paying them.
Questions to start asking:
Are students using a personal computer for online transactions such as banking, buying merchandise or other services? If so, are their privacy settings PROPERLY set? Is their antivirus/spyware removal software up-to-date?
Do students receive credit card offers in the mail? Do they cross-shred the documents before discarding them?
Do students use their social security number for identification or as a password?
Being an identity theft victim can cause multiple problems including:
Being hassled by creditors demanding payments on balances they do not owe.
Ending up with a ruined credit report.
Being unable to secure a job, rent an apartment, buy a car or obtain student loans.
Being arrested for crimes the student did not commit.
Information Used to Commit Identity Theft
Identity thieves look for sensitive personal information about an individual. They could use many pieces of information, but some of the most common are:
Social Security Number (SSN) – The Social Security Number was created in 1935
and is now a very important piece of personal information.
Date of birth (DOB) – Date of birth, in conjunction with other pieces of information,
can be used in many ways to compromise a person’s identity.
Current and previous addresses and phone numbers – Both can be used by an identity thief to pretend they are that person or to obtain more information about the victim.
Current and previous employment information – Both can be used to jeopardize the victim’s identity.
Financial account information – This includes checking and savings accounts, credit cards, debit cards and financial planning information.
Mother’s maiden name – In many instances, the maiden name of the victim’s mother may be used as the password for financial accounts and is easily available through public record information.
Health insurance information – This information can be used by imposters to get medical services including physicals, prescription drugs and even surgery.
Social media sign in/passwords- This information can be used by hackers who want to take over your accounts and solicit your friends and family for money.
Identity theft could be thought of as a puzzle. When assembling a puzzle, pieces fit together to create a picture. An identity thief is trying to put the pieces of a person’s identity together so they can impersonate that person. Thieves can get many of the pieces of information above in many different ways. These ways will be discussed in the next section.
Ways Information Can Be Obtained
Identity thieves can obtain personal information in a variety of ways. For example, in “dumpster diving,” a thief may dig through trash looking for personal information found on bills, credit card receipts, deposit slips, or other discarded materials. He or she is also interested in the victim’s junk mail, such as pre-approved credit card offers and convenience checks from a bank. Thieves will steal mail from a victim’s mailbox. Some complete a change-of-address form to fraudulently receive a victim’s bills and bank statements.
Con artists will scam information over the phone, through the mail, and over the Internet. Phishing scams occur when identity thieves pretend to be legitimate companies and send e-mails or pop-ups to convince you to give them your personal information. Skimming is when thieves steal your credit or debit card information by sliding the cards through a special storage unit, which captures your account information. This usually occurs at retail stores and restaurants, and in some cases, it may occur at ATM machines or gas pumps.
Stealing a wallet or purse also can provide a wealth of information for identity thieves.
Sometimes a thief will watch victims while they complete a transaction and memorize their PIN numbers and passwords. Even information unwittingly supplied to a vanity publication, or for a newspaper or magazine article, can compromise a person’s identity. An unscrupulous employee with access to personal information may use the information kept in business records. There is also a wide variety of information easily obtainable through public records and companies that sell data.
Once the thief has some initial information, he or she can find additional information needed to:
Apply for a driver’s license.
Obtain a credit report and use open lines of credit, or open new credit and bank accounts.
Obtain cash through financial accounts.
Purchase a car or other expensive items.
Take a vacation.
Get a job.
Rent an apartment.
Get a phone or other utility.
Create counterfeit checks.
Commit a crime under the stolen name.
Sell the information to other thieves.
Obtain medical goods and/or services.
The following are tips to help students avoid falling victim to identity theft.
Reduce Access to Personal Data
Do not carry unnecessary information in wallets or purses.
Keep information secure by storing it in a locked file cabinet or small fireproof safe.
Do not lend student identifications or other forms of identification.
Do not leave mail out for the mail carrier; use a P.O. Box for outgoing mail and a locked mailbox for incoming mail.
Remove name from phone books, reverse directories, etc. Avoid personal information in vanity publications and public articles.
Be aware of who is given personal information. When asked to give personal information to someone, ask why it is needed, how the information is going to be used, and if there is alternate information that could be provided instead. Information should not be given to anyone that the consumer does not know.
Opt out of mail offers with the credit reporting agencies and the Direct Marketing Association (http://www.the-dma.org/index.php).
Limit the amount of personal information that is posted on social media sites.
Keep antivirus and spyware removal software up-to-date.
Choose passwords that are difficult to guess for all existing accounts.
Do not carry more than one or two credit cards at a time.
Limit the number of cards used, and cancel unused ones in writing.
Pass by tables offering freebies to sign up for a credit card – buy a T-shirt instead.
Keep a list of credit cards with the account numbers, expiration, dates, and phone numbers of the customer service departments in a secure place in case the cards are stolen. This information will help when canceling the cards.
Never give account information over the phone unless the student initiates the contact.
Do not throw away receipts in public places, and do not leave receipts lying around.
Keep Passwords and PIN Numbers Secure
Do not use the last four digits of your Social Security number (SSN), date of birth, middle name, pet’s name or consecutive numbers, boyfriend or girlfriend’s name, name spelled backwards, or anything else easy to guess as a password.
Do not carry passwords or PIN numbers in a wallet or purse or leave them lying next to the computer.
Add extra protection to your accounts by using an additional password.
Shield transactions when you enter your passwords and PIN numbers such as at an ATM machine.
Do not use the same password for all of your accounts and change all passwords every three to four months.
Protect Social Security Numbers
Do not give SSNs out to businesses just because they ask for it. There is no law against asking for a SSN and businesses may have a policy to require it for a transaction. However, ask businesses why they need it, how they will use it, and if they could alternate information instead. If the business’s answers do not make sense, do not do business with the company.
Request a randomly generated number for student ID numbers.
Place a piece of removable, non-transparent tape over the SSN on identification cards. Keep these cards secure, and if they are lost or stolen, report it immediately.
Do not carry your Social Security card in your wallet or purse unless absolutely necessary. Keep it in a secure place.
Information for Students Victimized by Identity Theft
The following information may be valuable if a student or student’s family member falls victim to identity theft.
File a police report. Keep a log of all conversations including the date and name of the person spoken with. Follow up the conversation by sending a letter via certified mail with return receipt requested.
Obtain a copy of each of your three credit reports (from Equifax, Experian and TransUnion), if available, and identify any errors, inquiries and/or accounts that you did not open.
Place a fraud alert or credit freeze, if you find a credit report (minors may not have a credit report on file). Victims of identity theft can protect their credit report by contacting the fraud department of one of the major credit reporting agencies.
The three major credit reporting agencies are Equifax, Experian, and TransUnion. By sending notice to one of the major credit reporting agencies the victim will automatically be notifying the other two. Also, they will post a security alert on the credit file within 24 hours and electronically notify the other two. A fraud alert will be displayed by each credit reporting agency to all lenders or users.
Credit reporting agencies are companies that collect and sell information about the creditworthiness of individuals. A credit reporting agency collects information that it considers relevant to a persons’ credit habits and history. They use this information to assign a credit score, which indicates how creditworthy a person is. A person’s “creditworthiness” is the degree to which a lender considers a person to be financially reliable enough to be given credit or lent money, and whether the lender considers them capable of repaying a loan. The most common measures used by lenders to determine an individual’s creditworthiness are employment status, the sufficiency of current income to repay the loan, and credit history obtained from a credit reporting agency.
The toll-free telephone numbers for the credit reporting agencies are:
Experian – (888) EXPERIAN [(888) 397-3742]
Equifax – (800) 525-6285
TransUnion – (800) 680-7289
Activity 1: (Individual or Group Activity) Protecting Your Identity
Break students into small groups or complete the activity with students individually. Ask students to numerically list the ways that an identity thief may assume another’s identity. Secondly, ask the students to write beside each answer at least one way they could protect that information. Have students discuss ways personal information could be used for identity theft. Ask the students for examples.
Activity 2: Teacher-Directed Personal Information Activity
Ask students to look through their wallets, purses, cell phones and backpacks or to think about what information is posted on their social networking sites to find all information that may reveal clues about their identity. Write on the board the information categories found (such as address, date of birth and financial account) to emphasize how many students are carrying items or posting information that could be used in identity theft. Ask the class to offer suggestions to keep the information more secure.
Activity 3: (Group Activity) Personal Information Creative Evaluation Activity
Ask students to create a large puzzle out of poster board and markers. In each puzzle piece, students will write a piece of personal information that a thief could use to steal their identities. Cut out the puzzle pieces and place them in large zip lock bags. When all groups have finished their puzzles with their cut-out personal information pieces, ask groups to swap their puzzles with another group to complete. Puzzle pieces can be taped onto a board for the whole class to see during the lesson.
Ask students to interview a family member or another adult about their knowledge of identity theft.
Students should use interviewing skills and information from identity theft study sheets to ask the questions and write responses as an extension activity to determine how much knowledge the person interviewed has about identity theft protection.
We all have a right to privacy. Listed below are numbers in which you are asked on a daily basis and often give to those who ask, without thinking about it.
Driver’s License Fax Numbers
Social Security Number Bank Account Number
Telephone Number Credit Card Number
Address Insurance Numbers
These numbers can become a road map for marketer’s to make a trail of your purchases, credit rating and general daily choices. Many new technologies that are now being used on-line, such as pay per view, on-line banking, reservations and even personal shopping are a few areas in which we give out our credit card numbers and have no idea it this is secure.
According to Parry Aftab of the U.S. Wired Safety Group, cyberbullying occurs “when a child, preteen, or teen is tormented, harassed, humiliated, embarrassed or otherwise targeted by another child, preteen, or teen using the Internet, interactive and digital technologies or mobile phones.”
Unlike traditional bullying, cyberbullying does not always involve a powerless victim. Because students can hide their identities electronically, bullied students can more easily strike back. Thusweaker students can and do become cyberbullies.
The Legality of School Responses to Cyberbullying
The First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution states, “Congress shall make no law…abridging the freedom of speech.” However, the Supreme Court has ruled in several cases that schools can limit student speech. In the 1969 Tinker decision, for example, the Court decided that schools could prohibit student speech if it “materially and substantially interfere[d] with the requirements of appropriate discipline in the operation of the school.”
In subsequent cases, courts have used Tinker to determine if student speech about other students, teachers, or the school caused substantial disruption to the school community. Most of these cases involve student offenses against teachers and administrators rather than other students.
Recent lower court decisions have addressed harassment via Internet technologies, such as a student website that made insulting comments about and threatened a teacher (J.S. v. Bethlehem Area School District). In the majority of decisions, the courts ruled against school districts that punished students for off-campus Internet postings.
In Killion v. Franklin Regional School District, for example, the court ruled that a school could not discipline a student for inappropriate off-campus e-mail unless that student brought the speech to school.
Given the courts’ reluctance to limit off-campus student speech, U.S. school officials, parents, and legislators have addressed cyberbullying in other ways. For example, in Vermont, where Ryan Halligan lived, a new state law requires that public schools establish bullying prevention procedures. Some schools have added a provision to their acceptable use policies that students must sign. These policies authorize schools to “discipline the student for actions taken Off-campus if they are intended to have an effect on a student or they adversely affect the safety and well-being of a student while in school” (Willard, 2003). Additionally, some parents and students have successfully argued that cyberbullies violated civil or criminal laws by, for example, intentionally inflicting emotional distress or committing a hate crime.
The 48-nation Council of Europe’s Convention on Human Rights also protects freedom of expression and states that public authority should not interfere with it. Additionally, the United Nations’ International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights states that the right to freedom of expression “shall include freedom to seek, receive, and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of his choice.” However, this document also declares that the exercise of free expression “carries with it special duties and responsibilities” and thus can be restricted for “the rights and reputations of others” and “the protection of…public order.”
Cyberbullying—Deliberation Question with Arguments Deliberation Question
Should our democracy allow schools to punish students for off-campus cyberbullying?
YES—Arguments to Support the Deliberation Question Respect and safety are just as important as free speech. Schools that punish cyberbullies send the right message about our democratic principles. The Supreme Court has ruled that students’ First Amendment rights have limits. Punishing cyberbullying is an appropriate limit on First Amendment rights.
If students know cyberbullying has consequences, they will be less likely to engage in lectronic activities that are harmful to other students. Establishing consequences for harmful acts is one of the ways that society teaches young people right from wrong.
We need to protect the victims of cyberbullying, not the perpetrators. Anti-bullying policies send a clear message that cyberbullying is not acceptable in our democracy. Sending this message is doubly important because victims of traditional bullying may become bullies in the anonymous world of cyberspace.
Policies and laws result in changed behavior. “Suggestions” or “recommendations” don’t have the authority that actual policies or laws do. Thus, they don’t result in any effective action. If mandated to prevent cyberbullying, schools will develop effective anti-bullying policies.
Cyberbullying causes significant school disruptions. If administrators investigate cyberbullying incidents, they will usually find the evidence they need to justify formal discipline for such acts. It is their responsibility as school leaders to ensure that the school is a safe place to learn for all students.
Cyberbullying—Deliberation Question with Arguments Deliberation Question
Should our democracy allow schools to punish student for off-campus cyberbullying?
NO—Arguments to Oppose the Deliberation Question Schools have enough authority. Students are required by law to attend school and follow its rules while there, but a school should not be allowed to extend its authority into the private, off-campus lives of students. The First Amendment protects free speech. Giving schools authority over speech that occurs outside school infringes on First Amendment rights.
Anti-bullying policies are another example of unfunded, unenforced mandates. Given schools’ tight budgets, they will not be able to monitor their progress or develop effective anti-bullying programs. A better solution is a grassroots one. Each school should address the problem as they see fit.
Cyberbullying is an ambiguous term. We should not discipline students who are simply having fun and engaging in normal teenage behaviors. When cyberbullying becomes something more than playful teasing, the juvenile justice system should become involved, not school officials.
Students, not adults, can best address cyberbullying. Adults are often out of touch with student language and viewpoints. Thus, they may identify a legitimate joke as cyberbullying. Because students understand better than adults when their actions become harmful, adults should help students develop skills to address cyberbullying on their own.
Education is a more effective tool for change than punishment. Teens are still developing their values and will work to limit cyberbullying if they understand how it is at odds with their personal code of ethics. Teach 1: Explore Bullying v. Cyberbullying
ASK How do you think it feels to be bullied, and why? (Guide students to reflect on their personal experiences and to put themselves in the shoes of others who have been bullied. Common feelings: humiliated, sad, angry, helpless)
REVIEW Key Vocabulary with students. Ask students if they have heard these words before, and what they think the words mean. Then share the definitions with students and ask them to generate examples.
DRAW a two-column chart on the board. Label one side “Bullying” and the other side “Cyberbullying.”
EXPLAIN that there are similarities and differences between in-person bullying and cyberbullying. Let students know that both can be very hurtful to the target, but that they should be aware of the differences between the two as they learn how to deal with cyberbullying.
ASK What are some of the similarities and differences between bullying and cyberbullying? (Fill in the chart with students’ responses.)
Both can make kids feel uncomfortable, embarrassed, helpless, sad, and angry.•
Kids often use more hurtful and extreme language online than offline.
Cyberbullying can happen 24/7, whereas regular bullying generally stops when kids go home.•
Cyberbullying is often very public. Posts can spread rapidly and to a large, invisible audience because of • the nature of how information travels online.
Cyberbullies sometimes attack anonymously, whereas with traditional bullying it is often clear who the bully is. •
In-person bullying can cause physical and emotional harm, while cyberbullying causes only emotional • harm (though it can lead to physical bullying later).
The age and size of a person are often less important with cyberbullying because people are not face to face. • For example, even teachers can be targets.
What are some ways to handle a cyberbullying situation?
Sign off the computer. It’s best to ignore the attacks and walk away from the cyberbully. •
Don’t respond or retaliate. If you are angry and reply, then you might say nasty things. Cyberbullies often • just want to get a reaction out of you, so don’t let them know that their plan has worked.
Block the bully. If you get mean messages through IM or a social networking site, you should take the • person off your buddy or friends list. You can also just delete messages from bullies without reading them.
Save and print bullying messages. These could be important evidence to show your parents or teachers if • the bullying does not stop.
Talk to a friend. When someone makes you feel bad, sometimes it can help to talk the situation over with • a friend.
Tell a trusted adult. (A trusted adult is someone who you believe will listen and has the skills, desire, and • authority to help you.) Telling an adult isn’t tattling.
PIRACY AND PLAGIARISM
Piracy or Intellectual Property refers to the ownership rights of materials, created, written, designed or expressed by individuals. These materials include music, games, movies, photos, and writing. Illegally downloading or sharing intellectual property without the permission of the creator is a crime punishable by law.
Image what would happen if illegal music sharing was taken to its logical conclusion, where all music was free. Consider this situation and answer the following questions:
1. How would publishing companies be affected and how would they respond?
2. How would consumers be affected and how would they respond?
3. Overall, would this be good or bad for society? Why?
Why do we have property rights?
Property rights are what allow citizens to own land, factories, and equipment. Imagine what would happen to a farmer if he had no legal recourse against trespassers or no guarantee that other companies or the government wouldn’t take his land. If he had no reason to believe that he could sell his own crops for a profit, why would he plant them in the first place?
What would happen to J. K. Rowling if she had no rights to her own stories? We would never have had a second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, or seventh Harry Potter book because she wouldn’t have been getting any profits from her first book. If someone else could freely make copies and sell them, why would Rowling bother writing a second book?
Just like property laws guarantee that a farmer can keep his own crop, copyright laws guarantee that authors, artists, and engineers can keep the profits from their own work.
Property rights exist because they encourage new business and entrepreneurship, which help our economy grow.
What things can be copyrighted?
Written works, sounds recordings, music, plays, and computer software can be copyrighted.
Ideas and facts cannot be copyrighted, but expressions of ideas and facts can.
What exclusive rights do copyright holders have?
Copyright holders have the exclusive right to: copy, sell, make derivate works, perform or display in public, and distribute their own works.
Sometimes it is legal to copy someone else’s work, even if it is copyrighted. In deciding if using someone else’s work is legal, the courts use the following fair use guidelines:
Purpose – Why are you using the work? If it is for educational purposes, or for parody, it is usually OK to use it.
Amount – How much did you copy? If you are simply quoting one or two lines from a book, that is usually legal. If you are copying extended passages, you could get in trouble. There is no hard and fast rule as to how much is too much; this is decided on a case by case basis.
Effect on markets – Is anyone losing money? If you buy a CD and simply make a backup copy on your computer for yourself, that is legal, because you’ve already purchased the CD. If, however, you buy a CD and give a copy of it to a friend, that is illegal, because your friend is now getting that music for free instead of paying the musician for it.
Ask students if they know how to define plagiarism.
Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines it as:
(1)"to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own: use (another's production) without crediting the source."
(2)"to commit literary theft: present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source."
Ask students to redefine plagiarism in their own words. If students need prompting, ask them if they understand what it means to use another person's words, and what it means to use another person's ideas. Ask students if they know how to define paraphrasing. Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines it as "a restatement of a text, passage, or work giving the meaning in another form." Make sure that students understand that plagiarism consists of stealing both exact words and paraphrased words, as plagiarism covers the theft of ideas.
Explain to students that historians (professors and other professionals) have to be particularly careful about plagiarism due to the nature of their scholarly work. Historians often read hundreds of books and sources while they are in the process of conducting research for their own books. Historians are supposed to bring original ideas, opinions, and perspectives to historical facts and events, and they can and should critique the work of other scholars. However, historians must cite all of the sources that they use. If they use exact words, those words should be contained in quotation marks and accompanied by a footnote. If the historians paraphrase the words or original idea of another historian, this statement should be footnoted as well, even without quotation marks.
Ask students if they know what a footnote is. Explain that a footnote is a method of giving credit to an appropriate author, and that footnotes have particular formats that are used by schools, universities, and publishers. It is not unusual for a history book to have at least three footnotes per page, and therefore there will be hundreds of footnotes in most history books.
Ask students to look at various Web sites that explain proper formatting for footnotes and bibliography. There are correct styles both for traditional sources (e.g., books, newspapers, encyclopedias, journals) and electronic sources (e.g., Web sites).
Explain to students that there are now software programs and Web sites that help teachers to identify plagiarized material in student papers. Teachers can use search engines such as google, alta vista and alltheweb.com to identify plagiarized text. Web sites that find plagiarized material include: www.plagiarism.com, and EVE2 (www.canexus.com/eve/abouteve.shtml).
In groups, students can work together to create a peer guide on plagiarism. The guide should address the following questions:
1. What is plagiarism?
2. Why is it important not to plagiarize?
3. How can students avoid plagiarism? (by using books and sites that explain citation, by always citing sources and using footnotes freely, by using quotation marks for direct quotations, etc.)
Students can design a Web site or a pamplet-- or put on a play that illustrates the consequences of plagiarizing.
Students then can present their guide and guidelines to their class and even other classes in school.
SEXTING Know the law! You might be charged with a felony if you possess, transmit, take a naked picture of a 17 year old or younger.
Check out these websites for more info:
Ask:What are the best features of social networking sites such as MySpace and Facebook? Focus the discussion on how these sites can be positive forces in teens' lives when they use them to stay in touch with friends and express themselves safely.
Ask:What are some of the problems teens can encounter on social networking sites? (Answer will vary with your students' experiences. Students may point out that some teens reveal private identity information on their profiles, that other teens may be too provocative and attract unwanted attention, and that some teens may be using social networks to bully.)
Distribute the student sheets. Have students read the scenario about Ian, Mike, and the social networking site.
Have students write their answers to the questions under What's the Problem? Look for responses that indicate students understand Ian's anger but may not agree that revenge was the best response, that students show empathy for Mike, and that they can predict that these types of situations can lead to serious results, including teen depression and even suicide.
Tell students that this is a true story, although the names were changed. Invite them to share their own stories. Ask:Have you ever witnessed someone pretending to be what they are not online in order to harass or embarrass someone? What do you think is the problem with doing this?
In the 1990s people connected through online chat rooms and belonged to communities such as AOL (America Online) or eWorld. From that came Instant Messaging, which allowed people to talk privately one-on-one by typing messages to each other over the Internet. Eventually people began to connect on the Internet by creating online profiles on sites like MySpace and Facebook. People also began “blogging,” or posting online diaries on sites like Xanga. People can also share photo albums and pictures on Flickr and Photobucket. This is just a small sample of sites used for online socializing and networking
Online Social Networking
• Online social networking started with chat rooms and instant messaging in the 1990s.
• MySpace started in 2003; Facebook began in 2004 (on the Harvard campus).
• Networking later expanded to blogging and photo-sharing.
• Many sites integrate several of these aspects into one profile.
In the mid-2000s MySpace and Facebook debuted, which allowed people to create profiles that included their names, pictures, and various other pieces of information about themselves. MySpace was started in 2003 and quickly became one of the most popular Web sites on the Internet. Facebook was created by a Harvard University student to help other students in the dorm connect with each other. After a large majority of the student population joined the site, it expanded to other Ivy League schools. Eventually many other universities joined and created their own networks; to join, one had to have an e-mail address that ended in “.edu.” It later expanded to high schools; eventually anyone with an e-mail address could join. At 24 years old, the creator of Facebook, Mark Zuckerberg, is the youngest billionaire in the United States. Blogging gives people a chance to keep an online diary. This diary is public. People may start topic-specific blogs: their observations on parenthood, travel stories, a specific TV show, movie reviews. Other people just use their blogs to write, sometimes to vent. Photo sharing allows people to post photo albums online. People are able to share pictures with friends and family across distances or store pictures from vacations or events.
• Became popular with teens as they started having their own cell phones
• Consists of short messages sent between two or more senders
• Have an additional cost, but packages can be added to cell phone plans
Ask:What are some pluses and minuses of social networking?
Ask:What can bystanders do when they are aware of unacceptable online behavior?
Ask:What are some tips you can give teens about handling online bullying?
Discuss with students how eager many middle school students are to join social networking sites such as MySpace and Facebook, even going so far as to disregard the age rules to sign up. Ask:What advice would you give to middle school students about using these sites? REVIEW:
Name two threats you may encounter on the Internet.
Cyberbullying and Internet predators
How can you avoid becoming the target of a cyberbully?
Sample answer: Be careful how you communicate online.
3) What are some words or phrases to describe how it feels to be cyberbullied? (Embarrassed, upset, depressed, hurt, powerless, frozen with fear)
Create a “How-It-Works” poster that explains spyware. What are the different uses for spyware? What are the moral and ethical questions raised by spyware?
Create a contract between students about Internet etiquette, safety and privacy. Since so many means of personal identification and communication (photos, videos, chatroom or instant message conversations) can be posted online without the knowledge of the subject, students should agree about what is acceptable to post online and what is not. This contract can be presented at an all-school assembly and signed by all students.
Create a fact sheet that provides information about the recent issues about governmental “spying” and terrorism. What ethical and constitutional issues have arisen around this issue?
Write a short story that addresses the tensions between freedom/ independence and safety/protection in the parent-teen relationship. Make sure to approach the issue from both points of view
“Deter, Detect, Defend: Avoid ID Theft” – Free download from the FTC
http://www.idtheftcenter.org/teen/teen.html - Free fact sheets and interactive games
on id theft
www.annualcreditreport.com – Obtain a free copy of your credit report, if applicable
www.privacyrights.org/identity.htm – Identity theft facts and news
www.OnGuardOnLine.gov – Internet safety information and quizzes
www.IDTheft.gov – Identity theft taskforce
www.justice.gov/criminal/fraud/websites/idtheft.html – Information on how to deal with id theft
www.fdic.gov/consumers/consumer/alerts/theft.html – Information and news about identity theft
http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/oig/misused/idtheft.html - Information on student id theft
www.practicalmoneyskills.com – Teaches people how to manage finances